Gene Symbol: IL1RN
Description: interleukin 1 receptor antagonist
Alias: DIRA, ICIL-1RA, IL-1RN, IL-1ra, IL-1ra3, IL1F3, IL1RA, IRAP, MVCD4, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein, IL1 inhibitor, intracellular IL-1 receptor antagonist type II, intracellular interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (icIL-1ra), type II interleukin-1 receptor antagonist
Species: human
Products:     IL1RN

Top Publications

  1. Moxley G, Han J, Stern A, Riley B. Potential influence of IL1B haplotype and IL1A-IL1B-IL1RN extended haplotype on hand osteoarthritis risk. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007;15:1106-12 pubmed
    ..microsatellite marker extending across loci for IL-1alpha (IL1A), IL-1beta (IL1B), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN)...
  2. Melo Barbosa H, Martins L, dos Santos S, Demachki S, Assumpção M, Aragão C, et al. Interleukin-1 and TNF-alpha polymorphisms and Helicobacter pylori in a Brazilian Amazon population. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:1465-71 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate a positive association between IL-1RN gene polymorphism and infection by positive H pylori CagA strains and the development of gastric ulcers and adenocarcinoma. ..
  3. Con S, Takeuchi H, Con Chin G, Con Chin V, Yasuda N, Con Wong R. Role of bacterial and genetic factors in gastric cancer in Costa Rica. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:211-8 pubmed
  4. Aksentijevich I, Masters S, Ferguson P, Dancey P, Frenkel J, van Royen Kerkhoff A, et al. An autoinflammatory disease with deficiency of the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2426-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a disorder caused by mutations of IL1RN, which encodes the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist, with prominent involvement of skin and bone...
  5. Sainz J, Perez E, Gómez Lopera S, Jurado M. IL1 gene cluster polymorphisms and its haplotypes may predict the risk to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and modulate C-reactive protein level. J Clin Immunol. 2008;28:473-85 pubmed publisher determine whether interleukin-1 alpha (IL1alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL1beta), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) polymorphisms are implicated in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) pathogenesis...
  6. Rafiq S, Stevens K, Hurst A, Murray A, Henley W, Weedon M, et al. Common genetic variation in the gene encoding interleukin-1-receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) is associated with altered circulating IL-1RA levels. Genes Immun. 2007;8:344-51 pubmed publisher
    ..03), alpha-2 macroglobulin (P=0.008) and adiponectin (P=0.007) serum levels. In conclusion, common variation across the IL-1RN gene is strongly associated with IL-1RA levels...
  7. Javor J, Bucova M, Ferencik S, Grosse Wilde H, Buc M. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytokine genes in the healthy Slovak population. Int J Immunogenet. 2007;34:273-80 pubmed
    ..However, several differences were found between the Slovak and four populations from Southern Europe. The obtained data represent a basis for further studies on association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with some diseases. ..
  8. You C, Li J, Xie X, Zhu Y, Li P, Chen Y. Association of interleukin-1 genetic polymorphisms with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese population. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45:968-71 pubmed
    ..060-4.204; and p=0.029, OR 2.909, 95% CI 1.066-7.902, respectively]. These findings suggest that IL-1B +3954 and IL-1RN genetic polymorphisms are associated with a significantly increased risk of RA in this Chinese population. ..
  9. Korthagen N, van Moorsel C, Kazemier K, Ruven H, Grutters J. IL1RN genetic variations and risk of IPF: a meta-analysis and mRNA expression study. Immunogenetics. 2012;64:371-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic variations in the IL1RN gene, encoding the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), have been associated with IPF susceptibility...

More Information


  1. Amash A, Holcberg G, Sapir O, Huleihel M. Placental secretion of interleukin-1 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in preeclampsia: effect of magnesium sulfate. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2012;32:432-41 pubmed publisher
  2. Valencia Villalvazo E, Canto Cetina T, Romero Arauz J, Coral Vázquez R, Canizales Quinteros S, Coronel A, et al. Analysis of polymorphisms in interleukin-10, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in Mexican-Mestizo women with pre-eclampsia. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2012;16:1263-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first time that these three polymorphisms were analyzed together with gene-gene interaction in women with PE. ..
  3. Abazis Stamboulieh D, Oikonomou P, Papadoulis N, Panayiotidis P, Vrakidou E, Tsezou A. Association of interleukin-1A, interleukin-1B and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms with multiple myeloma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48:2196-203 pubmed
    ..we investigated the correlation between the single nucleotide polymorphisms IL1A -889, IL1B -511, IL1B +3954, IL1RN Mspa1 +11100 and susceptibility to MM in 74 patients and 160 controls...
  4. Kammoun Krichen M, Bougacha Elleuch N, Makni K, Rebai M, Peraldi Roux S, Rebai A, et al. Association analysis of interleukin gene polymorphisms in autoimmune thyroid diseases in the Tunisian population. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2007;18:196-200 pubmed
    ..23; p=0.0014) with susceptibility to GD. Our data suggest that the IL-1 gene cluster may harbour susceptibility genes for AITDs and GD pathogenesis in the Tunisian population. ..
  5. Wu X, Kondragunta V, Kornman K, Wang H, Duff G, Renner J, et al. IL-1 receptor antagonist gene as a predictive biomarker of progression of knee osteoarthritis in a population cohort. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2013;21:930-8 pubmed publisher
    Within the interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokine family, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) gene variants have been associated with radiological severity of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in cross-sectional studies...
  6. Ybarra J, Lehmann T, Golay A, Juge Aubry C, Roux Lombard P, Dayer J, et al. Gender-based dimorphic pattern for interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab. 2008;34:75-81 pubmed publisher
    ..A gender-based dimorphic pattern for IL-1Ra, independent of the degree of adiposity and glucose control, was also found. ..
  7. Ni H, Shi D, Dai J, Qin J, Xu Y, Zhu L, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-1beta (-511C/T) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (86-bpVNTR) in susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis in a Chinese Han population. Rheumatol Int. 2009;29:1301-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic polymorphisms of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist are not risk factors for OA etiology in Han Chinese. ..
  8. Nakkuntod J, Wongsurawat T, Charoenwongse P, Snabboon T, Sridama V, Hirankarn N. Association of TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, IFN-gamma and IL-1Ra gene polymorphisms with Graves' disease in the Thai population. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2006;24:207-11 pubmed
    ..01, OR = 2, 95% CI = 1.16 to 3.44). This polymorphism may be involved in the susceptibility to GD in part through its higher promoter activity of TNF-alpha production. ..
  9. Hsieh M, Chong I, Hwang J, Lee C, Ho C, Yu M, et al. Lack of associations between several polymorphisms in cytokine genes and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in Taiwan. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2008;24:126-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this, smoking is still an important risk factor for developing COPD. ..
  10. Lee J, Kang Y, Park S, Cha S, Kim J, Kang H, et al. Polymorphisms in interleukin-1B and its receptor antagonist genes and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a Korean population: a case-control study. Respir Med. 2008;102:1311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..a potential interaction of the IL1B polymorphisms with the VNTR polymorphism of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) gene in determining the risk of COPD...
  11. Queiroz D, Oliveira A, Saraiva I, Rocha G, Rocha A, das Graças Pimenta Sanna M, et al. Immune response and gene polymorphism profiles in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to investigate associations among IL1B-511, IL1B-31, IL1RN, TNFA-307, TLR-2, TLR-4, IL2-330, NOD2 G908R, NOD2 L1007fsinsC polymorphisms and both Crohn's disease (CD) and ..
  12. Lee Y, Ji J, Song G. Association between interleukin 1 polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility: a metaanalysis. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:12-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our metaanalysis shows that the IL-1B+3954 polymorphism was associated with the development of RA, but only in Asians. ..
  13. Meyer N, Feng R, Li M, Zhao Y, Sheu C, Tejera P, et al. IL1RN coding variant is associated with lower risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome and increased plasma IL-1 receptor antagonist. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;187:950-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 12 SNPs met the stage I threshold for an association with ARDS. rs315952 in the IL1RN gene encoding IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) replicated its association with reduced ARDS risk in stages II (P &..
  14. García González M, Aísa M, Strunk M, Benito R, Piazuelo E, Jimenez P, et al. Relevance of IL-1 and TNF gene polymorphisms on interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gastric mucosal production. Hum Immunol. 2009;70:935-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Genomic DNA was typed for the IL1B-511, IL1B+3954, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) IL1RN, TNFA-308, TNFA-238, LTA NcoI, and LTA Bsi gene polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment ..
  15. Solovieva S, Kamarainen O, Hirvonen A, Hämäläinen S, Laitala M, Vehmas T, et al. Association between interleukin 1 gene cluster polymorphisms and bilateral distal interphalangeal osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the IL1R1, IL1RL2, IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN genes using polymerase chain reaction-based methods...
  16. Jaiswal D, Trivedi S, Singh R, Dada R, Singh K. Association of the IL1RN gene VNTR polymorphism with human male infertility. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51899 pubmed publisher
    ..association of Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR) polymorphism of the Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1RN) with human male infertility...
  17. Carstensen M, Herder C, Kivimaki M, Jokela M, Roden M, Shipley M, et al. Accelerated increase in serum interleukin-1 receptor antagonist starts 6 years before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: Whitehall II prospective cohort study. Diabetes. 2010;59:1222-7 pubmed publisher
  18. Peleteiro B, Lunet N, Carrilho C, Durães C, Machado J, La Vecchia C, et al. Association between cytokine gene polymorphisms and gastric precancerous lesions: systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:762-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis of studies addressing the association between IL1B-511, IL1RN variable number of tandem repeat, and TNFA-308 gene polymorphisms and gastric precancerous lesions, including ..
  19. Khalilzadeh O, Anvari M, Esteghamati A, Momen Heravi F, Mahmoudi M, Rashidi A, et al. The interleukin-1 family gene polymorphisms and Graves' disease. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2010;71:281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we documented a highly significant association between GD and polymorphism in IL-1alpha and IL-1RA genes. Further studies in other populations are necessary to confirm our results. ..
  20. Xue H, Lin B, Ni P, Xu H, Huang G. Interleukin-1B and interleukin-1 RN polymorphisms and gastric carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25:1604-17 pubmed publisher
    ..eligible for the meta-analysis of IL1B-511, 21 studies for IL1B-31, 10 studies for IL1B+3954, and 20 studies for IL1RN variable number tandem repeat genetic polymorphisms, respectively...
  21. Jin G, Duan J, Guo W, Li L, Cui S, Wang H. Association between IL-1RN gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis: a large Human Genome Epidemiology review and meta-analysis. Genet Mol Res. 2013;12:1720-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The rs30735*C allele/carrier, and the rs31017*G allele may be risk factors for ankylosing spondylitis in Caucasians and Asians, while the rs315952*T carrier is associated with susceptibility to this disease only in Asians. ..
  22. Sezgin M, Erdal M, Altintas Z, Ankarali H, Barlas I, Turkmen E, et al. Lack of association polymorphisms of the IL1RN, IL1A, and IL1B genes with knee osteoarthritis in Turkish patients. Clin Invest Med. 2007;30:E86-92 pubmed
    To examine whether polymorphisms of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN), interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A) and interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) genes are markers of genetic susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis in Turkish patients...
  23. Barlo N, van Moorsel C, Korthagen N, Heron M, Rijkers G, Ruven H, et al. Genetic variability in the IL1RN gene and the balance between interleukin (IL)-1 receptor agonist and IL-1? in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;166:346-51 pubmed publisher bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum as well as the influence of genetic variability in the IL1B and IL1RN gene on disease susceptibility and cytokine levels...
  24. Gremlich S, Fratta S, Rebellato E, Uras R, Reymondin D, Damnon F, et al. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene (IL-1RN) polymorphism is a predictive factor of clinical pregnancy after IVF. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1200-6 pubmed publisher
    ..349, 95% confidence interval = 0.2-0.8, P = 0.017. The IL-1B, MMP2 and MMP9 polymorphisms showed no correlation with IVF outcome. IL-1RN*2 allele carriage is associated with a poor prognosis of achieving a pregnancy after IVF. ..
  25. Pehlivan M, Okan V, Sever T, Balci S, Yilmaz M, Babacan T, et al. Investigation of TNF-alpha, TGF-beta 1, IL-10, IL-6, IFN-gamma, MBL, GPIA, and IL1A gene polymorphisms in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Platelets. 2011;22:588-95 pubmed publisher
  26. He B, Pan Y, Xu Y, Zhu C, Qu L, Wang S. Polymorphisms in interleukin-1B (IL-1B) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) genes associate with gastric cancer risk in the Chinese population. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:2017-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The data from the current study demonstrated that the genotype CC or CT of IL-1B-31, TT or CT of IL-1B-511, and 2L of IL-1RN increased risk of gastric cancer in this Chinese population and the risk was further enhanced by H. pylori. ..
  27. Singh H, Sachan R, Goel H, Mittal B. Genetic variants of interleukin-1RN and interleukin-1beta genes and risk of cervical cancer. BJOG. 2008;115:633-8 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1RN*2 and IL-1beta -511*T in various combinations of genotypes and haplotypes are associated with higher susceptibility for cervical cancer. ..
  28. Reiner A, Wurfel M, Lange L, Carlson C, Nord A, Carty C, et al. Polymorphisms of the IL1-receptor antagonist gene (IL1RN) are associated with multiple markers of systemic inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In the pooled analysis, the minor allele of IL1RN 1018 (rs4251961) within the gene encoding interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) was significantly ..
  29. Khalilzadeh O, Anvari M, Esteghamati A, Mahmoudi M, Tahvildari M, Rashidi A, et al. Graves' ophthalmopathy and gene polymorphisms in interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-1 receptor and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2009;37:614-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to show a positive correlation between polymorphisms in the IL-1alpha and IL-1RA genes and susceptibility to GO. These findings promote further research into genetic correlates of GO. ..
  30. Erzin Y, Koksal V, Altun S, Dobrucali A, Aslan M, Erdamar S, et al. Role of host interleukin 1beta gene (IL-1B) and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene (IL-1RN) polymorphisms in clinical outcomes in Helicobacter pylori-positive Turkish patients with dyspepsia. J Gastroenterol. 2008;43:705-10 pubmed publisher
  31. Gordon A, Kiss Toth E, Stockley I, Eastell R, Wilkinson J. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-6 genes affect risk of osteolysis in patients with total hip arthroplasty. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..genotyped for the following single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): IL1A +4845, IL1B +3954, IL1B -3737, IL1B -511, IL1RA +2018, IL6 -174, IL6 -572, and IL6 -597...
  32. Herder C, Brunner E, Rathmann W, Strassburger K, Tabak A, Schloot N, et al. Elevated levels of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor antagonist precede the onset of type 2 diabetes: the Whitehall II study. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:421-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that individuals who will develop type 2 diabetes are characterized by a complex immune activation that also includes upregulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra. ..
  33. Ahirwar D, Agrahari A, Mandhani A, Mittal R. Cytokine gene polymorphisms are associated with risk of urinary bladder cancer and recurrence after BCG immunotherapy. Biomarkers. 2009;14:213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..37) and enhanced (HR 2.24) risk of recurrence after BCG immunotherapy, respectively. The study suggests that cytokine gene variants may modulate CaB susceptibility and risk of recurrence after BCG immunotherapy. ..
  34. Wu K, Peng C, Li T, Wan L, Tsai C, Tsai F. Interleukin-1beta exon 5 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007;29:305-8 pubmed
    ..We found that the IL-1 Ra but not IL-1beta gene polymorphism was associated with childhood ITP. This finding suggests that the IL-1 Ra gene polymorphism is implicated in the pathophysiology of childhood ITP. ..
  35. Palli D, Saieva C, Luzzi I, Masala G, Topa S, Sera F, et al. Interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk in a high-risk Italian population. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:1941-8 pubmed
    ..In a case-control study we compared the IL1B-31 and IL1B+3954 biallelic and IL1RN pentaallelic variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms in 185 gastric cancer patients and 546 ..
  36. Lee S, Kim B, Choi W, Lee I, Choi J, Song K. Lack of association between pro-inflammatory genotypes of the interleukin-1 (IL-1B -31 C/+ and IL-1RN *2/*2) and gastric cancer/duodenal ulcer in Korean population. Cytokine. 2003;21:167-71 pubmed
    ..The lack of association with duodenal ulcer also suggested that the polymorphisms were not directly related to the acid-secreting capability. ..
  37. Tsai L, Lan J, Lin C, Hsiao S, Tsai L, Tsai J. The different expression patterns of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in systemic lupus erythematosus. Tissue Antigens. 2006;68:493-501 pubmed
    The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN or IL-1Ra) is a natural antagonist of IL-1-beta...
  38. Smith D, Renshaw B, Ketchem R, Kubin M, Garka K, Sims J. Four new members expand the interleukin-1 superfamily. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:1169-75 pubmed
    ..Protein structure modeling also suggests that the FIL1 genes are related to IL-1beta and IL-1ra. The novel genes form a cluster with the IL-1s on the long arm of human chromosome 2. ..
  39. Sehouli J, Mustea A, Könsgen D, Katsares I, Lichtenegger W. Polymorphism of IL-1 receptor antagonist gene: role in cancer. Anticancer Res. 2002;22:3421-4 pubmed
    ..There are negative associations between IL-1 RA polymorphism and the occurrence of ovarian cancer. The polymorphism of IL-1RA seems to be involved in the induction of different solid tumors. ..
  40. Riha R, Yang I, Rabnott G, Tunnicliffe A, Fong K, Zimmerman P. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Intern Med J. 2004;34:126-9 pubmed
    ..Further research is needed to assess the utility of cytokine gene polymorphisms as markers of disease -susceptibility. ..
  41. Huang C, Wu M, Wu J, Tsai F. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism in chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 2002;21:255-7 pubmed
    ..We found an increased frequency of IL1RN*2 in the SLE patients compared to normal controls (chi(2) = 4.15, P<0...
  42. Rocha G, Guerra J, Rocha A, Saraiva I, da Silva D, de Oliveira C, et al. IL1RN polymorphic gene and cagA-positive status independently increase the risk of noncardia gastric carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2005;115:678-83 pubmed
    ..The cagA status was determined by PCR or serology. IL1B-511/-31, IL1RN (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) and TNFA-307 polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR, PCR with restriction ..
  43. Achyut B, Srivastava A, Bhattacharya S, Mittal B. Genetic association of interleukin-1beta (-511C/T) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (86 bp repeat) polymorphisms with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in North Indians. Clin Chim Acta. 2007;377:163-9 pubmed
    ..The IL-1beta (-511C/T) and IL-1RN (VNTR) polymorphisms are significantly associated with increased risk of T2DM as well as associated complications in North Indians. ..
  44. Shields D, Fitzgerald A, O Neill P, Muckian C, Kenny D, Moran B, et al. The contribution of genetic factors to thrombotic and bleeding outcomes in coronary patients randomised to IIb/IIIa antagonists. Pharmacogenomics J. 2002;2:182-90 pubmed
    ..004). Thus, genetic polymorphisms may be associated with subsequent myocardial infarction, and may also be associated with treatment-associated bleeding among coronary patients. ..
  45. Faisel F, Romppanen E, Hiltunen M, Helisalmi S, Punnonen K, Salonen J, et al. Polymorphism in the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene in women with preeclampsia. J Reprod Immunol. 2003;60:61-70 pubmed
    We have determined whether genetic variability in the gene encoding interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) contributes to individual differences in susceptibility to the development of preeclampsia...
  46. Wang P, Xia H, Zhang J, Dai L, Xu X, Wang K. Association of interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms with gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:552-62 pubmed
    ..30, 95% CI: 1.09-1.54). In conclusion, IL-1B-511 and IL-1RN genetic polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. ..
  47. Chen R, Chen W, Chang C, Tsai C, Tsai F. Interleukin-1-beta gene, but not the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene, is associated with Graves' disease. J Clin Lab Anal. 2005;19:133-8 pubmed
    ..It is worthwhile to study the cytokine genes further because of the association between cytokines and Graves' disease. ..
  48. Patterson D, Jones C, Hart I, Bleskan J, Berger R, Geyer D, et al. The human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) gene is located in the chromosome 2q14 region. Genomics. 1993;15:173-6 pubmed
    The gene for human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) has been assigned to chromosome 2 on the basis of Southern blot analysis of a series of human-Chinese hamster cell hybrids...
  49. El Omar E, Rabkin C, Gammon M, Vaughan T, Risch H, Schoenberg J, et al. Increased risk of noncardia gastric cancer associated with proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms. Gastroenterology. 2003;124:1193-201 pubmed
    ..A proinflammatory cytokine genetic profile increases the risk of noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma but not other upper gastrointestinal cancers, possibly by inducing a hypochlorhydric and atrophic response to gastric H. pylori infection. ..
  50. Chang Y, Wu M, Shun C, Lin M, Chang M, Lin J. Association of polymorphisms of interleukin-1 beta gene and Helicobacter pylori infection with the risk of gastric ulcer. Hepatogastroenterology. 2002;49:1474-6 pubmed
  51. Steinkasserer A, Spurr N, Cox S, Jeggo P, Sim R. The human IL-1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1RN) maps to chromosome 2q14-q21, in the region of the IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta loci. Genomics. 1992;13:654-7 pubmed
    ..panel of somatic rodent-human cell hybrids, we show that the gene for the human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN) maps to the long arm of chromosome 2...
  52. Hurme M, Santtila S. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) plasma levels are co-ordinately regulated by both IL-1Ra and IL-1beta genes. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:2598-602 pubmed
    ..In 200 healthy blood donors, the mean plasma IL-1 Ra concentration was 681 pg/ ml. The IL-1Ra allele 2 (IL1RN*2) had a clear influence on IL-1Ra levels: its carriers had higher levels than the non-carriers (745 ng/ml vs...
  53. Camargo M, Mera R, Correa P, Peek R, Fontham E, Goodman K, et al. Interleukin-1beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphisms and gastric cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1674-87 pubmed
    Polymorphisms of interleukin-1B (IL1B) and its receptor antagonist (IL1RN) genes have been inconsistently associated with gastric cancer risk. We examined these associations by performing meta-analyses...
  54. Machado J, Pharoah P, Sousa S, Carvalho R, Oliveira C, Figueiredo C, et al. Interleukin 1B and interleukin 1RN polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2001;121:823-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we found evidence pointing to the existence of a synergistic interaction between the IL-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms. ..
  55. Zee R, Lunze K, Lindpaintner K, Ridker P. A prospective evaluation of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist intron 2 gene polymorphism and the risk of myocardial infarction. Thromb Haemost. 2001;86:1141-3 pubmed
    While an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism (IL1RN-VNTR) has recently been hypothesized to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease, no prospective data relating this polymorphism to subsequent risk of coronary ..
  56. Strandberg L, Lorentzon M, Hellqvist A, Nilsson S, Wallenius V, Ohlsson C, et al. Interleukin-1 system gene polymorphisms are associated with fat mass in young men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2749-54 pubmed
    ..The IL-1beta-31 polymorphism did not correlate with the fat measurements. The IL-1 system, recently shown to affect fat mass in experimental animals, contains gene polymorphisms that are associated with fat mass in young men. ..
  57. Lind H, Zienolddiny S, Ryberg D, Skaug V, Phillips D, Haugen A. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism and risk of lung cancer: a possible interaction with polymorphisms in the interleukin 1 beta gene. Lung Cancer. 2005;50:285-90 pubmed
    ..aim of the study was to examine whether a common VNTR polymorphism in the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1RN) is associated with lung cancer risk...
  58. Mann C, Davies M, Stevenson V, Leary S, Boggild M, Ko Ko C, et al. Interleukin 1 genotypes in multiple sclerosis and relationship to disease severity. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;129:197-204 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that genetically determined immunomodulation mediated by IL-1 influences long-term prognosis in multiple sclerosis (MS). ..
  59. Lin M, Storer B, Martin P, Tseng L, Gooley T, Chen P, et al. Relation of an interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism to graft-versus-host disease and survival after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:2201-10 pubmed
    ..Among recipients of hematopoietic cells from an HLA-identical sibling, the IL10 -592A allele is a marker of a favorable outcome after transplantation. ..
  60. Figueiredo C, Machado J, Pharoah P, Seruca R, Sousa S, Carvalho R, et al. Helicobacter pylori and interleukin 1 genotyping: an opportunity to identify high-risk individuals for gastric carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:1680-7 pubmed
    ..8, 95% CI = 2.2 to 35), and cagA-positive/IL-1RN*2/*2 (OR = 23, 95% CI = 7.0 to 72). Combined bacterial/host genotyping may provide an important tool in defining disease risk and targeting H. pylori eradication to high-risk individuals. ..
  61. Hefler L, Ludwig E, Lebrecht A, Zeillinger R, Tong Cacsire D, Koelbl H, et al. Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene cluster and ovarian cancer. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2002;9:386-90 pubmed
    ..a polymorphism of IL-1beta exon 5 [IL1B exon 5]), and an 86-base pair repeat in intron 2 of the IL-1 RA gene [IL1RN]) using polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing...
  62. Hefler L, Grimm C, Lantzsch T, Lampe D, Leodolter S, Koelbl H, et al. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in caucasian women. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:5718-21 pubmed
    ..a polymorphism of IL1beta exon 5 (IL1B exon 5)], an 86-bp repeat in intron 2 of the IL1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1RN), and the -174 G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene (IL6) in 269 patients with breast cancer and 227 healthy controls ..
  63. Chen H, Chen W, Wu M, Tsai F, Lin C. Interleukin-1beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene polymorphism in postmenopausal women: correlation to bone mineral density and susceptibility to osteoporosis. Maturitas. 2003;44:49-54 pubmed
  64. Isoda K, Sawada S, Ayaori M, Matsuki T, Horai R, Kagata Y, et al. Deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist deteriorates fatty liver and cholesterol metabolism in hypercholesterolemic mice. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7002-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that the lack of IL-1Ra deteriorates cholesterol homeostasis under atherogenic diet-induced inflammation. ..
  65. Smith A, Keen L, Billingham M, Perry M, Elson C, Kirwan J, et al. Extended haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium in the IL1R1-IL1A-IL1B-IL1RN gene cluster: association with knee osteoarthritis. Genes Immun. 2004;5:451-60 pubmed
    ..We explored the linkage between nine polymorphic loci in the IL1R1 promoter, eight in the IL1A-IL1B-IL1RN gene complex, and their association with osteoarthritis (OA), a common complex disease associated with low-level ..
  66. Maedler K, Sergeev P, Ehses J, Mathe Z, Bosco D, Berney T, et al. Leptin modulates beta cell expression of IL-1 receptor antagonist and release of IL-1beta in human islets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8138-43 pubmed
    ..Moreover, siIL-1Ra enhanced glucose-induced beta cell apoptosis. These findings demonstrate expression of IL-1Ra in the human beta cell, providing localized protection against leptin- and glucose-induced islet IL-1beta. ..