Gene Symbol: IL-6
Description: interleukin 6
Alias: BSF-2, BSF2, CDF, HGF, HSF, IFN-beta-2, IFNB2, IL-6, interleukin-6, B-cell differentiation factor, B-cell stimulatory factor 2, CTL differentiation factor, hybridoma growth factor, interferon beta-2, interleukin BSF-2
Species: human
Products:     IL-6

Top Publications

  1. Qi L, Zhang C, van Dam R, Hu F. Interleukin-6 genetic variability and adiposity: associations in two prospective cohorts and systematic review in 26,944 individuals. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3618-25 pubmed
    ..Our data from two independent cohorts indicate that the variability of the IL6 gene is significantly associated with adiposity. Such associations are less likely to be caused by polymorphism -174G>C. ..
  2. Pierce B, Biggs M, DeCambre M, Reiner A, Li C, Fitzpatrick A, et al. C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and prostate cancer risk in men aged 65 years and older. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20:1193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..21). Our results suggest that circulating CRP and IL-6 do not influence PCa risk. SNPs at the CRP locus are not associated with PCa risk in this cohort, while the association between rs1800795 and PCa risk warrants further investigation. ..
  3. Hou T, Ray S, Lee C, Brasier A. The STAT3 NH2-terminal domain stabilizes enhanceosome assembly by interacting with the p300 bromodomain. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the STAT3 NH(2)-terminal domain plays an important role in the interleukin-6 signaling pathway by interacting with the p300 bromodomain, thereby stabilizing enhanceosome assembly. ..
  4. dela Paz N, Simeonidis S, Leo C, Rose D, Collins T. Regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression by the POU domain transcription factor Oct-1. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8424-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, the cytokine interleukin-6 induces Oct-1 gene expression, providing a biologically relevant means by which NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression can be selectively reverted by Oct-1 to quiescent levels. ..
  5. Ferreira R, Freitag D, Cutler A, Howson J, Rainbow D, Smyth D, et al. Functional IL6R 358Ala allele impairs classical IL-6 receptor signaling and influences risk of diverse inflammatory diseases. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003444 pubmed publisher
  6. Lagmay J, London W, Gross T, Termuhlen A, Sullivan N, Axel A, et al. Prognostic significance of interleukin-6 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in neuroblastoma: rs1800795 (promoter) and rs8192284 (receptor). Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:5234-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the rs1800795 SNP [-174 IL-6 (G > C)] has been shown to correlate with production of IL-6, this cytokine may represent a target for development of new therapies in neuroblastoma. ..
  7. Islam O, Gong X, Rose John S, Heese K. Interleukin-6 and neural stem cells: more than gliogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:188-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that IL-6 mediates both processes depending on its specific soluble receptor sIL-6R-alpha has implications for the potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  8. Gangwar R, Mittal B, Mittal R. Association of interleukin-6 -174G>C promoter polymorphism with risk of cervical cancer. Int J Biol Markers. 2009;24:11-6 pubmed
    ..Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine, regulates inflammation and various physiological processes. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association of the IL-6 -174G>C polymorphism with predisposition to cervical cancer...
  9. He J, Foreman M, Shumansky K, Zhang X, Akhabir L, Sin D, et al. Associations of IL6 polymorphisms with lung function decline and COPD. Thorax. 2009;64:698-704 pubmed publisher
    ..01< or =p< or =0.04 in additive genetic models). The results suggest that the IL6_-174G/C SNP is associated with a rapid decline in FEV(1) and susceptibility to COPD in smokers. ..

More Information

Publications517 found, 100 shown here

  1. Chen R, Chang C, Chen W, Tsai C, Tsai F. Proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms among Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients. J Clin Lab Anal. 2006;20:260-5 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we suggest that an IL-6 gene promoter (-572) C/G polymorphism could represent a potential "candidate" genetic marker to predict an individual's susceptibility to HT. ..
  2. Gopel W, Hartel C, Ahrens P, Konig I, Kattner E, Kuhls E, et al. Interleukin-6-174-genotype, sepsis and cerebral injury in very low birth weight infants. Genes Immun. 2006;7:65-8 pubmed
    We investigated the association between the interleukin 6 (IL-6)-174-genotype and unfavorable outcomes in preterm infants since it has been reported that the IL-6-174GG-genotype is associated with increased susceptibility to sepsis, and ..
  3. Nikolopoulos G, Dimou N, Hamodrakas S, Bagos P. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in periodontal disease: a meta-analysis of 53 studies including 4178 cases and 4590 controls. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35:754-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies may contribute to the investigation of the potential multigenetic predisposition of the disease and reinforce our findings. ..
  4. Honsawek S, Deepaisarnsakul B, Tanavalee A, Yuktanandana P, Bumrungpanichthaworn P, Malila S, et al. Association of the IL-6 -174G/C gene polymorphism with knee osteoarthritis in a Thai population. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:1674-80 pubmed
    ..3, 95% confidence interval = 1.6-6.9, P = 0.001). These findings suggest that the -174G/C polymorphism of the IL-6 gene promoter plays a role in the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis. ..
  5. Gallagher P, Lowe G, Fitzgerald T, Bella A, Greene C, McElvaney N, et al. Association of IL-10 polymorphism with severity of illness in community acquired pneumonia. Thorax. 2003;58:154-6 pubmed
    ..Additionally, no interaction between all three SNP genotypes and disease severity was observed. A polymorphism affecting IL-10 expression may influence the severity of illness in patients with CAP. ..
  6. Ishiguro H, Akimoto K, Nagashima Y, Kagawa E, Sasaki T, Sano J, et al. Coexpression of aPKC?/? and IL-6 in prostate cancer tissue correlates with biochemical recurrence. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1576-81 pubmed publisher
    ..03 in the multivariate analysis). These results indicate a strong correlation between aPKC?/? and IL-6 in prostate tumors, and that the aPKC?/?-IL-6 axis is a reliable prognostic factor for the biochemical recurrence of this cancer. ..
  7. Jansson H, Lyssenko V, Gustavsson A, Hamberg K, Soderfeldt B, Groop L, et al. Analysis of the interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 polymorphisms in patients with chronic periodontitis. A pilot study. Swed Dent J. 2006;30:17-23 pubmed
    ..SNPs in IL-1alpha [+4845C>T], IL-1beta [-3954C>T] and IL-6 [-174G>C] do not seem to increase the susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in this group of subjects. ..
  8. Niemand C, Nimmesgern A, Haan S, Fischer P, Schaper F, Rossaint R, et al. Activation of STAT3 by IL-6 and IL-10 in primary human macrophages is differentially modulated by suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. J Immunol. 2003;170:3263-72 pubmed
  9. Meng F, Wehbe Janek H, Henson R, Smith H, Patel T. Epigenetic regulation of microRNA-370 by interleukin-6 in malignant human cholangiocytes. Oncogene. 2008;27:378-86 pubmed
    ..These studies define a mechanism by which inflammation-associated cytokines can epigenetically modulate gene expression and directly contribute to tumor biology. ..
  10. Kutluturk F, Yarman S, Sarvan F, Kekik C. Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms (IL6, IL10, TNF-?, TGF-? and IFN-?) and Graves' disease in Turkish population. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2013;13:163-7 pubmed
    ..TNF-?-308GA and IL-6 -174CC gene polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility to GD in Turkish population. The polymorphism hypothesis in pro-inflammatory cytokines might be involved in predisposition to GD. ..
  11. Pawlik A, Domanski L, Rozanski J, Florczak M, Wrzesniewska J, Dutkiewicz G, et al. The cytokine gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic kidney graft rejection. Transpl Immunol. 2005;14:49-52 pubmed
    ..The results of present study suggest that the genetically determined low IL-6 production may be the risk factor of chronic allograft nephropathy development. ..
  12. Liton P, Luna C, Bodman M, Hong A, Epstein D, Gonzalez P. Induction of IL-6 expression by mechanical stress in the trabecular meshwork. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:1229-36 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a role for IL-6 in the homeostatic modulation of aqueous humor outflow resistance. ..
  13. Salnikova L, Smelaya T, Moroz V, Golubev A, Rubanovich A. Functional polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, ACE, and IL-6 genes contribute to susceptibility to community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e433-42 pubmed publisher
  14. To Y, Dohi M, Matsumoto K, Tanaka R, Sato A, Nakagome K, et al. A two-way interaction between hepatocyte growth factor and interleukin-6 in tissue invasion of lung cancer cell line. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;27:220-6 pubmed
    Although both hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and interleukin (IL)-6 play important roles in invasion of cancer cells, interaction between these two critical factors has not been well elucidated...
  15. Olivetta E, Percario Z, Fiorucci G, Mattia G, Schiavoni I, Dennis C, et al. HIV-1 Nef induces the release of inflammatory factors from human monocyte/macrophages: involvement of Nef endocytotic signals and NF-kappa B activation. J Immunol. 2003;170:1716-27 pubmed
    ..Our data add new hints supporting the idea that the presence of Nef is per se heavily detrimental for monocyte/macrophages and relative cross-talking cell types. ..
  16. Kryczek I, Zou L, Rodriguez P, Zhu G, Wei S, Mottram P, et al. B7-H4 expression identifies a novel suppressive macrophage population in human ovarian carcinoma. J Exp Med. 2006;203:871-81 pubmed
    ..Blocking B7-H4 or depleting B7-H4+ tumor macrophages may represent novel strategies to enhance T cell tumor immunity in cancer. ..
  17. Kanazawa T, Nishino H, Hasegawa M, Ohta Y, Iino Y, Ichimura K, et al. Interleukin-6 directly influences proliferation and invasion potential of head and neck cancer cells. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264:815-21 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IL-6 can directly influence cell proliferation and the invasion potential as the first step of tumor metastasis. ..
  18. Tang C, Chen C, Chen W, Fong Y. IL-6 increases MMP-13 expression and motility in human chondrosarcoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:11056-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that IL-6 and IL-6 receptor interaction enhances migration of chondrosarcoma through an increase in MMP-13 production...
  19. Smith K, Bateman A, Fussell H, Howell W. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Eur J Immunogenet. 2004;31:167-73 pubmed
    ..02, Pc = 0.36 and P = 0.05, Pc = 0.90, respectively). These results suggest that the role of cytokine promoter SNPs in both susceptibility to and prognosis in breast cancer requires further investigation in a larger study. ..
  20. Kwon K, Kim S, Oh S, Lee S, Han J, Kim K, et al. Clinical significance of preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:203 pubmed publisher
    ..Preoperative serum VEGF and CRP level increased in colorectal cancer patients. High VEGF level has been proposed as a poor prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer. ..
  21. Quaranta M, Camponeschi B, Straface E, Malorni W, Viora M. Induction of interleukin-15 production by HIV-1 nef protein: a role in the proliferation of uninfected cells. Exp Cell Res. 1999;250:112-21 pubmed
    ..Our results might suggest that Nef enhances the rate of viral replication by a novel mechanism involving the production of IL-15. ..
  22. Landi S, Moreno V, Gioia Patricola L, Guino E, Navarro M, De Oca J, et al. Association of common polymorphisms in inflammatory genes interleukin (IL)6, IL8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, NFKB1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma with colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63:3560-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first report that IL6, IL8, and PPARG genes are important in relation to inflammation-related risk of sporadic CRC. ..
  23. Losito A, Kalidas K, Santoni S, Jeffery S. Association of interleukin-6 -174G/C promoter polymorphism with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in dialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2003;64:616-22 pubmed
    ..The results strengthen the hypothesis that chronic inflammation is a mechanism of cardiovascular damage in dialysis patients and the role played by the IL-6 system in this mechanism. ..
  24. Duluc D, Delneste Y, Tan F, Moles M, Grimaud L, Lenoir J, et al. Tumor-associated leukemia inhibitory factor and IL-6 skew monocyte differentiation into tumor-associated macrophage-like cells. Blood. 2007;110:4319-30 pubmed
  25. Rudofsky G, Schlotterer A, Reismann P, Engel J, Grafe I, Tafel J, et al. The -174G>C IL-6 gene promoter polymorphism and diabetic microvascular complications. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion these data suggest no major influence of the -174G>C variant in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene on the development of microvascular complications in patients with diabetes. ..
  26. Ljungman P, Bellander T, Schneider A, Breitner S, Forastiere F, Hampel R, et al. Modification of the interleukin-6 response to air pollution by interleukin-6 and fibrinogen polymorphisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This information could offer an opportunity to identify postinfarction patients who would benefit more than others from a cleaner environment and antiinflammatory treatment. ..
  27. Wei H, Zou H, Sheikh A, Malik M, Dobkin C, Brown W, et al. IL-6 is increased in the cerebellum of autistic brain and alters neural cell adhesion, migration and synaptic formation. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, increased IL-6 expression may be partially responsible for the pathogenesis of autism. ..
  28. Martinez A, Pascual M, Pascual Salcedo D, Balsa A, Martin J, de la Concha E. Genetic polymorphisms in Spanish rheumatoid arthritis patients: an association and linkage study. Genes Immun. 2003;4:117-21 pubmed
    ..No other allele in the present study is found to be associated to RA. Our data suggest that most of the loci studied play no major role in the susceptibility to RA, the IL-10 gene being the sole exception. ..
  29. Tsatsanis C, Zacharioudaki V, Androulidaki A, Dermitzaki E, Charalampopoulos I, Minas V, et al. Adiponectin induces TNF-alpha and IL-6 in macrophages and promotes tolerance to itself and other pro-inflammatory stimuli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:1254-63 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that adiponectin constant presence in the circulation in high levels (in lean subjects) renders macrophages resistant to pro-inflammatory stimuli, including its own. ..
  30. Carregaro F, Carta A, Cordeiro J, Lobo S, Silva E, Leopoldino A. Polymorphisms IL10-819 and TLR-2 are potentially associated with sepsis in Brazilian patients. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:649-56 pubmed
    ..Seven of the nine polymorphisms showed similar distributions in allele frequencies between patients and controls. Interestingly, our data suggest that the IL10-819 and TLR-2 polymorphisms may be potential predictors of sepsis. ..
  31. Kamarainen O, Solovieva S, Vehmas T, Luoma K, Riihimäki H, Ala Kokko L, et al. Common interleukin-6 promoter variants associate with the more severe forms of distal interphalangeal osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10:R21 pubmed publisher
    ..67, 95% confidence interval 1.50 to 9.00). The present study showed that the presence of G alleles at common IL-6 polymorphic promoter loci was associated with the more severe DIP OA outcomes, symmetrical and symptomatic. ..
  32. Iliopoulos D, Hirsch H, Wang G, Struhl K. Inducible formation of breast cancer stem cells and their dynamic equilibrium with non-stem cancer cells via IL6 secretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..This dynamic equilibrium provides an additional rationale for combining conventional chemotherapy with metformin, which selectively inhibits CSCs. ..
  33. Jain S, Kannan K, Lim G, Matthews Greer J, McVie R, Bocchini J. Elevated blood interleukin-6 levels in hyperketonemic type 1 diabetic patients and secretion by acetoacetate-treated cultured U937 monocytes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2139-43 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that hyperketonemia increases IL-6 levels in the blood of type 1 diabetic patients and that NAC can inhibit IL-6 secretion by U937 monocytic cells cultured in a ketotic medium. ..
  34. Inoue N, Watanabe M, Morita M, Tatusmi K, Hidaka Y, Akamizu T, et al. Association of functional polymorphisms in promoter regions of IL5, IL6 and IL13 genes with development and prognosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;163:318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, functional polymorphisms in the genes encoding Th2 cytokines are associated differently with the development and prognosis of AITD from each other. ..
  35. Tabassum R, Mahendran Y, Dwivedi O, Chauhan G, Ghosh S, Marwaha R, et al. Common variants of IL6, LEPR, and PBEF1 are associated with obesity in Indian children. Diabetes. 2012;61:626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..2 × 10(-7)). In conclusion, our results demonstrate the association of the common variants of IL6, LEPR, and PBEF1 with obesity in Indian children. ..
  36. Guthrie G, Roxburgh C, Richards C, Horgan P, McMillan D. Circulating IL-6 concentrations link tumour necrosis and systemic and local inflammatory responses in patients undergoing resection for colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2013;109:131-7 pubmed publisher
  37. Lorentzon M, Lorentzon R, Nordstrom P. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism is related to bone mineral density during and after puberty in healthy white males: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:1944-9 pubmed
    ..We have shown that polymorphism of the IL-6 gene is an independent predictor of BMD during late puberty and of peak bone mass in healthy white men. ..
  38. Dalla Libera A, Regner A, de Paoli J, Centenaro L, Martins T, Simon D. IL-6 polymorphism associated with fatal outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2011;25:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..031). The findings indicate that genetic variation regarding inflammatory response has significant impact on the short-term outcome for patients after acute severe TBI. ..
  39. Shah A, Verma A, Patel K, Noel R, Rivera Amill V, Silverstein P, et al. HIV-1 gp120 induces expression of IL-6 through a nuclear factor-kappa B-dependent mechanism: suppression by gp120 specific small interfering RNA. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21261 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that HIV-1 gp120-mediated over-expression of IL-6 in astrocytes is one mechanism responsible for neuroinflammation in HIV-infected individuals and this is mediated by the NF-?B pathway. ..
  40. Harper M, Zheng S, Thom E, Klebanoff M, Thorp J, Sorokin Y, et al. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and length of gestation. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphism at the -308 position in the TNF-? promoter region is associated with shorter gestation and an increased risk of spontaneous extreme preterm delivery.,, NCT00135902. II. ..
  41. Vermes C, Jacobs J, Zhang J, Firneisz G, Roebuck K, Glant T. Shedding of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor (gp80) determines the ability of IL-6 to induce gp130 phosphorylation in human osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16879-87 pubmed
    ..This unique mechanism provides the flexibility for osteoblasts to control their own responsiveness to IL-6 via the activation of an IL-6R sheddase, resulting in an immediate production of functionally active osteoblast-derived sIL-6R. ..
  42. Shiau M, Huang C, Yang T, Hwang Y, Tsai K, Chi C, et al. Cytokine promoter polymorphisms in Taiwanese patients with Graves' disease. Clin Biochem. 2007;40:213-7 pubmed
    ..No significant differences regarding IL-4 or IL-6 gene polymorphisms between GD patients and control subjects were found. Our data demonstrated that TNF-alpha G-238A and G-308A genotypes were strongly associated with GD incidence. ..
  43. Sousa A, Fava V, Sampaio L, Martelli C, Costa M, Mira M, et al. Genetic and immunological evidence implicates interleukin 6 as a susceptibility gene for leprosy type 2 reaction. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:1417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..of 27 cytokines in patients with T1R or T2R and controls with nonreactional leprosy identified the gene for interleukin 6 (IL-6) as a candidate for genetic analysis...
  44. Wang X, Shi Q, Williams L, Cleeland C, Mobley G, Reuben J, et al. Serum interleukin-6 predicts the development of multiple symptoms at nadir of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Cancer. 2008;113:2102-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that release of systemic inflammatory cytokines, mainly IL-6, corresponds to an increase in treatment-related multiple-symptom burden during the nadir period of allo-HSCT. ..
  45. Studebaker A, Storci G, Werbeck J, Sansone P, Sasser A, Tavolari S, et al. Fibroblasts isolated from common sites of breast cancer metastasis enhance cancer cell growth rates and invasiveness in an interleukin-6-dependent manner. Cancer Res. 2008;68:9087-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that tissue-specific fibroblasts and the factors they produce can promote breast cancer disease progression and may represent attractive targets for development of new therapeutics. ..
  46. Miao J, Liu L, Huang J. Interleukin-6-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in human cervical carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2014;45:165-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that IL-6 plays an important role through Stat3 in the EMT induction and can be a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for human cervical carcinoma. ..
  47. Kawano M, Ishikawa H, Tsuyama N, Abroun S, Liu S, Li F, et al. Growth mechanism of human myeloma cells by interleukin-6. Int J Hematol. 2002;76 Suppl 1:329-33 pubmed
  48. Chen R, Chen W, Wang T, Tsai C, Tsai F. Lack of association between pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha) gene polymorphisms and Graves' disease. Int J Immunogenet. 2005;32:343-7 pubmed
    ..It still appears to be very worthwhile to continue to aggressively search for cytokine gene polymorphisms in order to predict the development of such disease. ..
  49. Gustafson B, Smith U. Cytokines promote Wnt signaling and inflammation and impair the normal differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:9507-16 pubmed
    ..These results provide an explanation as to why obesity and diabetes are associated with both local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and ectopic lipid accumulation. ..
  50. Alakulppi N, Kyllönen L, Jäntti V, Matinlauri I, Partanen J, Salmela K, et al. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and risks of acute rejection and delayed graft function after kidney transplantation. Transplantation. 2004;78:1422-8 pubmed
    ..6, 95% CI 1.1-2.6, P = 0.040). Our results confirm that cytokine gene polymorphisms influence the outcome of kidney transplantation. Our data especially identify the TNF-alpha -308AA-genotype as a factor predisposing for AR episodes. ..
  51. Iliopoulos D, Hirsch H, Struhl K. An epigenetic switch involving NF-kappaB, Lin28, Let-7 MicroRNA, and IL6 links inflammation to cell transformation. Cell. 2009;139:693-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, inflammation activates a positive feedback loop that maintains the epigenetic transformed state for many generations in the absence of the inducing signal. ..
  52. Satoh T, Nakamura S, Taga T, Matsuda T, Hirano T, Kishimoto T, et al. Induction of neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells by B-cell stimulatory factor 2/interleukin 6. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:3546-9 pubmed
    ..The BSF-2-stimulated PC12 cells expressed the c-fos proto-oncogene transiently, and they began to change morphologically to neurite-extending cells after several days. The number of voltage-dependent Na+ channels was also increased. ..
  53. Somers W, Stahl M, Seehra J. 1.9 A crystal structure of interleukin 6: implications for a novel mode of receptor dimerization and signaling. EMBO J. 1997;16:989-97 pubmed
    b>Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has many biological activities in vivo, and deregulation has been implicated in many disease processes. IL-6, a 185 amino acid polypeptide was refolded, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to beyond 1...
  54. Bennermo M, Held C, Green F, Strandberg L, Ericsson C, Hansson L, et al. Prognostic value of plasma interleukin-6 concentrations and the -174 G > C and -572 G > C promoter polymorphisms of the interleukin-6 gene in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. Atherosclerosis. 2004;174:157-63 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the early IL-6 response during myocardial infarction is associated with prognosis in patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction, whereas no associations were found between IL-6 genotype and phenotype. ..
  55. Alberti C, Pinciroli P, Valeri B, Ferri R, Ditto A, Umezawa K, et al. Ligand-dependent EGFR activation induces the co-expression of IL-6 and PAI-1 via the NFkB pathway in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Oncogene. 2012;31:4139-49 pubmed publisher
    ..028). This suggests that EGFR/NFkB/IL-6-PAI-1 may have a significant impact on the therapy of a particular subset of EOC, and that IL-6/PAI-1 co-expression may be a novel prognostic marker. ..
  56. Mórocz M, Czibula A, Grózer Z, Szécsényi A, Almos P, Raskó I, et al. Association study of BMP4, IL6, Leptin, MMP3, and MTNR1B gene promoter polymorphisms and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011;36:E123-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The combinatorial effect can modulate the final biological impact of many susceptibility polymorphisms; therefore, this should be considered at the comparison of results from case-control studies of different populations. ..
  57. Zhang X, Ma L, Peng F, Wu Y, Chen Y, Yu L, et al. The endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with IL-6 gene promoter polymorphism in Chinese population. Endocrine. 2011;40:124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The conclusion of the study is that in comparison with patients of CC genotype, the T2DM patients of -572 GC or GG genotype may have more aggravated endothelial dysfunction (ED) and be at higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). ..
  58. Jones S. Directing transition from innate to acquired immunity: defining a role for IL-6. J Immunol. 2005;175:3463-8 pubmed
    ..Within this review, particular attention will be given to the regulatory properties of the soluble IL-6 receptor and how its activity may affect chronic disease progression. ..
  59. Sfrent Cornateanu R, Mihai C, Balan S, Ionescu R, Moldoveanu E. The IL-6 promoter polymorphism is associated with disease activity and disability in systemic sclerosis. J Cell Mol Med. 2006;10:955-9 pubmed
    ..No statistically significant differences were found between SSc patients and healthy controls with respect to the -597 allele distribution. ..
  60. Malik M, Sheikh A, Wen G, Spivack W, Brown W, Li X. Expression of inflammatory cytokines, Bcl2 and cathepsin D are altered in lymphoblasts of autistic subjects. Immunobiology. 2011;216:80-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that inflammation and apoptosis may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of autism, and cathepsin D may participate in the regulation of cytokine-induced inflammation and apoptosis in autistic lymphoblasts. ..
  61. Magalhaes J, Cortinhas A, Albuquerque C, Baptista C, Ribeiro R, Viegas C, et al. Interleukin-6 gene -174G>C and -636G>C promoter polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:449-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies in larger samples and analyses of functional repercussions of these SNPs in prostate tumor cells are necessary to validate these findings. ..
  62. Berthier M, Paradis A, Tchernof A, Bergeron J, Prud homme D, Despres J, et al. The interleukin 6-174G/C polymorphism is associated with indices of obesity in men. J Hum Genet. 2003;48:14-9 pubmed
    ..Several hormonal signals have been shown to originate from AT, one of them being interleukin 6 (IL6), for which one third of circulating levels is accounted for by AT...
  63. Martin A, Athanasiadis G, Greshock J, Fisher J, Lux M, Calzone K, et al. Population frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in immuno-modulatory genes. Hum Hered. 2003;55:171-8 pubmed
    ..These allelic variations maybe associated with alterations in immune function and thus susceptibility to a number of complex disease states such as cancer. ..
  64. Fan W, Liu D, Xiao L, Xie C, Sun S, Zhang J. Coronary heart disease and chronic periodontitis: is polymorphism of interleukin-6 gene the common risk factor in a Chinese population?. Oral Dis. 2011;17:270-6 pubmed publisher
    ..010-2.136). ? IL-6-572C/G polymorphism did not correlate with CP susceptibility, but might be a potential risk factor for CHD in a Chinese population. ..
  65. Kiecolt Glaser J, Preacher K, MacCallum R, Atkinson C, Malarkey W, Glaser R. Chronic stress and age-related increases in the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9090-5 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence of a key mechanism through which chronic stressors may accelerate risk of a host of age-related diseases by prematurely aging the immune response. ..
  66. Orjalo A, Bhaumik D, Gengler B, Scott G, Campisi J. Cell surface-bound IL-1alpha is an upstream regulator of the senescence-associated IL-6/IL-8 cytokine network. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17031-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, cell surface IL-1alpha is an essential cell-autonomous regulator of the senescence-associated IL-6/IL-8 cytokine network. ..
  67. Huang C, Huo A, Tsai C, Chen C, Tsai F. Lack of association of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Lab Anal. 2006;20:255-9 pubmed
    ..26, respectively). We also did not detect any association between the IL-6 and IL-8 genotype and clinical or laboratory profiles in SLE patients. The results suggest that the IL-6 and IL-8 gene polymorphisms are not related to SLE. ..
  68. Sansone P, Storci G, Tavolari S, Guarnieri T, Giovannini C, Taffurelli M, et al. IL-6 triggers malignant features in mammospheres from human ductal breast carcinoma and normal mammary gland. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3988-4002 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that IL-6 induces malignant features in Notch-3-expressing stem/progenitor cells from human ductal breast carcinoma and normal mammary gland. ..
  69. Seow A, Ng D, Choo S, Eng P, Poh W, Ming T, et al. Joint effect of asthma/atopy and an IL-6 gene polymorphism on lung cancer risk among lifetime non-smoking Chinese women. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1240-4 pubmed
    ..05). Our findings are consistent with the role of chronic inflammation as an aetiologic factor among non-smoking Asian women, and suggest that asthma/atopy is a risk marker for susceptibility to the development of lung cancer. ..
  70. Ruggeri R, Barresi G, Sciacchitano S, Trimarchi F, Benvenga S, Trovato M. Immunoexpression of the CD30 ligand/CD30 and IL-6/IL-6R signals in thyroid autoimmune diseases. Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The two systems could contribute to drive the autoimmune response skewing toward a Th2 phenotype and this appears to be correlated with the lymphoid aggregate grade. ..
  71. Godarzi E, Sarvestani E, Aflaki E, Amirghofran Z. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism in Iranian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 2011;30:179-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been shown to be related to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  72. Cohen T, Nahari D, Cerem L, Neufeld G, Levi B. Interleukin 6 induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:736-41 pubmed
    ..This suggests that secondary structures in the 5'-UTR might be essential for VEGF expression through transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. ..
  73. Speer E, Gentile D, Zeevi A, Pillage G, Huo D, Skoner D. Role of single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytokine genes in spontaneous preterm delivery. Hum Immunol. 2006;67:915-23 pubmed
    ..We conclude that certain fetal and maternal cytokine gene polymorphisms may be associated with occurrence and/or severity of spontaneous PTD and with intrauterine inflammation and infection. ..
  74. Ma Y, Tang R, Yang X, Peng G, Liu Y, Wang X, et al. Lack of an association between interleukin-6 gene promoter polymorphisms (-174G/C, -572G/C) and ischemic heart disease and/or ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We could not identify the sources of heterogeneity for -572G/C. The present meta-analysis suggests that IL-6 promoter polymorphisms (-174G/C, -572G/C) were unlikely to be associated with risk of IHD and/or IS. ..
  75. Wieser F, Fabjani G, Tempfer C, Schneeberger C, Sator M, Huber J, et al. Analysis of an interleukin-6 gene promoter polymorphism in women with endometriosis by pyrosequencing. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2003;10:32-6 pubmed
    ..A genetically determined high IL-6 response might play a pathogenic role in this disease condition. ..
  76. Walston J, Arking D, Fallin D, Li T, Beamer B, Xue Q, et al. IL-6 gene variation is not associated with increased serum levels of IL-6, muscle, weakness, or frailty in older women. Exp Gerontol. 2005;40:344-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IL-6 gene variation may not be an important factor in the determination of elevated IL-6 levels and related phenotypes found in older women. ..
  77. Ljungman P, Bellander T, Nyberg F, Lampa E, Jacquemin B, Kolz M, et al. DNA variants, plasma levels and variability of interleukin-6 in myocardial infarction survivors: results from the AIRGENE study. Thromb Res. 2009;124:57-64 pubmed publisher
    Increased levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a marker for systemic inflammation, have been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality...
  78. Ferreira A, Ferreira C, Souza V, Furioso A, Toledo J, Moraes C, et al. Risk of glycemic disorder in elderly women adjusted by anthropometric parameters and cytokine genotypes. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2011;57:565-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that bearing the A allele of the -308 G > A polymorphism of TNF-? predisposes to anthropometric measure-sensitive impaired glucose metabolism in older women. ..
  79. Depboylu C, Lohmüller F, Gocke P, Du Y, Zimmer R, Gasser T, et al. An interleukin-6 promoter variant is not associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2004;17:170-3 pubmed
    ..No evidence of an earlier age at onset for carriers of the C allele was evaluated. We conclude that IL-6 (-174) polymorphism does not influence the risk of developing AD in our cohort. ..
  80. Wong L, Leung R, Ong K, Cheung B. Plasma levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein are related to interleukin-6 gene -572C>G polymorphism in subjects with and without hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 2007;21:875-82 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence that there is a clear genetic influence of IL6 -572C>G polymorphism on plasma levels of fibrinogen and CRP, but this polymorphism does not lead to elevated blood pressure. ..