Gene Symbol: IL19
Description: interleukin 19
Alias: IL-10C, MDA1, NG.1, ZMDA1, interleukin-19, melanoma differentiation associated protein-like protein
Species: human
Products:     IL19

Top Publications

  1. Jordan W, Eskdale J, Boniotto M, Lennon G, Peat J, Campbell J, et al. Human IL-19 regulates immunity through auto-induction of IL-19 and production of IL-10. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:1576-82 pubmed
    ..These results advance our understanding of the function of this novel cytokine and its regulation within the human immune system, in addition to providing a new insight into the control of the important immunoregulatory cytokine, IL-10. ..
  2. Parrish Novak J, Xu W, Brender T, Yao L, Jones C, West J, et al. Interleukins 19, 20, and 24 signal through two distinct receptor complexes. Differences in receptor-ligand interactions mediate unique biological functions. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47517-23 pubmed
  3. Sun D, Yeh C, So E, Wang L, Wei T, Chang M, et al. Interleukin (IL)-19 promoted skin wound healing by increasing fibroblast keratinocyte growth factor expression. Cytokine. 2013;62:360-8 pubmed publisher
    ..HaCaT cells treated with the cultured supernatants of IL-19-stimulated CCD966-SK cells showed significantly more proliferation than in controls. IL-19 is important for cutaneous wound healing because it upregulates KGF expression. ..
  4. Hsing C, Li H, Hsu Y, Ho C, Chuang S, Lan K, et al. The distribution of interleukin-19 in healthy and neoplastic tissue. Cytokine. 2008;44:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides important references for further investigation of the biological functions and clinical implications of IL-19 in humans. ..
  5. Kunz S, Wolk K, Witte E, Witte K, Doecke W, Volk H, et al. Interleukin (IL)-19, IL-20 and IL-24 are produced by and act on keratinocytes and are distinct from classical ILs. Exp Dermatol. 2006;15:991-1004 pubmed
    ..In summary, these data support the notion that IL-19, IL-20 and IL-24 are distinct from classical ILs and constitute a separate subfamily of mediators within the IL-10 family. ..
  6. Liao S, Cheng Y, Wang Y, Wang C, Yang S, Yu C, et al. IL-19 induced Th2 cytokines and was up-regulated in asthma patients. J Immunol. 2004;173:6712-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrated that IL-19 up-regulates Th2 cytokines on activated T cells and might play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. ..
  7. Gallagher G, Dickensheets H, Eskdale J, Izotova L, Mirochnitchenko O, Peat J, et al. Cloning, expression and initial characterization of interleukin-19 (IL-19), a novel homologue of human interleukin-10 (IL-10). Genes Immun. 2000;1:442-50 pubmed
    ..IL-19 does not bind or signal through the canonical IL-10 receptor complex, suggesting existence of an IL-19 specific receptor complex, the identity of which remains to be discovered. ..
  8. Hsing C, Hsu C, Chen W, Chang L, Hwang J, Chang M. Expression of IL-19 correlates with Th2 cytokines in uraemic patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:2230-8 pubmed
    ..IL-19 expression in uraemic patients correlated with Th2 immune responses which might be involved in the cytokine dysregulation in uraemia. ..
  9. Kingo K, Mossner R, Koks S, Rätsep R, Kruger U, Vasar E, et al. Association analysis of IL19, IL20 and IL24 genes in palmoplantar pustulosis. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156:646-52 pubmed
    ..This study investigated whether variations in the IL19, IL20 and IL24 genes that have previously been associated with plaque-type psoriasis may also play a role in ..

More Information


  1. Blumberg H, Conklin D, Xu W, Grossmann A, Brender T, Carollo S, et al. Interleukin 20: discovery, receptor identification, and role in epidermal function. Cell. 2001;104:9-19 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate a role in epidermal function and psoriasis for IL-20, a novel cytokine identified solely by bioinformatics analysis. ..
  2. Hsing C, Cheng H, Hsu Y, Chan C, Yeh C, Li C, et al. Upregulated IL-19 in breast cancer promotes tumor progression and affects clinical outcome. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:713-25 pubmed publisher
    ..High IL-19 expression in breast cancer tissue is associated with a poor clinical outcome. IL-19 is pivotal in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. ..
  3. Oleksyk T, Thio C, Truelove A, Goedert J, Donfield S, Kirk G, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in the IL10 region associated with HCV clearance. Genes Immun. 2005;6:347-57 pubmed
    ..kb and 24 within the IL10 gene itself), which contains 13 genes including the IL10 immunomodulatory paralogs IL19, IL20, and IL24, for association with HCV clearance vs persistence...
  4. Pace E, Scafidi V, Di Bona D, Siena L, Chiappara G, Ferraro M, et al. Increased expression of IL-19 in the epithelium of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Allergy. 2012;67:878-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammation of the nose and of the paranasal sinuses. The involvement of the respiratory epithelium in the mechanisms of CRS is poorly understood...
  5. Chen Y, Li C, Yeh C, Chang M, Hsing C. Interleukin-19 in breast cancer. Clin Dev Immunol. 2013;2013:294320 pubmed publisher
  6. Kotenko S. The family of IL-10-related cytokines and their receptors: related, but to what extent?. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2002;13:223-40 pubmed
    ..Although data indicate that these cytokines are involved in regulation of inflammatory and immune responses, their major functions remain to be discovered. ..
  7. Liao Y, Liang W, Chen F, Hsu J, Yang J, Chang M. IL-19 induces production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha and results in cell apoptosis through TNF-alpha. J Immunol. 2002;169:4288-97 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that mouse IL-19 may play some important roles in inflammatory responses because it up-regulates IL-6 and TNF-alpha and induces apoptosis. ..
  8. Fickenscher H, Hor S, Küpers H, Knappe A, Wittmann S, Sticht H. The interleukin-10 family of cytokines. Trends Immunol. 2002;23:89-96 pubmed
  9. Gabunia K, Ellison S, Singh H, DATTA P, Kelemen S, Rizzo V, et al. Interleukin-19 (IL-19) induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and decreases reactive oxygen species in human vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:2477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This points to IL-19 as a potential therapeutic for vascular inflammatory diseases and a link for two previously unassociated protective processes: Th2 cytokine-induced anti-inflammation and ROS reduction. ..
  10. Dumoutier L, Leemans C, Lejeune D, Kotenko S, Renauld J. Cutting edge: STAT activation by IL-19, IL-20 and mda-7 through IL-20 receptor complexes of two types. J Immunol. 2001;167:3545-9 pubmed
  11. Hsing C, Chiu C, Chang L, Hsu C, Chang M. IL-19 is involved in the pathogenesis of endotoxic shock. Shock. 2008;29:7-15 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that up-regulated IL-19 may be involved in lung and liver tissue injury in murine endotoxic shock. ..
  12. Chang C, Magracheva E, Kozlov S, Fong S, Tobin G, Kotenko S, et al. Crystal structure of interleukin-19 defines a new subfamily of helical cytokines. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:3308-13 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the observed structure, we propose that IL-19, IL-20, and other putative members of the proposed IL-10 family together form a distinct subfamily of helical cytokines. ..
  13. Wolk K, Kunz S, Asadullah K, Sabat R. Cutting edge: immune cells as sources and targets of the IL-10 family members?. J Immunol. 2002;168:5397-402 pubmed
    ..In these cells, IL-20R2 might be part of a still-unknown receptor complex. Therefore, immune cells may represent a major source but a minor target of the novel IL-10 family members. ..
  14. Nimmo E, Prendergast J, Aldhous M, Kennedy N, Henderson P, Drummond H, et al. Genome-wide methylation profiling in Crohn's disease identifies altered epigenetic regulation of key host defense mechanisms including the Th17 pathway. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18:889-99 pubmed publisher
    ..71, specificity 0.83). Disease activity, drug therapy, NOD2 and DNMT3A genotypes were not associated with methylation changes. These data provide an important insight into the impact of epigenetic mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CD. ..
  15. Pletnev S, Magracheva E, Kozlov S, Tobin G, Kotenko S, Wlodawer A, et al. Characterization of the recombinant extracellular domains of human interleukin-20 receptors and their complexes with interleukin-19 and interleukin-20. Biochemistry. 2003;42:12617-24 pubmed
  16. Gallagher G, Eskdale J, Jordan W, Peat J, Campbell J, Boniotto M, et al. Human interleukin-19 and its receptor: a potential role in the induction of Th2 responses. Int Immunopharmacol. 2004;4:615-26 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in whole PBMC cultures, IL-19 up-regulated IL-4 and down-regulated IFNgamma in a dose-dependent manner. These results are presented here in review format, in the context of an overall discussion of IL-19 and its receptor. ..
  17. Bettaccini A, Baj A, Accolla R, Basolo F, Toniolo A. Proliferative activity of extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein in human epithelial cells: expression profile of pathogenetically relevant genes. BMC Microbiol. 2005;5:20 pubmed
    ..These effects may favor virus replication and may facilitate the mother-to-child transmission of virus. ..
  18. Swindell W, Sarkar M, Stuart P, Voorhees J, Elder J, Johnston A, et al. Psoriasis drug development and GWAS interpretation through in silico analysis of transcription factor binding sites. Clin Transl Med. 2015;4:13 pubmed publisher
    ..PREs were prominent within enhancer regions near cytokine-encoding DEGs (IL17A, IL19 and IL1B), suggesting that PREs might be incorporated into complex decoy oligonucleotides (cdODNs)...
  19. Barrett J, Clayton D, Concannon P, Akolkar B, Cooper J, Erlich H, et al. Genome-wide association study and meta-analysis find that over 40 loci affect risk of type 1 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2009;41:703-7 pubmed publisher
    ..01; overall P < 5 × 10(-8)) and 4 additional regions provided nominal evidence of replication (P < 0.05). The many new candidate genes suggested by these results include IL10, IL19, IL20, GLIS3, CD69 and IL27.
  20. Jørgensen K, Færgestad Mosleth E, Hovde Liland K, Hopf N, Holdhus R, Stavrum A, et al. Global Gene Expression Response in Peripheral Blood Cells of Petroleum Workers Exposed to Sub-Ppm Benzene Levels. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15: pubmed publisher
    ..Even better separation of benzene exposed workers and referents was observed for short-term exposure for genes in the Jak-STAT pathway, particularly elevated expression of IL6 and reduced expression of IL19.
  21. Keermann M, Kõks S, Reimann E, Prans E, Abram K, Kingo K. Transcriptional landscape of psoriasis identifies the involvement of IL36 and IL36RN. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:322 pubmed publisher
    ..In LP skin S100A12, S100A7A, LCE3E, DEFB4A, IL19 were found up regulated...
  22. Ray M, Gabunia K, Vrakas C, Herman A, Kako F, Kelemen S, et al. Genetic Deletion of IL-19 (Interleukin-19) Exacerbates Atherogenesis in Il19-/-×Ldlr-/- Double Knockout Mice by Dysregulation of mRNA Stability Protein HuR (Human Antigen R). Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2018;38:1297-1308 pubmed publisher
    To test the hypothesis that loss of IL-19 (interleukin-19) exacerbates atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Il19-/- mice were crossed into Ldlr-/- (low-density lipoprotein receptor knock out) mice...
  23. Robles P, Micol J, Quesada V. Mutations in the plant-conserved MTERF9 alter chloroplast gene expression, development and tolerance to abiotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Physiol Plant. 2015;154:297-313 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genetic interactions results indicate a functional relationship between MTERF9 and the previously characterized MDA1 gene, and between MDA1 and some plastid ribosomal genes...
  24. Dabitao D, Hedrich C, Wang F, Vacharathit V, Bream J. Cell-Specific Requirements for STAT Proteins and Type I IFN Receptor Signaling Discretely Regulate IL-24 and IL-10 Expression in NK Cells and Macrophages. J Immunol. 2018;200:2154-2164 pubmed publisher
    i>Il10 forms a cytokine cluster with Il19, Il20, and Il24 in a conserved region of chromosome 1...
  25. McGovern D, Gardet A, Törkvist L, Goyette P, Essers J, Taylor K, et al. Genome-wide association identifies multiple ulcerative colitis susceptibility loci. Nat Genet. 2010;42:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate approximately 30 loci in ulcerative colitis, thereby providing insight into disease pathogenesis. ..
  26. Chen P, Wei C, Wang C, Chen F, Hsu Y, Chang M. Promoter analysis of interleukin 19. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;344:713-20 pubmed
  27. Kamei H, Masuda S, Nakamura T, Ishigami M, Fujimoto Y, Ogura Y, et al. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in acute cellular rejection following living donor liver transplantation: analysis of 155 donor-recipient pairs. Hepatol Int. 2013;7:916-22 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, the current study showed no associations of cytokine gene polymorphisms in donors with ACR incidence. ..
  28. Okazaki S, Watanabe Y, Hishimoto A, Sasada T, Mouri K, Shiroiwa K, et al. Association analysis of putative cis-acting polymorphisms of interleukin-19 gene with schizophrenia. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014;50:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..022 and corrected p=0.235). These results suggest that the IL-19 gene might slightly contribute to the genetic risk of schizophrenia. Thus, further research on the association of eQTL SNPs with schizophrenia is warranted. ..
  29. Li J, Wang J, Chen Y, Yang L, Chen S. A prognostic 4-gene expression signature for squamous cell lung carcinoma. J Cell Physiol. 2017;232:3702-3713 pubmed publisher
    ..A four-gene clustering model in 14-Genes (DPPA, TTTY16, TRIM58, HKDC1, ZNF589, ALDH7A1, LINC01426, IL19, LOC101928358, TMEM92, HRASLS, JPH1, LOC100288778, GCGR) was verified as the optimal...
  30. Li X, Zhang K, Pajewski N, Brill I, Prentice H, Shrestha S, et al. Immunogenetic influences on acquisition of HIV-1 infection: consensus findings from two African cohorts point to an enhancer element in IL19 (1q32.2). Genes Immun. 2015;16:213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..n=313) and seroprevalent subjects (n=478) who were already infected at enrollment, rs12407485 (G>A) in IL19 showed a robust association signal in adjusted logistic regression models (odds ratio=0.64, P=1...
  31. Ash A, Okello A, Khamlome B, Inthavong P, Allen J, Thompson R. Controlling Taenia solium and soil transmitted helminths in a northern Lao PDR village: Impact of a triple dose albendazole regime. Acta Trop. 2017;174:171-178 pubmed publisher
    ..Health intervention covering both pigs and humans was implemented, which included two Mass drug administrations (MDA1 and MDA2) for village residents using a triple dose albendazole 400mg treatment regime...
  32. Ponsuksili S, Zebunke M, Murani E, Trakooljul N, Krieter J, Puppe B, et al. Integrated Genome-wide association and hypothalamus eQTL studies indicate a link between the circadian rhythm-related gene PER1 and coping behavior. Sci Rep. 2015;5:16264 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight genes (ASGR1, CPAMD8, CTC1, FBXO39, IL19, LOC100511790, RAD51B, UBOX5) had cis- and five (RANGRF, PER1, PDZRN3, SH2D4B, LONP2) had trans-expressionQTL...
  33. Yamamoto Furusho J, Alvarez Leon E, Fragoso J, Gozalishvilli A, Vallejo M, Vargas Alarcon G. Protective role of interleukin-19 gene polymorphisms in patients with ulcerative colitis. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:1029-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that IL-19 polymorphisms (rs2243188 and rs2243193) might have a protective role in the development of UC in Mexican individuals. ..
  34. Anuradha R, Munisankar S, Dolla C, Kumaran P, Nutman T, Babu S. Modulation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Cell Function by Interleukin 19 and Interleukin 24 During Filarial Infections. J Infect Dis. 2016;213:811-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 19 (IL-19) and interleukin 24 (IL-24) are cytokines that are highly expressed in filarial infections...
  35. Noda S, Suárez Fariñas M, Ungar B, Kim S, de Guzman Strong C, Xu H, et al. The Asian atopic dermatitis phenotype combines features of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis with increased TH17 polarization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136:1254-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly higher TH17 and TH22 (IL17A, IL19, and S100A12 in lesional and IL-22 in nonlesional skin; P < ...
  36. Fan J, Mu L, Zhou L, Huang X, Huang Y. [Association between IL-19 gene polymorphisms and hepatitis B virus susceptibility in children]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2016;18:1277-1281 pubmed
    ..The SNP of IL-19 rs1798 may be associated with susceptibility to hepatitis B in children, and the SNP of IL-19 rs2243191 may be associated with susceptibility to breakthrough HBV infection in children at a high risk of HBV infection. ..
  37. Hofmann S, Kubasch A, Ioannidis C, Rosen Wolff A, Girschick H, Morbach H, et al. Altered expression of IL-10 family cytokines in monocytes from CRMO patients result in enhanced IL-1β expression and release. Clin Immunol. 2015;161:300-7 pubmed publisher
    ..IL10 and its homologs IL19 and IL20 are organized in the IL10 cluster on chromosome 1q32...
  38. Kingo K, Reimann E, Karelson M, Rätsep R, Raud K, Vasar E, et al. Association analysis of genes of the IL19 cluster and their receptors in vitiligo patients. Dermatology. 2010;221:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The minor allele of IL19 rs2243188 was significantly increased in vitiligo patients compared to controls (53.3 vs. 28.6%, adjusted p < 0...
  39. Robles P, Núñez Delegido E, Ferrández Ayela A, Sarmiento Mañús R, Micol J, Quesada V. Arabidopsis mTERF6 is required for leaf patterning. Plant Sci. 2018;266:117-129 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction seemed specific of the impaired mTERF6 function because mutations in the mTERF genes MDA1 or TWR-1/mTERF9 did not result in radialised leaves...
  40. Traks T, Koido K, Eller T, Maron E, Kingo K, Vasar V, et al. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene cluster are possibly involved in the increased risk for major depressive disorder. BMC Med Genet. 2008;9:111 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies are needed to confirm the results and to find the possible functional explanation. ..
  41. Steinert A, Linas I, Kaya B, Ibrahim M, Schlitzer A, Hruz P, et al. The Stimulation of Macrophages with TLR Ligands Supports Increased IL-19 Expression in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients and in Colitis Models. J Immunol. 2017;199:2570-2584 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we show that the expression of IL19 in biopsies of patients with active ulcerative colitis was increased compared with patients with quiescent ..
  42. Wang P, Yu P, Gao P, Shi T, Ma D. Discovery of novel human transcript variants by analysis of intronic single-block EST with polyadenylation site. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:518 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a genome-wide resource for identification of novel human transcript variants with intronic polyadenylation sites, and offer a new view into the mystery of the human transcriptome. ..
  43. Vogelsang M, Martinez C, Rendleman J, Bapodra A, Malecek K, Romanchuk A, et al. The Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Immune Pathways and their Effect on Cutaneous Melanoma Prognosis. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:3268-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified highly significant associations with better melanoma OS for rs6673928, impacting IL19 expression (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.41-0.77; P = 0.0002) and rs6695772, controlling the expression of BATF3 (HR, 1...
  44. Li L, Yu Z, Qian L, Xu J, Liu F, Zhao G, et al. Interleukin-19 and angiopoietin-2 can enhance angiogenesis of diabetic complications. J Diabetes Complications. 2016;30:386-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In 240 patients with T2DM, IL-19 and Ang-2 levels were higher, IL-19 was positively correlated with Ang-2. IL-19 and Ang-2 might be involved in angiogenesis of T2DM complications. ..
  45. Okayama N, Suehiro Y, Hamanaka Y, Nakamura J, Hinoda Y. Association of interleukin-19 gene polymorphisms with age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62:507-11 pubmed
    ..05). IL-19 Ser175Phe was in linkage disequilibrium with -513 T/C and 1098 G/T, but not with IL-10 -819 T/C. These data suggest that IL-19 polymorphisms may be associated with age in a Japanese population. ..
  46. Azuma Y, Takeuchi T. [Emerging role of interleukin-19 as an inflammatory mediator in inflammatory bowel disease]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2014;143:275-8 pubmed
  47. Witte E, Kokolakis G, Witte K, Philipp S, Doecke W, Babel N, et al. IL-19 is a component of the pathogenetic IL-23/IL-17 cascade in psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:2757-2767 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, IL-19 as a component of the IL-23/IL-17 axis strengthens the IL-17A action and might be a biomarker for the activity of this axis in chronic inflammatory disorders. ..
  48. Tian Y, Sommerville L, Cuneo A, Kelemen S, Autieri M. Expression and suppressive effects of interleukin-19 on vascular smooth muscle cell pathophysiology and development of intimal hyperplasia. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:901-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that through induction of SOCS5 and inhibition of signal transduction, IL-19 expression in VSMCs may represent a novel, protective, autocrine response of VSMCs to inflammatory stimuli. ..
  49. Jain S, Gabunia K, Kelemen S, Panetti T, Autieri M. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 19 is expressed by and angiogenic for human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, these data are the first to report expression of the anti-inflammatory agent, IL-19, in ECs; and the first to indicate that IL-19 is mitogenic and chemotactic for ECs and can induce the angiogenic potential of ECs. ..
  50. Li L, ZHeng Qing Y, Juan Yu H, Jian Yong X, Fan L, Guang Chun Z, et al. Association between interleukin-19 and angiopoietin-2 with vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Investig. 2016;7:895-900 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-19 is significantly positively correlated with Ang-2. The potential role of IL-19 and Ang-2 in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes could warrant further study. ..
  51. Kragstrup T, Andersen T, Holm C, Schiøttz Christensen B, Jurik A, Hvid M, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 induced interleukin-19 dampens immune reactions and associates inversely with spondyloarthritis disease activity. Clin Exp Immunol. 2015;180:233-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that IL-19 production is diminished in SpA. Taken together, impaired IL-19 control of the innate immune system might be involved in the pathogenesis of SpA. ..
  52. Li L, Jiang X, Hu J, Yu Z, Xu J, Liu F, et al. The association between interleukin-19 concentration and diabetic nephropathy. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:65 pubmed publisher
    ..01) were found to be independently associated with patients with DN. IL-19 is significantly positive correlated with UAE and Cystatin C. IL-19 may play an important role that contributes to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  53. Rømer J, Hasselager E, Nørby P, Steiniche T, Thorn Clausen J, Kragballe K. Epidermal overexpression of interleukin-19 and -20 mRNA in psoriatic skin disappears after short-term treatment with cyclosporine a or calcipotriol. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121:1306-11 pubmed
    ..These findings show that IL-19 and IL-20 are synthesized by a distinct population of keratinocytes. It remains to be clarified whether IL-19 and IL-20 are implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. ..
  54. Wang X, Hu G, Kang H, Ke X, Hong S. [Increased IL-19 level in peripheral blood of patients with allergic rhinitis is related with clinical severity]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2015;31:1537-40, 1543 pubmed
    ..673, rmRNA-VAS=0.619, protein-RQLQ=0.669, protein-VAS=0.662, P<0.01). The level of IL-19 in the peripheral blood of AR patients increased and was related with the clinical severity of AR. ..
  55. Shrestha S, Wiener H, Aissani B, Song W, Shendre A, Wilson C, et al. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) pathway: genetic variants and outcomes of HIV-1 infection in African American adolescents. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13384 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined 104 informative SNPs in IL10, IL19, IL20, IL24, IL10RA and IL10RB among 250 HIV-1 seropositive and 106 high-risk seronegative African American ..
  56. Zhong H, Wu Y, Belardinelli L, Zeng D. A2B adenosine receptors induce IL-19 from bronchial epithelial cells, resulting in TNF-alpha increase. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;35:587-92 pubmed
    ..The results of this study suggest that there is a novel pathway whereby adenosine can initiate and amplify an inflammatory response which might be important in pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases. ..
  57. Ermers M, Janssen R, Onland Moret N, Hodemaekers H, Rovers M, Houben M, et al. IL10 family member genes IL19 and IL20 are associated with recurrent wheeze after respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Res. 2011;70:518-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We found associations with recurrent wheeze for SNPs in IL19, IL20, MUC5AC, TNFRSF1B, C3, CTLA4, CXCL9, IL4R, and IL7 genes...
  58. Sellick G, Wade R, Richards S, Oscier D, Catovsky D, Houlston R. Scan of 977 nonsynonymous SNPs in CLL4 trial patients for the identification of genetic variants influencing prognosis. Blood. 2008;111:1625-33 pubmed
    ..These included SNPs mapping to the immune-regulation genes IL16 P434S (P = .03), IL19 S213F (P = .001), LILRA4 P27L (P = .004), KLRC4 S29I (P = .007), and CD5 V471A (P = ...
  59. Truelove A, Oleksyk T, Shrestha S, Thio C, Goedert J, Donfield S, et al. Evaluation of IL10, IL19 and IL20 gene polymorphisms and chronic hepatitis B infection outcome. Int J Immunogenet. 2008;35:255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; n = 42) from the IL10, IL19 and IL20 gene regions were examined for an association with HBV infection outcome, either chronic or recovered, in ..
  60. Koido K, Eller T, Kingo K, Koks S, Traks T, Shlik J, et al. Interleukin 10 family gene polymorphisms are not associated with major depressive disorder and panic disorder phenotypes. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44:275-7 pubmed publisher
    ..IKBKE emerged as a candidate for further studies of genetic factors associated with panic disorder and major depressive disorder. ..
  61. Lin J, Qin H, Wang Y, Liang J, Xu J. Analysis of interleukin 19 serum levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: pubmed publisher
    ..It has been suggested that interleukin 19 (IL-19) is engaged in intercellular signal transduction, which is related to the immune response and the local ..
  62. Kordi Tamandani D, Sadeghi Bojd S, Torkamanzehi A. IL-19 and IL-20 genes polymorphisms and haplotype analysis in a vesicoureteral reflux population. Hum Immunol. 2013;74:131-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first evidence regarding IL-19 and IL-20 cytokine genes polymorphism and risk of VUR, suggesting the need for further study with large sample size and in different populations to confirm the presented data. ..
  63. Ni J, Zhang M, Zhu Y, Chen G, Liu J, Zhang C, et al. Association study of interleukin-19 rs2243188 polymorphism with systemic lupus erythematosus in a Chinese population. Autoimmunity. 2014;47:378-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the subgroup analysis highlighted that IL-19 rs2243188 SNP was associated with the susceptibility to LN patients. ..
  64. Savasan Z, Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Hussein Y, Kusanovic J, Xu Y, et al. Interleukin-19 in fetal systemic inflammation. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:995-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of fetuses with FIRS had high umbilical cord plasma IL-19 concentrations. In utero exposure to high systemic concentrations of IL-19 may reprogram the immune response. ..
  65. Fonseca Camarillo G, Furuzawa Carballeda J, Granados J, Yamamoto Furusho J. Expression of interleukin (IL)-19 and IL-24 in inflammatory bowel disease patients: a cross-sectional study. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014;177:64-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These cytokines could significantly shape and differentiate inflammatory process, severity and tolerance loss between UC and CD pathophysiology. ..
  66. Scrivo R, Conigliaro P, Riccieri V, Di Franco M, Alessandri C, Spadaro A, et al. Distribution of interleukin-10 family cytokines in serum and synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory arthritis reveals different contribution to systemic and joint inflammation. Clin Exp Immunol. 2015;179:300-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may further the comprehension of the contribution of these cytokines to the inflammatory response involved in chronic arthritis, as well as to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. ..
  67. England R, Preston K, Scalia R, Autieri M. Interleukin-19 decreases leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions by reduction in endothelial cell adhesion molecule mRNA stability. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;305:C255-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Function of IL-19 outside of the immune system is a novel concept, suggesting that resident vascular cells can adopt a Th2 phenotype, and has important ramifications for numerous inflammatory diseases. ..
  68. Ryckman K, Fielding K, Hill A, Mendy M, Rayco Solon P, Sirugo G, et al. Host genetic factors and vaccine-induced immunity to HBV infection: haplotype analysis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12273 pubmed publisher
    ..Five genes (CD44, CD58, CDC42, IL19 and IL1R1) had at least one significant haplotype in the unrelated or family analysis as well as the combined ..
  69. Cantó E, Garcia Planella E, Zamora Atenza C, Nieto J, Gordillo J, Ortiz M, et al. Interleukin-19 impairment in active Crohn's disease patients. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e93910 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that IL-19 had an anti-inflammatory role in this study. Defects in IL-19 expression and the lack of response to this cytokine could contribute to inflammatory mechanisms in active CD patients. ..
  70. Sabat R, Wallace E, Endesfelder S, Wolk K. IL-19 and IL-20: two novel cytokines with importance in inflammatory diseases. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2007;11:601-12 pubmed
    ..For this reason, the authors have reviewed the facts known at present regarding these cytokines and postulate that IL-19 and IL-20 are pharmacologically interesting distal elements of an inflammatory cascade. ..
  71. Bao L, Alexander J, Shi V, Mohan G, Chan L. Interleukin-4 up-regulation of epidermal interleukin-19 expression in keratinocytes involves the binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) to the imperfect Stat6 sites. Immunology. 2014;143:601-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we delineate the detailed molecular pathway for IL-4 up-regulation of IL-19 in keratinocytes, which may play an important role in AD pathogenesis. ..