Gene Symbol: IL1A
Description: interleukin 1 alpha
Alias: IL-1A, IL1, IL1-ALPHA, IL1F1, interleukin-1 alpha, IL-1 alpha, hematopoietin-1, preinterleukin 1 alpha, pro-interleukin-1-alpha
Species: human
Products:     IL1A

Top Publications

  1. Eklund C, Jahan F, Pessi T, Lehtimaki T, Hurme M. Interleukin 1B gene polymorphism is associated with baseline C-reactive protein levels in healthy individuals. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2003;14:168-71 pubmed
    ..a study of 338 healthy blood donors whose CRP levels were determined and whose single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL1A(C/T)-889, IL1B(C/T)-511, IL1B(C/T) + 3954, IL6(G/C)-174 and ILRN (a VNTR) both genotyped and haplotyped...
  2. Liu Y, Li S, Zhang G, Nie G, Meng Z, Mao D, et al. Genetic variants in IL1A and IL1B contribute to the susceptibility to 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. BMC Immunol. 2013;14:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Four SNPs (rs1304037, rs16347, rs17561, rs2071373) in IL1A gene and three SNPs (rs1143623, rs3917345, rs1143627) in IL1B gene were genotyped by using matrix-assisted laser ..
  3. Rahman P, Sun S, Peddle L, Snelgrove T, Melay W, Greenwood C, et al. Association between the interleukin-1 family gene cluster and psoriatic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:2321-5 pubmed
    ..Two hundred twelve PsA patients and 150 ethnically matched controls were genotyped with 11 SNPs in IL1A, 9 SNPs in IL1B, and 9 SNPs in IL1F5-10...
  4. Do H, Vasilescu A, Carpentier W, Meyer L, Diop G, Hirtzig T, et al. Exhaustive genotyping of the interleukin-1 family genes and associations with AIDS progression in a French cohort. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:1492-504 pubmed
    ..To better evaluate the impact of the IL-1 family on AIDS development, we genotyped the IL1 alpha , IL1 beta , IL1Ra, and IL1R1 genes in 245 slow progressor (SP) and 82 rapid progressor (RP) human ..
  5. Wang C, Shen Y, Lo F, Su C, Lee S, Lin K, et al. Polymorphism in the IL-1alpha (-889) locus associated with elevated risk of primary open angle glaucoma. Mol Vis. 2006;12:1380-5 pubmed
    ..04; OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.19-21.66). The IL-1alpha (-889) T allele polymorphism, previously shown to increase IL-1 gene expression, may be a risk factor in the development of POAG. ..
  6. Goddard K, Tromp G, Romero R, Olson J, Lu Q, Xu Z, et al. Candidate-gene association study of mothers with pre-eclampsia, and their infants, analyzing 775 SNPs in 190 genes. Hum Hered. 2007;63:1-16 pubmed
    ..The most significant findings for association with PE were COL1A1 (p = 0.0011) and IL1A (p = 0.0014) for the maternal genotype, and PLAUR (p = 0.0008) for the offspring genotype...
  7. Havemose Poulsen A, Sørensen L, Bendtzen K, Holmstrup P. Polymorphisms within the IL-1 gene cluster: effects on cytokine profiles in peripheral blood and whole blood cell cultures of patients with aggressive periodontitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. J Periodontol. 2007;78:475-92 pubmed
    ..IL-1 genotypes were associated with cytokine levels in patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis. No associations were observed in control individuals. ..
  8. Kawaguchi Y, Tochimoto A, Hara M, Kawamoto M, Sugiura T, Saito S, et al. Contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IL1A gene to the cleavage of precursor IL-1alpha and its transcription activity. Immunogenetics. 2007;59:441-8 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated the association of IL1A gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients...
  9. How A, Aung T, Chew X, Yong V, Lim M, Lee K, et al. Lack of association between interleukin-1 gene cluster polymorphisms and glaucoma in Chinese subjects. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2123-6 pubmed
    ..Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digest enzymes at the following loci: IL1A (-889C/T), IL1B (+3953C/T), and IL1B (-511C/T)...

More Information


  1. Moxley G, Han J, Stern A, Riley B. Potential influence of IL1B haplotype and IL1A-IL1B-IL1RN extended haplotype on hand osteoarthritis risk. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007;15:1106-12 pubmed variable-number-of-tandem-repeat (VNTR), and one microsatellite marker extending across loci for IL-1alpha (IL1A), IL-1beta (IL1B), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN)...
  2. Javor J, Bucova M, Ferencik S, Grosse Wilde H, Buc M. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytokine genes in the healthy Slovak population. Int J Immunogenet. 2007;34:273-80 pubmed
    ..However, several differences were found between the Slovak and four populations from Southern Europe. The obtained data represent a basis for further studies on association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with some diseases. ..
  3. Uno T, He J, Usui I, Kanatani Y, Bukhari A, Fujisaka S, et al. Long-term interleukin-1alpha treatment inhibits insulin signaling via IL-6 production and SOCS3 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Horm Metab Res. 2008;40:8-12 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the IL-1alpha-mediated deterioration of insulin signaling is largely due to the IL-6 production and SOCS3 induction in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ..
  4. Rosa J, Flores R, Oliver S, Pontello A, Zaldivar F, Galassetti P. Sustained IL-1alpha, IL-4, and IL-6 elevations following correction of hyperglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008;9:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, aside from glycemic control, additional therapeutic measures against elevated proinflammatory signals may be necessary for preventing vascular complications in children with hyperglycemic diabetes. ..
  5. Sata F, Toya S, Yamada H, Suzuki K, Saijo Y, Yamazaki A, et al. Proinflammatory cytokine polymorphisms and the risk of preterm birth and low birthweight in a Japanese population. Mol Hum Reprod. 2009;15:121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotyping of IL1A -889C/T, +4845G/T (A114S), IL1B -511C/T, -31C/T, IL2 -384T/G and IL6 -634C/G polymorphisms was determined by an ..
  6. Turner N, Das A, Warburton P, O Regan D, Ball S, Porter K. Interleukin-1alpha stimulates proinflammatory cytokine expression in human cardiac myofibroblasts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H1117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, IL-1alpha stimulates human CMF to express IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 via specific signaling pathways, responses that are unaffected by IL-10 exposure. ..
  7. Zhao J, Wang X, Xu J, Li N, Shang X, He Z, et al. Association of inflammatory response gene polymorphism with atherothrombotic stroke in Northern Han Chinese. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2012;44:1023-30 pubmed publisher
    ..013), while GA might be a protective haplotype (P = 0.005). The ALOX5AP (SG13S114A/T), PDE4D (SNP83C/T, 219A/G), and IL-1? (-889C/T) SNPs were associated with an increased risk of ATS in Northern Han Chinese. ..
  8. Kono H, Karmarkar D, Iwakura Y, Rock K. Identification of the cellular sensor that stimulates the inflammatory response to sterile cell death. J Immunol. 2010;184:4470-8 pubmed publisher
    ..One key way they accomplish this important task is by producing IL-1alpha that is needed to initiate the inflammatory response...
  9. Clarke M, Talib S, Figg N, Bennett M. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis induces interleukin-1-directed inflammation: effects of hyperlipidemia-mediated inhibition of phagocytosis. Circ Res. 2010;106:363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, failed clearance of apoptotic VSMCs caused by hyperlipidemia in vivo may promote the increased serum cytokines and chronic inflammation associated with atherosclerosis. ..
  10. Mfuna Endam L, Cormier C, Bosse Y, Filali Mouhim A, Desrosiers M. Association of IL1A, IL1B, and TNF gene polymorphisms with chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyposis: A replication study. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..between chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyposis and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL1A (rs17561 and Ser114Ala), IL1B (rs16944), and TNF (rs361525 and rs1800629) genes...
  11. Li N, He Z, Xu J, Liu F, Deng S, Zhang H. Association of PDE4D and IL-1 gene polymorphism with ischemic stroke in a Han Chinese population. Brain Res Bull. 2010;81:38-42 pubmed publisher
    ..913; 95%CI=1.621-2.375; p=0.034 for the TT genotype of the IL-1 (-889C/T), respectively. the SNPs of the PDE4D (83T/C) and IL-1 (-889C/T) were associated with increased risk for the development of IS in Northern Han Chinese. ..
  12. Murakami Y, Watari K, Shibata T, Uba M, Ureshino H, Kawahara A, et al. N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 promotes tumor inflammatory angiogenesis through JNK activation and autocrine loop of interleukin-1? by human gastric cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:25025-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, activation of JNK/AP-1 thus seems to promote tumor angiogenesis in relationship to NDRG1-induced inflammatory stimuli by gastric cancer cells. ..
  13. Tahmasebi Z, Akbarian M, Mirkazemi S, Shahlaee A, Alizadeh Z, Amirzargar A, et al. Interleukin-1 gene cluster and IL-1 receptor polymorphisms in Iranian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33:2591-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Variation at this locus may affect IL-1 receptor antagonist activity, supporting the hypothesis that altered or imbalanced IL1 production may affect the risk of developing SLE.
  14. White K, Schildkraut J, Palmieri R, Iversen E, Berchuck A, Vierkant R, et al. Ovarian cancer risk associated with inherited inflammation-related variants. Cancer Res. 2012;72:1064-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined analysis revealed association with SNPs rs17561 and rs4848300 in the interleukin gene IL1A which varied by histologic subtype (P(heterogeneity) = 0.03)...
  15. Gayathri R, Saadi A, Bhat K, Bhat S, Satyamoorthy K. Allele, genotype, and composite genotype effects of IL-1A +4845 and IL-1B +3954 polymorphisms for chronic periodontitis in an Indian population. Indian J Dent Res. 2011;22:612 pubmed publisher
    ..Its utility as a risk marker in this population was not borne out by the study. ..
  16. Wang C, Shen Y, Lo F, Su C, Lee S, Tsai H, et al. Normal tension glaucoma is not associated with the interleukin -1alpha (-889) genetic polymorphism. J Glaucoma. 2007;16:230-3 pubmed
    ..However, further studies on NTG are necessary to investigate the genetic basis and factors involved in the development of the neurodegenerative process. ..
  17. Westphal E, Li Chen -, Pilowski C, Koch S, Ebelt H, Muller Werdan U, et al. Endotoxin-activated cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes express functional surface-associated interleukin-1alpha. J Endotoxin Res. 2007;13:25-34 pubmed
  18. Erbek S, Yurtcu E, Erbek S, Atac F, Sahin F, Cakmak O. Proinflammatory cytokine single nucleotide polymorphisms in nasal polyposis. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133:705-9 pubmed
    ..polyposis (NP) and single nucleotide polymorphisms of the proinflammatory cytokines IL (interleukin) 1alpha (the IL1A gene), IL-1beta (the IL1B gene), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (the TNFA gene). Prospective case-control trial...
  19. Sezgin M, Erdal M, Altintas Z, Ankarali H, Barlas I, Turkmen E, et al. Lack of association polymorphisms of the IL1RN, IL1A, and IL1B genes with knee osteoarthritis in Turkish patients. Clin Invest Med. 2007;30:E86-92 pubmed
    To examine whether polymorphisms of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN), interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A) and interleukin 1 beta (IL1B) genes are markers of genetic susceptibility to knee osteoarthritis in Turkish patients...
  20. Cheng W, Shivshankar P, Zhong Y, Chen D, Li Z, Zhong G. Intracellular interleukin-1alpha mediates interleukin-8 production induced by Chlamydia trachomatis infection via a mechanism independent of type I interleukin-1 receptor. Infect Immun. 2008;76:942-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have identified a novel mechanism for chlamydial induction of the chemokine IL-8. ..
  21. Gao Y, He Y, Ding J, Wu K, Hu B, Liu Y, et al. An insertion/deletion polymorphism at miRNA-122-binding site in the interleukin-1alpha 3' untranslated region confers risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:2064-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We selected an insertion/deletion (Indel) polymorphism (rs3783553) in the 3' UTR of interleukin (IL)-1alpha (IL1A) for a case-control study in a Chinese population...
  22. Keller M, Rüegg A, Werner S, Beer H. Active caspase-1 is a regulator of unconventional protein secretion. Cell. 2008;132:818-31 pubmed publisher
    ..By this mechanism, stress-induced activation of caspase-1 directly links inflammation to cytoprotection, cell survival, and regenerative processes. ..
  23. Zee R, Hennessey H, Michaud S, Ridker P. Genetic variants within the interleukin-1 gene cluster, and risk of incident myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke: a nested case-control approach. Atherosclerosis. 2008;201:124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to prior retrospective studies, our prospective data suggest that the IL-1 cluster gene variation is not associated with risk of athero-thrombotic disorders. ..
  24. Gordon A, Kiss Toth E, Stockley I, Eastell R, Wilkinson J. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-6 genes affect risk of osteolysis in patients with total hip arthroplasty. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Genomic DNA was genotyped for the following single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): IL1A +4845, IL1B +3954, IL1B -3737, IL1B -511, IL1RA +2018, IL6 -174, IL6 -572, and IL6 -597...
  25. Orjalo A, Bhaumik D, Gengler B, Scott G, Campisi J. Cell surface-bound IL-1alpha is an upstream regulator of the senescence-associated IL-6/IL-8 cytokine network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17031-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cell surface IL-1alpha is an essential cell-autonomous regulator of the senescence-associated IL-6/IL-8 cytokine network. ..
  26. Solovieva S, Kamarainen O, Hirvonen A, Hämäläinen S, Laitala M, Vehmas T, et al. Association between interleukin 1 gene cluster polymorphisms and bilateral distal interphalangeal osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol. 2009;36:1977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the IL1R1, IL1RL2, IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN genes using polymerase chain reaction-based methods...
  27. Moreira P, Costa J, Gomez R, Gollob K, Dutra W. The IL1A (-889) gene polymorphism is associated with chronic periodontal disease in a sample of Brazilian individuals. J Periodontal Res. 2007;42:23-30 pubmed
    ..The C/T polymorphism at position -889 of the IL1A gene influences interleukin-1alpha expression, with the T allele inducing higher expression...
  28. Hata Y, Nakaoka H, Yoshihara K, Adachi S, Haino K, Yamaguchi M, et al. A nonsynonymous variant of IL1A is associated with endometriosis in Japanese population. J Hum Genet. 2013;58:517-20 pubmed publisher has demonstrated that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in intronic and downstream regions of IL1A (interleukin 1?) were associated with the risk of endometriosis...
  29. Kawaguchi Y, Nishimagi E, Tochimoto A, Kawamoto M, Katsumata Y, Soejima M, et al. Intracellular IL-1alpha-binding proteins contribute to biological functions of endogenous IL-1alpha in systemic sclerosis fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14501-6 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal that nuclear localization of pre-IL-1alpha depends on the binding to HAX-1 and that biological activities might be elicited by the binding to both HAX-1 and IL-1RII in SSc fibroblasts. ..
  30. Mao M, Zeng X, Ma T, He W, Zhang C, Zhou J. Interleukin-1? -899 (+4845) C?T polymorphism increases the risk of chronic periodontitis: evidence from a meta-analysis of 23 case-control studies. Gene. 2013;532:114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CT+CC). Stratified analyses revealed that there was a significantly increased risk for Caucasians and Asians. In conclusion, current evidence showed that IL-1? -899 (+4845) C?T polymorphism probably increased the risk of CP. ..
  31. Parks C, Cooper G, Dooley M, Treadwell E, St Clair E, Gilkeson G, et al. Systemic lupus erythematosus and genetic variation in the interleukin 1 gene cluster: a population based study in the southeastern United States. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004;63:91-4 pubmed
    ..antagonist (IL1Ra), have been related to the pathology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the role of IL1 polymorphisms in the aetiology of SLE is unknown...
  32. Kumar S, Kishimoto H, Chua H, Badve S, Miller K, Bigsby R, et al. Interleukin-1 alpha promotes tumor growth and cachexia in MCF-7 xenograft model of breast cancer. Am J Pathol. 2003;163:2531-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that cancer cell-derived cytokines, such as IL-1 alpha, induce cachexia by affecting leptin-dependent metabolic pathways. ..
  33. Lindmark F, Zheng S, Wiklund F, Bälter K, Sun J, Chang B, et al. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist haplotype associated with prostate cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 2005;93:493-7 pubmed
    b>IL1-RN is an important anti-inflammatory cytokine that modulate the inflammation response by binding to IL1 receptors, and as a consequence inhibits the action of proinflammatory cytokines IL1alpha and IL1beta...
  34. Nicklin M, Weith A, Duff G. A physical map of the region encompassing the human interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist genes. Genomics. 1994;19:382-4 pubmed
    ..The genes (IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN, respectively) were found to map to a common restriction fragment of approximately 430 kb that is ..
  35. Arend W. The balance between IL-1 and IL-1Ra in disease. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2002;13:323-40 pubmed
    ..Treatment of RA with daily subcutaneous injections of recombinant IL-1Ra protein has been shown to be efficacious. Gene therapy approaches with IL-1Ra are being evaluated for the treatment of RA and other human diseases. ..
  36. Buryskova M, Pospisek M, Grothey A, Simmet T, Burysek L. Intracellular interleukin-1alpha functionally interacts with histone acetyltransferase complexes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:4017-26 pubmed
    ..Our data provide the first solid evidence for the nuclear target of the IL-1alpha precursor and suggest its novel function in transcriptional control. ..
  37. Berger P, McConnell J, Nunn M, Kornman K, Sorrell J, Stephenson K, et al. C-reactive protein levels are influenced by common IL-1 gene variations. Cytokine. 2002;17:171-4 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that IL-1 gene polymorphisms known to affect the inflammatory response are highly related to plasma levels of CRP and fibrinogen in patients referred for coronary angiography. ..
  38. Loughlin J, Dowling B, Mustafa Z, Chapman K. Association of the interleukin-1 gene cluster on chromosome 2q13 with knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:1519-27 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms (SNPs) and a variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism from within the IL-1 ligand genes IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN were genotyped in a cohort of 557 OA cases and 557 age-matched controls...
  39. Delgado J, Baena A, Thim S, Goldfeld A. Ethnic-specific genetic associations with pulmonary tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:1463-8 pubmed
  40. Kim J, Ku S, Lim K, Jee B, Suh C, Kim S, et al. Cytokine production by whole blood cells: relationship to interleukin gene polymorphism and bone mass. J Korean Med Sci. 2005;20:1017-22 pubmed
    ..In conclusion IL-1beta may regulate bone metabolism at femoral neck, and the IL system polymorphism do not affect the production of ILs by whole blood cells. ..
  41. Solovieva S, Leino Arjas P, Saarela J, Luoma K, Raininko R, Riihimaki H. Possible association of interleukin 1 gene locus polymorphisms with low back pain. Pain. 2004;109:8-19 pubmed
    ..The results suggest a possible contribution of the IL-1 gene locus polymorphisms to the pathogenesis of LBP. The possibility of chance findings cannot be excluded due to the small sample size. ..
  42. March C, Mosley B, Larsen A, Cerretti D, Braedt G, Price V, et al. Cloning, sequence and expression of two distinct human interleukin-1 complementary DNAs. Nature. 1985;315:641-7 pubmed
    ..The primary translation products of the genes are 271 and 269 amino acids long, although expression in Escherichia coli of the carboxy-terminal 159 and 153 amino acids produces IL-1 biological activity. ..
  43. Snoussi K, Strosberg A, Bouaouina N, Ben Ahmed S, Chouchane L. Genetic variation in pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta, interleukin-1alpha and interleukin-6) associated with the aggressive forms, survival, and relapse prediction of breast carcinoma. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2005;16:253-60 pubmed
    ..61, p = 0.022 respectively). A highly significant association was found between the (+3954) T allele of IL1-B gene and the aggressive phenotype of breast carcinoma as defined by the high histological grade, axillary lymph ..
  44. Sanchez E, Sabio J, Callejas J, de Ramon E, Garcia Portales R, Garcia Hernandez F, et al. Association study of genetic variants of pro-inflammatory chemokine and cytokine genes in systemic lupus erythematosus. BMC Med Genet. 2006;7:48 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the tested functional variation of RANTES, IL-8, IL-1alpha, and MCP-1 genes do not confer a relevant role in the susceptibility or severity of SLE in the Spanish population. ..
  45. Kumar S, Millis A, Baglioni C. Expression of interleukin 1-inducible genes and production of interleukin 1 by aging human fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4683-7 pubmed
    ..The mechanism for this constitutive production of IL-1 is explored in this paper. ..
  46. Nicklin M, Barton J, Nguyen M, FitzGerald M, Duff G, Kornman K. A sequence-based map of the nine genes of the human interleukin-1 cluster. Genomics. 2002;79:718-25 pubmed
    ..Previous work has placed the novel genes close to or within the same cluster as IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN, which occupy an approximately 400-kb interval on chromosome 2...
  47. Hefler L, Grimm C, Lantzsch T, Lampe D, Leodolter S, Koelbl H, et al. Interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and the risk of breast cancer in caucasian women. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:5718-21 pubmed, we ascertained three polymorphisms of the IL1 gene cluster [-889 C/T polymorphism of the IL1alpha gene (IL1A), -511 C/T polymorphism of the IL1beta promoter (IL1B promoter), a polymorphism of IL1beta exon 5 (IL1B exon 5)], ..
  48. Werman A, Werman Venkert R, White R, Lee J, Werman B, Krelin Y, et al. The precursor form of IL-1alpha is an intracrine proinflammatory activator of transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2434-9 pubmed
    ..Because this mechanism of action is not affected by extracellular inhibitors, reducing intracellular functions of IL-1alpha might prove beneficial in some inflammatory conditions. ..
  49. Kaijzel E, van Dongen H, Bakker A, Breedveld F, Huizinga T, Verweij C. Relationship of polymorphisms of the Interleukin-1 gene cluster to occurrence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis. Tissue Antigens. 2002;59:122-6 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the IL-1RN + 2017 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to RA. ..
  50. Kim J, Lim K, Ku S, Kim S, Choi Y, Moon S. Relations between interleukin-1, its receptor antagonist gene polymorphism, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Korean women. J Bone Miner Metab. 2006;24:53-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that IL-1ra gene VNTR polymorphism is a genetic factor that may affect BMD in Korean women. ..
  51. Suswam E, Nabors L, Huang Y, Yang X, King P. IL-1beta induces stabilization of IL-8 mRNA in malignant breast cancer cells via the 3' untranslated region: Involvement of divergent RNA-binding factors HuR, KSRP and TIAR. Int J Cancer. 2005;113:911-9 pubmed
    ..the destabilizing factor KSRP. In conclusion, IL-1beta is a potent cytokine stimulus for IL-8 RNA stabilization in breast cancer cells, possibly by enhanced binding of cytoplasmic HuR to the 3'UTR. ..
  52. Du Y, Dodel R, Eastwood B, Bales K, Gao F, Lohmüller F, et al. Association of an interleukin 1 alpha polymorphism with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 2000;55:480-3 pubmed
    ..The data strongly support an association between the IL-1A(-889) allele 2, especially in homozygotes, and later-onset AD. ..
  53. Shirodaria S, Smith J, McKay I, Kennett C, Hughes F. Polymorphisms in the IL-1A gene are correlated with levels of interleukin-1alpha protein in gingival crevicular fluid of teeth with severe periodontal disease. J Dent Res. 2000;79:1864-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a mechanism whereby this genetic polymorphism acts to modulate IL-1alpha protein production and may influence the pathogenesis of periodontal disease by affecting the extent of IL-1-associated bystander damage. ..
  54. Debets R, Timans J, Homey B, Zurawski S, Sana T, Lo S, et al. Two novel IL-1 family members, IL-1 delta and IL-1 epsilon, function as an antagonist and agonist of NF-kappa B activation through the orphan IL-1 receptor-related protein 2. J Immunol. 2001;167:1440-6 pubmed
  55. Sciacca F, Ferri C, Veglia F, Andreetta F, Mantegazza R, Cornelio F, et al. IL-1 genes in myasthenia gravis: IL-1A -889 polymorphism associated with sex and age of disease onset. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;122:94-9 pubmed
    ..022). This finding suggests that IL-1A is a disease modifier in MG, or is in linkage disequilibrium with an unknown locus on chromosome 2. ..
  56. Hutyrova B, Pantelidis P, Drabek J, Zůrková M, Kolek V, Lenhart K, et al. Interleukin-1 gene cluster polymorphisms in sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:148-51 pubmed
    ..Further population studies are warranted to confirm the observed association between sarcoidosis and the IL-1alpha polymorphism and also to explore mechanisms of IL-1alpha -889 participation in aberrant immune response in sarcoidosis. ..
  57. Rainero I, Bo M, Ferrero M, Valfrè W, Vaula G, Pinessi L. Association between the interleukin-1alpha gene and Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis. Neurobiol Aging. 2004;25:1293-8 pubmed
    ..Analysis of subgroups showed a significant association in patients with early-onset AD but not in late-onset AD. Our data support a significant but modest association between the T/T genotype of the IL-1alpha gene and AD. ..
  58. Solovieva S, Kouhia S, Leino Arjas P, Ala Kokko L, Luoma K, Raininko R, et al. Interleukin 1 polymorphisms and intervertebral disc degeneration. Epidemiology. 2004;15:626-33 pubmed
    ..IL-1 gene cluster polymorphisms could affect the risk of disc degeneration. The effect of physical workload seems to be modified by the IL-1 gene polymorphisms. ..
  59. Sawai H, Funahashi H, Yamamoto M, Okada Y, Hayakawa T, Tanaka M, et al. Interleukin-1alpha enhances integrin alpha(6)beta(1) expression and metastatic capability of human pancreatic cancer. Oncology. 2003;65:167-73 pubmed
    ..Our results indicated that alpha(6)beta(1)-integrin and IL-1RI expression may play important roles in metastasis formation. ..
  60. Dominici R, Cattaneo M, Malferrari G, Archi D, Mariani C, Grimaldi L, et al. Cloning and functional analysis of the allelic polymorphism in the transcription regulatory region of interleukin-1 alpha. Immunogenetics. 2002;54:82-6 pubmed
    ..The TT genotype significantly increased the transcriptional activity of the IL-1 alpha gene with respect to the CC genotype. A slight increase of the IL-1 alpha mRNA and protein levels was also observed in the plasma. ..
  61. Smith A, Keen L, Billingham M, Perry M, Elson C, Kirwan J, et al. Extended haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium in the IL1R1-IL1A-IL1B-IL1RN gene cluster: association with knee osteoarthritis. Genes Immun. 2004;5:451-60 pubmed
    ..We explored the linkage between nine polymorphic loci in the IL1R1 promoter, eight in the IL1A-IL1B-IL1RN gene complex, and their association with osteoarthritis (OA), a common complex disease associated with ..
  62. Mann C, Davies M, Stevenson V, Leary S, Boggild M, Ko Ko C, et al. Interleukin 1 genotypes in multiple sclerosis and relationship to disease severity. J Neuroimmunol. 2002;129:197-204 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that genetically determined immunomodulation mediated by IL-1 influences long-term prognosis in multiple sclerosis (MS). ..
  63. Hefler L, Ludwig E, Lebrecht A, Zeillinger R, Tong Cacsire D, Koelbl H, et al. Polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 gene cluster and ovarian cancer. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2002;9:386-90 pubmed
    ..controls were genotyped for three polymorphisms of the IL-1 gene (-889 C/T polymorphism of the IL-1alpha gene [IL1A], -511 C/T polymorphism of the IL-1beta promoter [IL1B promoter], a polymorphism of IL-1beta exon 5 [IL1B exon 5]), ..
  64. Kawaguchi Y, Tochimoto A, Ichikawa N, Harigai M, Hara M, Kotake S, et al. Association of IL1A gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to and severity of systemic sclerosis in the Japanese population. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:186-92 pubmed
    To analyze the frequencies of haplotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL1A gene (at -889, +4729, and +4845) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and in healthy control subjects, and to determine whether the IL1A ..
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