IL1R2

Summary

Gene Symbol: IL1R2
Description: interleukin 1 receptor, type II
Alias: CD121b, CDw121b, IL-1R-2, IL-1RT-2, IL-1RT2, IL1R2c, IL1RB, CD121 antigen-like family member B, IL-1 type II receptor, IL-1R-beta, antigen CDw121b, interleukin 1 receptor type II variant 3, interleukin-1 receptor beta, interleukin-1 receptor type 2, interleukin-1 receptor type II, type II interleukin-1 receptor, beta
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. doi Interleukin 1 regulates its own receptors in human endometrial cells via distinct mechanisms
    C Bellehumeur
    Unite d Endocrinologie de la Reproduction, Centre de Recherche, Hopital Saint Francois d Assise, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, 10 rue de l Espinay, Local D0 711, Quebec, Quebec, Canada
    Hum Reprod 24:2193-204. 2009
  2. ncbi Interleukin-1 type II receptor: a decoy target for IL-1 that is regulated by IL-4
    F Colotta
    Centro Daniela e Catullo Borgomainerio, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy
    Science 261:472-5. 1993
  3. ncbi Regulated expression and release of the IL-1 decoy receptor in human mononuclear phagocytes
    F Colotta
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Pharmacia Research Center, Nerviano, Italy
    J Immunol 156:2534-41. 1996
  4. ncbi Cloning and characterization of an alternatively processed human type II interleukin-1 receptor mRNA
    C Liu
    Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:20965-72. 1996
  5. pmc The type II "receptor" as a decoy target for interleukin 1 in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: characterization of induction by dexamethasone and ligand binding properties of the released decoy receptor
    F Re
    Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Centro Daniela e Catullo Borgomainerio, Milano, Italy
    J Exp Med 179:739-43. 1994
  6. pmc Expression of genes associated with immunity in the endometrium of cattle with disparate postpartum uterine disease and fertility
    Shan Herath
    Institute of Life Science, School of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 7:55. 2009
  7. ncbi [Alteration of signal transduction-associated gene expression in rat cardiac fibroblasts induced by blocking angiotensin II receptors.]
    Xiao Ying Jiang
    Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical College of Xi an Jiaotong University, Xi an 710061, China E mail
    Sheng Li Xue Bao 58:556-66. 2006
  8. ncbi Genes regulated by interferon-gamma in human uterine microvascular endothelial cells
    Kotaro Kitaya
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602 8566, Japan
    Int J Mol Med 20:689-97. 2007
  9. doi Severe Listeria monocytogenes infection induces development of monocytes with distinct phenotypic and functional features
    Douglas A Drevets
    Department of Medicine, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73014, USA
    J Immunol 185:2432-41. 2010
  10. ncbi NOD Idd5 locus controls insulitis and diabetes and overlaps the orthologous CTLA4/IDDM12 and NRAMP1 loci in humans
    N J Hill
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Mechanisms in Disease, Cambridge University, UK
    Diabetes 49:1744-7. 2000

Research Grants

  1. TAP-1/E7 INTERACTION: ROLE IN RESPIRATORY PAPILLOMAS
    Andrea Vambutas; Fiscal Year: 2004
  2. Monocyte Biology and Biodefense
    DOUGLAS DREVETS; Fiscal Year: 2005

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications94

  1. doi Interleukin 1 regulates its own receptors in human endometrial cells via distinct mechanisms
    C Bellehumeur
    Unite d Endocrinologie de la Reproduction, Centre de Recherche, Hopital Saint Francois d Assise, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, 10 rue de l Espinay, Local D0 711, Quebec, Quebec, Canada
    Hum Reprod 24:2193-204. 2009
    ..The coordinated regulation of IL1 receptors types I and II (IL1R1 and IL1R2) and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) in endometrial cells may represent one of the principle mechanisms involved ..
  2. ncbi Interleukin-1 type II receptor: a decoy target for IL-1 that is regulated by IL-4
    F Colotta
    Centro Daniela e Catullo Borgomainerio, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy
    Science 261:472-5. 1993
    ..The existence of multiple pathways of regulation emphasizes the need for tight control of IL-1 action...
  3. ncbi Regulated expression and release of the IL-1 decoy receptor in human mononuclear phagocytes
    F Colotta
    Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Pharmacia Research Center, Nerviano, Italy
    J Immunol 156:2534-41. 1996
    ..The results show that, on exposure to diverse molecules with anti-inflammatory properties, mononuclear phagocytes express and release copious amounts of a novel version of the soluble IL-1 decoy RII...
  4. ncbi Cloning and characterization of an alternatively processed human type II interleukin-1 receptor mRNA
    C Liu
    Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc, San Diego, California 92121, USA
    J Biol Chem 271:20965-72. 1996
    ..The alternative splicing of a primary transcript leading to a secreted protein provides a potentially important mechanism by which soluble IL-1RII can be produced...
  5. pmc The type II "receptor" as a decoy target for interleukin 1 in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: characterization of induction by dexamethasone and ligand binding properties of the released decoy receptor
    F Re
    Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Centro Daniela e Catullo Borgomainerio, Milano, Italy
    J Exp Med 179:739-43. 1994
    ..The induction by Dex of the type II receptor, a decoy molecule for IL-1, may contribute to the immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory activities of Dex...
  6. pmc Expression of genes associated with immunity in the endometrium of cattle with disparate postpartum uterine disease and fertility
    Shan Herath
    Institute of Life Science, School of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA2 8PP, UK
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 7:55. 2009
    ..The present study tested the hypothesis that postpartum cattle that develop persistent endometritis and infertility are unable to limit the inflammatory response to uterine bacterial infection...
  7. ncbi [Alteration of signal transduction-associated gene expression in rat cardiac fibroblasts induced by blocking angiotensin II receptors.]
    Xiao Ying Jiang
    Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical College of Xi an Jiaotong University, Xi an 710061, China E mail
    Sheng Li Xue Bao 58:556-66. 2006
    ..The change of the following 7 genes was over 30 folds: Cyp19a1 (37 folds), Il1r2 (42 folds), Cflar (53 folds), Bcl21 (31 folds), Pik3cg (278 folds), Cdkn1a (90 folds), Agt (162 folds)...
  8. ncbi Genes regulated by interferon-gamma in human uterine microvascular endothelial cells
    Kotaro Kitaya
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602 8566, Japan
    Int J Mol Med 20:689-97. 2007
    ..The genes significantly down-regulated following IFN-gamma treatment included cytokines/cytokine receptors (CSF2, IL1R2, and SPP1), and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (WISP2 and IGFBP3)...
  9. doi Severe Listeria monocytogenes infection induces development of monocytes with distinct phenotypic and functional features
    Douglas A Drevets
    Department of Medicine, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73014, USA
    J Immunol 185:2432-41. 2010
    ..Conversely, analysis of regulatory molecules showed de novo expression of the nonsignaling IL-1RII, CD121b, under the same conditions...
  10. ncbi NOD Idd5 locus controls insulitis and diabetes and overlaps the orthologous CTLA4/IDDM12 and NRAMP1 loci in humans
    N J Hill
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Mechanisms in Disease, Cambridge University, UK
    Diabetes 49:1744-7. 2000
    ..This locus was designated Idd5 and encompassed candidate genes including Il1r1, Il1r2, Stat1, Stat4, Nramp1, and Bcl2...
  11. pmc Early alterations in cytokine expression in adult compared to developing lung in mice after radiation exposure
    Carl J Johnston
    Departments of Pediatrics and Neonatology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA
    Radiat Res 173:522-35. 2010
    ..In lung tissue, dose-related changes were seen in IL1B, IL1R2 and CXCR2 mRNA expression at 1 and 6 h after irradiation, concurrent with increases in plasma protein levels of KC/..
  12. pmc Comparative analysis of transcriptional profiling of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells identifies novel immune response players in T-cell activation
    Min Wang
    Interdepartmental Biological Sciences Program, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
    BMC Genomics 9:225. 2008
    ..Significantly, a comparative genome-scale transcriptional analysis of two T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+) against each other and against the naturally mixed population (CD3+ cells) remains unexplored...
  13. ncbi Power estimation of multiple SNP association test of case-control study and application
    Ke Hao
    Program for Population Genetics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Genet Epidemiol 26:22-30. 2004
    ..0250 by using Cochran-Armitage chi(2)s as "starting" statistics in the procedure. In the following single point analysis, SNPs on IL1RN, IL1R2, ESR1, Factor 5, and OPRM1 genes were identified as possible risk factors in PTD.
  14. ncbi Human chorionic gonadotropin triggers angiogenesis via the modulation of endometrial stromal cell responsiveness to interleukin 1: a new possible mechanism underlying embryo implantation
    Amélie Bourdiec
    Endocrinologie de la Reproduction, Centre de recherche Hôpital Saint François d Assise, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada
    Biol Reprod 87:66. 2012
    ..by significantly upregulating the functional signaling IL1R1 and concomitantly downregulating the decoy inhibitory IL1R2 and IL1RA upon subsequent exposure to IL1B...
  15. doi [Regulatory effects of cyclosporin a and tacrolimus on th immunological gene expressions in renal transplant recipients]
    Jin Wen
    Department of Urology, PUMC Hospital, CAMS and PUMC, Beijing, China
    Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 34:563-6. 2012
    ..To observe the change of Th immunological gene in renal transplant recipients after the treatment of cyclosporine(CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506)...
  16. pmc Peripheral blood RNA gene expression profiling in patients with bacterial meningitis
    Margit Lill
    Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Tartu Tartu, Estonia
    Front Neurosci 7:33. 2013
    ..results, the expression levels of ten functionally relevant genes with high statistical significance (CD177, IL1R2, IL18R1, IL18RAP, OLFM4, TLR5, CPA3, FCER1A, IL5RA, and IL7R) were confirmed by quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR...
  17. doi Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometabolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, and neutrophil gene network expression in neonatal Holstein heifer calves
    J S Osorio
    Mammalian NutriPhysioGenomics, University of Illinois, 1207 West Gregory Drive, Urbana 61801, USA
    J Dairy Sci 96:3573-87. 2013
    ..both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d...
  18. pmc Selective expression of latency-associated peptide (LAP) and IL-1 receptor type I/II (CD121a/CD121b) on activated human FOXP3+ regulatory T cells allows for their purification from expansion cultures
    Dat Q Tran
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Blood 113:5125-33. 2009
    ..We have identified latency-associated peptide (LAP) and IL-1 receptor type I and II (CD121a/CD121b) as unique cell-surface markers that distinguish activated Tregs from activated FOXP3(-) and FOXP3(+) non-Tregs...
  19. ncbi Haplotypes of IL1B, IL1RN, IL1R1, and IL1R2 and the risk of venous thrombosis
    Rick van Minkelen
    Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Center, Department of Hematology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27:1486-91. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether common variations in IL1B, IL1RN, IL1R1, and IL1R2 influence the risk of venous thrombosis.
  20. doi Gene-expression profiles in human nasal polyp tissues and identification of genetic susceptibility in aspirin-intolerant asthma
    T Sekigawa
    Department of Molecular Life Science, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan
    Clin Exp Allergy 39:972-81. 2009
    ..The lower airway lesion and the nasal polyp in AIA are postulated to have common pathogenic features involving aspirin sensitivity that would be reflected in the gene expression profile of AIA polyps...
  21. doi Ectopic expression of interleukin-1 receptor type II enhances cell migration through activation of the pre-interleukin 1alpha pathway
    Shih Yu Chang
    Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC
    Cytokine 45:32-8. 2009
    Expression of interleukin-1 receptor type II (IL1R2), a decoy receptor for pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 (IL-1), is enhanced by chronic exposure of the human uroepithelial cell line HUC-1 to arsenite...
  22. pmc Liver transcriptome profiles associated with strain-specific Ehrlichia chaffeensis-induced hepatitis in SCID mice
    Koshiro Miura
    The Ohio State University, Department of Veterinary Biosciences, 1925 Coffey Rd, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
    Infect Immun 77:245-54. 2009
    ..CCL3, CCL5, CCL6, CCL12, CCL20, CXCL2, CXCL7, CXCL9, CXCL13, TNF receptor superfamily 9 (TNFRSF9), TNFRSF13beta, IL1R2, IL2Rgamma, IL20Rbeta, IL21R, CCR1, CCR2, and CXCR4 were highly upregulated with strain Wakulla...
  23. doi Molecular responses of Jurkat T-cells to 1763 MHz radiofrequency radiation
    Tai Qin Huang
    ILCHUN Genomic Medicine Institute, MRC and Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Int J Radiat Biol 84:734-41. 2008
    ..In this paper, we monitored cellular and molecular changes in Jurkat human T lymphoma cells after irradiating with 1763 MHz RF radiation to understand the effect on RF radiation in immune cells...
  24. doi Interleukin 1 signaling is regulated by leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and is aberrant in Lif-/- mouse uterus
    A A Fouladi-Nashta
    Faculty of Life Sciences, The University of Manchester, Core Technology Facility, Manchester M13 9MNT, United Kingdom
    Biol Reprod 79:142-53. 2008
    ..Using RT-PCR we compared expression of Il1a, Il1b, Il1rn, Il1r1, and Il1r2 during the pre- and peri-implantation periods of pregnancy in wild-type (WT) and LIF-null LE and stroma...
  25. pmc The local and systemic inflammatory transcriptome after acute kidney injury
    Dmitry N Grigoryev
    Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 5501 Hopkins Bayview Circle, JHAAC 3A 62, Baltimore, Maryland, 21224, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 19:547-58. 2008
    ..of both organs changed with marked similarity, including the innate immunity genes Cd14, Socs3, Saa3, Lcn2, and Il1r2. Functional genomic analysis of these genes suggested that IL-10 and IL-6 signaling was involved in the distant ..
  26. pmc Expression of chemokine/cytokine genes and immune cell recruitment following the instillation of Mycobacterium bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guérin or Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG in the healthy murine bladder
    Shih Wee Seow
    Department of Surgery, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore
    Immunology 124:419-27. 2008
    ..In contrast, LGG transiently induced Cxcl10, Il16, Fcepsilonr1 and Il1r2. Despite these findings, LGG instillation induced the recruitment of natural killer cells into the bladder and ..
  27. ncbi Proteomics analysis of Hodgkin lymphoma: identification of new players involved in the cross-talk between HRS cells and infiltrating lymphocytes
    Yue Ma
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Centre for Medical Biomics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Blood 111:2339-46. 2008
    ..of the 37 proteins (ie, ALCAM, Cathepsin C, Cathepsin S, CD100, CD150, CD26, CD44, CD63, CD71, Fractal-kine, IL1R2, IL25, IP-10, MIF, RANTES, and TARC) were validated in HL cell lines and patient material using ..
  28. ncbi Stable inhibition of interleukin 1 receptor type II in Ishikawa cells augments secretion of matrix metalloproteinases: possible role in endometriosis pathophysiology
    S Guay
    Unite d Endocrinologie de la Reproduction, Centre de Recherche, Hopital Saint Francois d Assise, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, 10 rue de l Espinay, Local D0 711, Quebec, Canada, G1L 3L5
    Reproduction 134:525-34. 2007
    Our previous studies showed a marked deficiency in interleukin 1 receptor type II (IL1R2) in the endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis, particularly in epithelial cells...
  29. doi Transcriptional profiles during the differentiation and maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, analyzed using focused microarrays
    Weixue Zhong
    Institute of Biotechnology and Clinical Immunology Research Laboratory of Jiangsu Province, Soochow University, Suzhou, PR China
    Cell Mol Biol Lett 14:587-608. 2009
    ..The correlative expression kinetics of the gene pairs IL1R1/IL1R2, IL15/IL15RA, DC-SIGN/ICAM-2 and DC-SIGN/ICAM-3 imply that they all play crucial roles in mediating DC functions...
  30. doi Inflammatory gene expression in response to sub-lethal ricin exposure in Balb/c mice
    Jonathan David
    Immunotoxicology Group, Biology, Biomedical Sciences, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Salisbury, Wiltshire, SP4 0JQ, UK
    Toxicology 264:119-30. 2009
    ..These genes included those involved in cytokine-cytokine signalling cascades (IL1, IL1r, IL1r2, Ccl 4, 6, 10), focal adhesion (Fn1, ICAM1) and tissue remodelling (VEGF, Pim1)...
  31. pmc Isolation and characterization of human trophoblast side-population (SP) cells in primary villous cytotrophoblasts and HTR-8/SVneo cell line
    Tomoka Takao
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi ku, Fukuoka, Japan
    PLoS ONE 6:e21990. 2011
    ..Microarray analysis revealed that IL7R and IL1R2 were exclusively expressed in SP cells and not in NSP cells...
  32. pmc TMPRSS2/ERG promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition through the ZEB1/ZEB2 axis in a prostate cancer model
    Orit Leshem
    Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel
    PLoS ONE 6:e21650. 2011
    ..However, TMPRSS2/ERG was able to bind the promoters of the ZEB2 modulators, IL1R2 and SPINT1...
  33. pmc Effect of total body irradiation on late lung effects: hidden dangers
    Carl J Johnston
    Departments of Pediatrics and Neonatology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA
    Int J Radiat Biol 87:902-13. 2011
    ....
  34. doi Characteristic immune, apoptosis and inflammatory gene profiles associated with intestinal acute cellular rejection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mucosal biopsies
    Tadafumi Asaoka
    Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA
    Transpl Int 24:697-707. 2011
    ..Immunohistochemistry showed significantly increased staining for IL1R2, ICAM1, GZMB, and CCL3 (P < 0.05) during ACR...
  35. doi New IBD genetics: common pathways with other diseases
    C W Lees
    Gastrointestinal Unit, Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
    Gut 60:1739-53. 2011
    ..Amongst these are multiple genes involved in IL23/Th17 signalling (IL23R, IL12B, JAK2, TYK2 and STAT3), IL10, IL1R2, REL, CARD9, NKX2.3, ICOSLG, PRDM1, SMAD3 and ORMDL3...
  36. doi Endometrioid ovarian cancer and endometriotic cells exhibit the same alteration in the expression of interleukin-1 receptor II: to a link between endometriosis and endometrioid ovarian cancer
    Mamadou Keita
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sherbrooke University Hospital Centre, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada
    J Obstet Gynaecol Res 37:99-107. 2011
    ..We assessed the expression of receptors of IL-1 (IL-1RI and IL-1RII, the signal transducer and the specific inhibitor of IL-1, respectively) in cells of the most common subtypes of ovarian cancer compared to endometrial cells...
  37. doi Genetic studies of ankylosing spondylitis in Koreans confirm associations with ERAP1 and 2p15 reported in white patients
    So Young Bang
    Hanyang University Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases, Seoul 133 792, Republic of Korea
    J Rheumatol 38:322-4. 2011
    ..Consortium have reported additional genes associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) susceptibility including IL1R2, ANTXR2, and gene deserts at 2p15 and 21q22...
  38. doi High-density polymorphisms analysis of 23 candidate genes for association with bone mineral density
    Sylvie Giroux
    Centre de Recherche de l Hôpital St François d Assise du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Quebec, Canada G1L 3L5
    Bone 47:975-81. 2010
    ..The results reported in this study suggest a role for CSF3R in the determination of bone density in women...
  39. doi ANTXR2 and IL-1R2 polymorphisms are not associated with ankylosing spondylitis in Chinese Han population
    Chao Chen
    Department of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 100853 Beijing, People s Republic of China
    Rheumatol Int 32:15-9. 2012
    ..We also assumed that IL-1β might not be the key factor in the immunogenesis of AS...
  40. pmc Allelic variants of IL1R1 gene associate with severe hand osteoarthritis
    Annu Näkki
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    BMC Med Genet 11:50. 2010
    ..In this study we targeted a 470 kb region on 2q11.2 presenting the locus with most evidence for linkage to severe OA of distal interphalangeal joints (DIP) in our genome wide scan families...
  41. doi SNPs in genes coding for ROS metabolism and signalling in association with docetaxel clearance
    H Edvardsen
    Department of Genetics, Institute of Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital Radiumhospitalet, Oslo, Norway
    Pharmacogenomics J 10:513-23. 2010
    ..were confirmed for GSTA4, PRDX4, TGFBR2 and XPC and additional putative markers were found in CYP2C8, EPHX1, IGF2, IL1R2, MAPK7, NDUFB4, TGFBR3, TPMT (2 SNPs), (P<0...
  42. doi Genetics of ankylosing spondylitis
    Matthew A Brown
    Diamantina Institute of Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia
    Curr Opin Rheumatol 22:126-32. 2010
    ..The purpose of this review is to discuss the major findings of these studies, and the answers they provide and questions they raise about the pathogenesis of this common condition...
  43. doi Greater expression of TLR2, TLR4, and IL6 due to negative energy balance is associated with lower expression of HLA-DRA and HLA-A in bovine blood neutrophils after intramammary mastitis challenge with Streptococcus uberis
    Kasey M Moyes
    Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, 61801, USA
    Funct Integr Genomics 10:53-61. 2010
    ..Upregulated genes by NEB were ALOX5AP, CPNE3, IL1R2, IL6, TLR2, TLR4, and THY1, and downregulated genes were HLA-DRA, HLA-A, IRAK1, SOD1, and TNF...
  44. pmc Genome-wide association study of ankylosing spondylitis identifies non-MHC susceptibility loci
    John D Reveille
    University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, USA
    Nat Genet 42:123-7. 2010
    ..3 x 10(-20)), as well as in the genes ANTXR2 (rs4333130; P = 9.3 x 10(-8)) and IL1R2 (rs2310173; P = 4.8 x 10(-7)). We also replicated previously reported associations at IL23R (rs11209026; P = 9...
  45. pmc Integrative predictive model of coronary artery calcification in atherosclerosis
    Michael McGeachie
    Harvard Partners Center for Genetics and Genomics, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Circulation 120:2448-54. 2009
    ....
  46. doi Gene-based bio-signature patterns and cardiac allograft rejection
    Mandeep R Mehra
    Division of Cardiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 South Greene Street S3B06, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
    Heart Fail Clin 6:87-92. 2010
    ..of hematopoietic precursors (WDR40A and microRNA gene family cMIR), and steroid-responsive genes such as IL1R2, the decoy receptor for interleukin 2...
  47. doi The nutrigenomics of asthma: molecular mechanisms of airway neutrophilia following dietary antioxidant withdrawal
    Katherine J Baines
    Priority Research Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Diseases, University of Newcastle, Callaghan NSW Australia
    OMICS 13:355-65. 2009
    ..Upregulated genes were involved in the innate immune response and included the innate immune receptors TLR2, IL1R2, CD93, the signaling molecules IRAK2, IRAK3, and neutrophil proteases MMP25 and CPD...
  48. ncbi Imbalance in the expression of the activating type I and the inhibitory type II interleukin 1 receptors in endometriosis
    Ali Akoum
    Unite d Endocrinologie de la Reproduction, Centre de Recherche, Hopital Saint Francois d Assise, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Canada
    Hum Reprod 22:1464-73. 2007
    ..of IL1 receptor type I (IL1R1), the signalling receptor that mediates cell activation by IL1, and IL1 receptor type II (IL1R2), a potent and specific down-regulator of IL1 action, in normal compared to endometriotic/endometrial tissues.
  49. pmc A novel IL-1 receptor, cloned from B cells by mammalian expression, is expressed in many cell types
    C J McMahan
    Department of Molecular Biology, Immunex Research and Development Corporation, Seattle, WA 98101
    EMBO J 10:2821-32. 1991
    ..Like the type I receptor, the human type II IL-1 receptor can bind all three forms of IL-1 (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-1ra). Vaccinia virus contains an open reading frame bearing strong resemblance to the type II IL-1 receptor...
  50. ncbi Soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II blocks monocyte chemotactic protein-1 secretion by U937 cells in response to peripheral blood serum of women with endometriosis
    Abdelaziz Kharfi
    Département d obstétrique gynécologie, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, Canada
    Fertil Steril 78:836-42. 2002
    ....
  51. ncbi A single amino acid difference between human and monkey interleukin (IL)-1beta dictates effective binding to soluble type II IL-1 receptor
    Dirk E Smith
    Amgen Corporation, Seattle, Washington 98101, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:47619-25. 2002
    ..Structural and mutational analysis revealed that the unique sIL1R-II binding ability of human IL-1beta is due to a single amino acid difference compared with monkey IL-1beta...
  52. pmc Soluble type II interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor binds and blocks processing of IL-1 beta precursor and loses affinity for IL-1 receptor antagonist
    J A Symons
    Department of Medicine, University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:1714-8. 1995
    ..In addition, type II sIL-1R does not interfere with inhibition mediated by IL-1ra...
  53. ncbi Human milk anti-inflammatory component contents during acute mastitis
    E S Buescher
    Center for Pediatric Research, Children s Hospital of the King s Daughters, Norfolk, Virginia 23510, USA
    Cell Immunol 210:87-95. 2001
    ....
  54. ncbi Induction of intracellular interleukin-1 beta signals via type II interleukin-1 receptor in human gingival fibroblasts
    H H Chou
    Department of Periodontology and Endodontology, Okayama University Dental School, Japan
    J Dent Res 79:1683-8. 2000
    ..These results suggest that the IL-1RII may regulate HGFs expression of cytokine mRNA upon IL-1 beta stimulation, possibly by altering the IL-1RI-dependent signals...
  55. ncbi Elevated circulating levels of soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II during interleukin-2 immunotherapy
    E Vannier
    Department of Medicine, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, New England Medical Center and Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
    Eur Cytokine Netw 10:37-42. 1999
    ..IL-1sRI levels did not increase during immunotherapy with IL-2 or IL-6. Our results indicate that IL-1sRII, unlike IL-1Ra, remains a modest, natural, anti-inflammatory mechanism triggered by immunotherapy with IL-2, but not with IL-6...
  56. ncbi Interleukin-1 receptor cluster: gene organization of IL1R2, IL1R1, IL1RL2 (IL-1Rrp2), IL1RL1 (T1/ST2), and IL18R1 (IL-1Rrp) on human chromosome 2q
    M Dale
    Division of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, University of Sheffield, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, S10 2JF, United Kingdom
    Genomics 57:177-9. 1999
    ..The contig contains the genes (cen --> tel), in the order given, for the type II interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor (IL1R2), the type I IL-1 receptor (IL1R1), the IL-1 receptor-related protein 2 (IL1RL2), T1/ST2/fit-1 (IL1RL1), and the ..
  57. ncbi Interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, and soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II secretion in chronic fatigue syndrome
    J G Cannon
    Department of Medicine, Tufts University New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA
    J Clin Immunol 17:253-61. 1997
    ..Furthermore, the increased release of IL-1Ra and sIL-1RII by cells from CFS patients is consistent with the hypothesis that CFS is associated with chronic, low-level activation of the immune system...
  58. pmc Keratinocyte expression of the type 2 interleukin 1 receptor mediates local and specific inhibition of interleukin 1-mediated inflammation
    T Rauschmayr
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Harvard Skin Disease Research Center, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:5814-9. 1997
    ..Our transgenic mice may be a useful tool for determining the degree to which different types of cutaneous inflammation depend on the IL-1 system...
  59. ncbi Antiinflammatory cytokine responses during clinical sepsis and experimental endotoxemia: sequential measurements of plasma soluble interleukin (IL)-1 receptor type II, IL-10, and IL-13
    T van der Poll
    Cornell University Medical College, Department of Surgery, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Infect Dis 175:118-22. 1997
    ..IL-13 remained undetectable in the vast majority of patients and was not induced by endotoxin. Enhanced IL-13 production does not seem to be part of an inducible host defense mechanism during sepsis...
  60. ncbi Cloning of a cDNA encoding a novel interleukin-1 receptor related protein (IL 1R-rp2)
    T W Lovenberg
    Neurocrine Biosciences Inc, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    J Neuroimmunol 70:113-22. 1996
    ..Together, these data demonstrate the existence of a novel protein that is related to the interleukin-1 receptor but does not bind IL-1 by itself...
  61. ncbi Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist competitively inhibits the binding of interleukin-1 to the type II interleukin-1 receptor
    E V Granowitz
    Department of Medicine, New England Medical Center Hospitals, Boston, Massachusetts 02111
    J Biol Chem 266:14147-50. 1991
    ..However, in the presence of an excess of either unlabeled IL-1 or IL-1ra, the 85-kDa IL-1.IL-1RtII complex was not present. These findings demonstrate that the IL-1ra recognizes and blocks IL-1 binding to the IL-1RtII...
  62. pmc Flow cytometric analysis of cytokine receptors on human Langerhans' cells. Changes observed after short-term culture
    A Larregina
    Laboratory of Immunogenetics, Hospital de Clinicas, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Immunology 87:317-25. 1996
    ..These results suggest that LC undergo changes in the cytokine receptor repertory during in vitro maturation...
  63. ncbi Reactive oxygen intermediates cause rapid release of the interleukin-1 decoy receptor from human myelomonocytic cells
    P Sambo
    Istituto de Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano, Italy
    Blood 87:1682-6. 1996
    ..Release of the IL-1 type II decoy R might represent one mechanism by which ROI antagonize and limit the proinflammatory effects of IL-1...
  64. ncbi Binding of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-1 receptor antagonist by soluble IL-1 receptors and levels of soluble IL-1 receptors in synovial fluids
    W P Arend
    Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, CO 80262
    J Immunol 153:4766-74. 1994
    ..These results suggest that some IL-1 beta and IL-1ra may be bound in vivo to sIL-1RII and sIL-1RI, respectively, leading to underestimations of cytokine concentrations in body fluids when measured by ELISA...
  65. ncbi Human synovial fibroblasts coexpress IL-1 receptor type I and type II mRNA. The increased level of the IL-1 receptor in osteoarthritic cells is related to an increased level of the type I receptor
    M B Sadouk
    Osteoarthritis Research Unit, University of Montreal, L C Simard Research Center, Notre Dame Hospital Montreal, Canada
    Lab Invest 73:347-55. 1995
    ....
  66. ncbi The type II IL-1 receptor interacts with the IL-1 receptor accessory protein: a novel mechanism of regulation of IL-1 responsiveness
    D Lang
    Molekularpharmakologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany
    J Immunol 161:6871-7. 1998
    ....
  67. ncbi IL-1 Receptor antagonist as a positional candidate gene in a murine model of allergic asthma
    Ravisankar A Ramadas
    Comparative Medicine and Integrative Biology Program, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
    Immunogenetics 58:851-5. 2006
    ..We examined other IL-1 family members (Il1a, Il1b, Il1f9, and Il1r2) and found OVA-induced expression increases at 6 h, yet only Il1b and Il1f9 had strain-specific differences...
  68. ncbi UBD, a downstream element of FOXP3, allows the identification of LGALS3, a new marker of human regulatory T cells
    Frank Ocklenburg
    Junior Research Group for Xenotransplantation, Department of Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany
    Lab Invest 86:724-37. 2006
    ..In the presence of ionomycin, overexpression of UBD in T(h) cells leads to the induction of IL1R2 that resemble FOXP3-transduced T(h) cells and naturally derived T(reg) cells...
  69. pmc Selective modulation of Hedgehog/GLI target gene expression by epidermal growth factor signaling in human keratinocytes
    Maria Kasper
    Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, A 5020 Salzburg, Austria
    Mol Cell Biol 26:6283-98. 2006
    ..Promoter studies of a subset of GLI/EGF-regulated genes, including the genes encoding interleukin-1 antagonist IL1R2, Jagged 2, cyclin D1, S100A7, and S100A9, suggest convergence of EGFR and HH/GLI signaling at the level of ..
  70. ncbi Development of a sandwich ELISA assay for measuring bovine soluble type II IL-1 receptor (IL1R2) concentration in serum and milk
    Katsuro Hagiwara
    Department of Veterinary Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069 8501, Japan
    Cytokine 32:132-6. 2005
    The IL1R is composed of two kinds of molecule, type I (IL1R I) and type II (IL1R2). IL1R1 contributes to IL-1 signaling, whereas the IL1R2 has no signaling property and acts as a decoy for IL-1...
  71. ncbi Increased soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II proteolysis in the endometrium of women with endometriosis
    C Bellehumeur
    Centre de Recherche, Hopital Saint Francois d Assise, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Canada
    Hum Reprod 20:1177-84. 2005
    ..This may enhance IL-1-mediated activation of endometrial cells and contribute to the local immuno-inflammatory process observed in endometriosis patients...
  72. ncbi Genotypes and haplotypes in the IL-1 gene cluster: analysis of two genetically and diagnostically distinct groups of Alzheimer patients
    Davide Seripa
    Laboratory of Gene Therapy, I R C C S Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Padre Pio da Pietrelcina Foundation, San Giovanni Rotondo, FG, Italy
    Neurobiol Aging 26:455-64. 2005
    ....
  73. pmc Intracellular IL-1alpha-binding proteins contribute to biological functions of endogenous IL-1alpha in systemic sclerosis fibroblasts
    Yasushi Kawaguchi
    Institute of Rheumatology, Tokyo Women s Medical University, 10 22 Kawada cho, Shinjuku ku, Tokyo 162 0054, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:14501-6. 2006
    ..These findings reveal that nuclear localization of pre-IL-1alpha depends on the binding to HAX-1 and that biological activities might be elicited by the binding to both HAX-1 and IL-1RII in SSc fibroblasts...
  74. ncbi Analysis of interleukin (IL)-1beta IL-1 receptor antagonist, soluble IL-1 receptor type II and IL-1 accessory protein in HCV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders
    Massimo Libra
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy
    Oncol Rep 15:1305-8. 2006
    ..These data indicate that an attempt to increased circulating levels of IL-1 inhibitors occurs at different extent in the course of HCV infection as well as in its progression to NHL and/or MC...
  75. ncbi IL-1 beta scavenging by the type II IL-1 decoy receptor in human neutrophils
    Emer Bourke
    Istituto Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy
    J Immunol 170:5999-6005. 2003
    ..These results suggest that the decoy receptor IL-1RII can act as a scavenger of IL-1, representing a novel autoregulatory mechanism of the IL-1 system...
  76. ncbi Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist binds to the type II interleukin-1 receptor on B cells and neutrophils
    D J Dripps
    Synergen, Inc, Boulder, Colorado 80301
    J Biol Chem 266:20311-5. 1991
    ..There may be a population of cells for which the actions of IL-1 cannot be effectively opposed by IL-1ra, although this group does not include mature B cells and PMNs...
  77. ncbi Role of interleukin-1 receptor type II in the pathogenesis of endometriosis
    Zhen Hou
    Center of Clinical Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People s Republic of China
    Fertil Steril 89:42-51. 2008
    ..To determine the role of interleukin-1 receptor type II (IL-1RII) in the pathogenesis of endometriosis...
  78. ncbi Imbalance in the peritoneal levels of interleukin 1 and its decoy inhibitory receptor type II in endometriosis women with infertility and pelvic pain
    Ali Akoum
    Unite d Endocrinologie de la Reproduction, Centre de Recherche, Pavillon Saint Francois d Assise, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada
    Fertil Steril 89:1618-24. 2008
    To evaluate the levels of interleukin-1beta (IL1beta) and its inhibitory soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II (IL1R2) in the peritoneal fluid (PF) of normal women and patients with endometriosis suffering from pelvic pain and ..
  79. ncbi Specific changes in the pancreatic expression of the interleukin 1 family of genes during experimental acute pancreatitis
    G W Fink
    Department of Surgery and the Pancreas Study Group, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    Cytokine 9:1023-7. 1997
    ..These changes are indicative of pancreatitis severity and are not model dependent...
  80. ncbi Chorionic gonadotropin down-regulates the expression of the decoy inhibitory interleukin 1 receptor type II in human endometrial epithelial cells
    Catherine Herrmann-Lavoie
    Laboratoire d endocrinologie de la reproduction, Centre de Recherche, Hopital Saint Francois d Assise, Universite Laval, Quebec, Canada
    Endocrinology 148:5377-84. 2007
    ..In view of IL-1's role as an embryonic signal, these data reveal a new mechanism by which hCG sustains human pregnancy and promotes embryonic growth...
  81. ncbi Elevated levels of shed type II IL-1 receptor in sepsis. Potential role for type II receptor in regulation of IL-1 responses
    J G Giri
    Immunex Research and Development Corporation, Seattle, WA 98101
    J Immunol 153:5802-9. 1994
    ..We propose that increased cell surface expression and rapid release of preformed type II IL-1R from neutrophils, as a soluble IL-1 beta binding protein, represents a mechanism that has evolved for regulating IL-1 activity in sepsis...
  82. ncbi Abnormal interleukin 1 receptor types I and II gene expression in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues of women with endometriosis
    Christine Lawson
    Hôpital Saint François d Assise HSFA, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec CHUQ, Quebec, Canada
    J Reprod Immunol 77:75-84. 2008
    ..IL1 triggers cell activation via its receptor type I (IL1R1), but its receptor type II (IL1R2) is known instead as a scavenger that buffers the cytokine's effects...
  83. ncbi Abnormal interleukin-1 receptor type II gene expression in the endometrium of women with endometriosis
    A Kharfi
    Unite d Endocrinologie de la Reproduction, Centre de Recherche, Hopital Saint Francois d Assise, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, Canada G1L 3L5
    Biol Reprod 66:401-6. 2002
    ..Defective IL-1RII gene expression during the early stages of endometriosis (stages I and II) may contribute to the etiology of the disease...
  84. pmc Increased expression of the interleukin 1 receptor on blood neutrophils of humans with the sepsis syndrome
    M B Fasano
    Department of Medicine, Wake Forest University Medical Center, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157
    J Clin Invest 88:1452-9. 1991
    ....
  85. ncbi The soluble form of IL-1 receptor accessory protein enhances the ability of soluble type II IL-1 receptor to inhibit IL-1 action
    Dirk E Smith
    Amgen Corporation, 51 University Street, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
    Immunity 18:87-96. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that the soluble form of IL-1R AcP contributes to the antagonism of IL-1 action by the type II decoy receptor, adding another layer of complexity to the regulation of IL-1 action...
  86. ncbi Transcriptional signals of T-cell and corticosteroid-sensitive genes are associated with future acute cellular rejection in cardiac allografts
    Mandeep R Mehra
    Division of Cardiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Heart Lung Transplant 26:1255-63. 2007
    ..Profiling mRNA levels of 11 informative genes expressed by circulating immune effector cells identifies cardiac allograft recipients at low risk for current moderate-severe acute cellular rejection (ACR)...
  87. ncbi Type I and type II interleukin-1 receptor expression in rat, mouse, and human testes
    E Gomez
    GERM INSERM U 435, Universite de Rennes I, Campus de Beaulieu, Bretagne, France
    Biol Reprod 56:1513-26. 1997
    ..Overall, our study strongly supports the hypothesis that IL-1 is a regulator of testicular function of prime importance...
  88. ncbi High circulating levels of the IL-1 type II decoy receptor in critically ill patients with sepsis: association of high decoy receptor levels with glucocorticoid administration
    Beat Muller
    Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospitals, Basel, Switzerland
    J Leukoc Biol 72:643-9. 2002
    ..The usefulness of IL-1RII, in particular as a potential marker for the activation of anti-inflammatory pathways or for responsiveness to anti-inflammatory agents such as glucocorticoid hormones, deserves further analysis...
  89. ncbi Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the interleukin-1 receptor II by alpha-, beta-, and gamma-secretase
    Peer Hendrik Kuhn
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, Ludwig Maximilians University, Schillerstrasse 44, 80336 Munich, Germany
    J Biol Chem 282:11982-95. 2007
    ..This study reveals a similar proteolytic processing of IL-1R2 and APP and may provide an explanation for the increased IL-1R2 secretion observed in AD...
  90. ncbi Soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II levels in gingival crevicular fluid in aggressive and chronic periodontitis
    M Suzuki
    Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya shi, Japan
    J Periodontol 79:495-500. 2008
    ..The purpose of this study was to measure sIL-1RII levels in the GCF of subjects with chronic or aggressive periodontitis; the correlation between the sIL-1RII levels in GCF and clinical parameters also was examined...
  91. ncbi Smoking and polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene cluster (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-1RN) in patients with periodontal disease
    P Meisel
    Department of Pharmacology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Greifswald, Germany
    J Periodontol 73:27-32. 2002
    ..However, interactions of genetic with other risk factors, especially smoking, remain questionable. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the genetic influence on periodontal variables in relation to environmental factors...
  92. ncbi [Significantly increased interleukin-1A and interleukin-1 soluble type II receptor levels in women with ovarian cancer]
    Zdzisława Kondera-Anasz
    Katedry i Zakładu Immunologii i Serologii Sl AM w Katowicach
    Ginekol Pol 74:761-6. 2003
    ..The aim of our study was to compare serum IL-1 alpha and IL-1 sRII levels in patients with benign and malignant gynaecological tumours and in control...
  93. ncbi Susceptibility to dengue hemorrhagic fever in vietnam: evidence of an association with variation in the vitamin d receptor and Fc gamma receptor IIa genes
    Hsin Loke
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:102-6. 2002
    ..03). No associations were found with polymorphisms in the mannose binding lectin, interleukin-1 (IL-4), and IL-1 receptor antagonist genes. Further studies to confirm these associations are warranted...
  94. ncbi Interleukin-13 and interleukin-4 act as interleukin-6 inducers in human microglial cells
    G Sebire
    Laboratoire Virus, Neurone et Immunité, UFR Kremlin Bicêtre, Universite Paris XI, France
    Cytokine 8:636-41. 1996
    ..Finally, IL-1 receptor (IL-1r) type 1 and IL-1r type 2 were detected on human microglial cells but it was demonstrated that IL-13 and IL-4 acted as IL-6 inducers in human microglial cells independently of the IL-1/IL-1r pathway...

Research Grants2

  1. TAP-1/E7 INTERACTION: ROLE IN RESPIRATORY PAPILLOMAS
    Andrea Vambutas; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..To determine whether the interaction between TAP-1 and E7 in naturally occurring infections sufficient to result in a loss of peptide transport and whether this loss correlates with viral protein load and the patients clinical course. ..
  2. Monocyte Biology and Biodefense
    DOUGLAS DREVETS; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These data will then catalyze development of rational therapies to improve host defenses against severe and overwhelming infection by category A and B intracellular bacterial pathogens. ..