Gene Symbol: IL-6
Description: interleukin 6
Alias: BSF-2, BSF2, CDF, HGF, HSF, IFN-beta-2, IFNB2, IL-6, interleukin-6, B-cell differentiation factor, B-cell stimulatory factor 2, CTL differentiation factor, hybridoma growth factor, interferon beta-2, interleukin BSF-2
Species: human
Products:     IL-6

Top Publications

  1. Pierce B, Biggs M, DeCambre M, Reiner A, Li C, Fitzpatrick A, et al. C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and prostate cancer risk in men aged 65 years and older. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20:1193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..21). Our results suggest that circulating CRP and IL-6 do not influence PCa risk. SNPs at the CRP locus are not associated with PCa risk in this cohort, while the association between rs1800795 and PCa risk warrants further investigation. ..
  2. dela Paz N, Simeonidis S, Leo C, Rose D, Collins T. Regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression by the POU domain transcription factor Oct-1. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8424-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, the cytokine interleukin-6 induces Oct-1 gene expression, providing a biologically relevant means by which NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression can be selectively reverted by Oct-1 to quiescent levels. ..
  3. Ferreira R, Freitag D, Cutler A, Howson J, Rainbow D, Smyth D, et al. Functional IL6R 358Ala allele impairs classical IL-6 receptor signaling and influences risk of diverse inflammatory diseases. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003444 pubmed publisher
  4. Lagmay J, London W, Gross T, Termuhlen A, Sullivan N, Axel A, et al. Prognostic significance of interleukin-6 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in neuroblastoma: rs1800795 (promoter) and rs8192284 (receptor). Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:5234-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the rs1800795 SNP [-174 IL-6 (G > C)] has been shown to correlate with production of IL-6, this cytokine may represent a target for development of new therapies in neuroblastoma. ..
  5. Islam O, Gong X, Rose John S, Heese K. Interleukin-6 and neural stem cells: more than gliogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:188-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that IL-6 mediates both processes depending on its specific soluble receptor sIL-6R-alpha has implications for the potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  6. Gangwar R, Mittal B, Mittal R. Association of interleukin-6 -174G>C promoter polymorphism with risk of cervical cancer. Int J Biol Markers. 2009;24:11-6 pubmed
    ..Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine, regulates inflammation and various physiological processes. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association of the IL-6 -174G>C polymorphism with predisposition to cervical cancer...
  7. He J, Foreman M, Shumansky K, Zhang X, Akhabir L, Sin D, et al. Associations of IL6 polymorphisms with lung function decline and COPD. Thorax. 2009;64:698-704 pubmed publisher
    ..01< or =p< or =0.04 in additive genetic models). The results suggest that the IL6_-174G/C SNP is associated with a rapid decline in FEV(1) and susceptibility to COPD in smokers. ..
  8. Zhou Y, Wei Y, Wang L, Wang X, Du X, Sun Z, et al. Decreased adiponectin and increased inflammation expression in epicardial adipose tissue in coronary artery disease. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocrine disorders in epicardial adipose tissue are strongly linked to CAD, and adiponectin has a protective effect by inhibiting macrophage-mediated inflammation. ..
  9. Clouse K, Cosentino L, Weih K, Pyle S, Robbins P, Hochstein H, et al. The HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein has the intrinsic capacity to stimulate monokine secretion. J Immunol. 1991;147:2892-901 pubmed
    ..Therefore, primary protein structure, as well as posttranslational protein modifications, may determine this activity. ..

More Information

Publications334 found, 100 shown here

  1. Aulisa L, Papaleo P, Pola E, Angelini F, Aulisa A, Tamburrelli F, et al. Association between IL-6 and MMP-3 gene polymorphisms and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a case-control study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:2700-2 pubmed
  2. Vangsted A, Klausen T, Gimsing P, Andersen N, Abildgaard N, Gregersen H, et al. A polymorphism in NFKB1 is associated with improved effect of interferon-{alpha} maintenance treatment of patients with multiple myeloma after high-dose treatment with stem cell support. Haematologica. 2009;94:1274-81 pubmed publisher
    ..A prospective study of interferon-alpha treatment in relation to NFKB1 -94ins/delATTG is highly warranted. ..
  3. Nishimura M, Sakamoto T, Kaji R, Kawakami H. Influence of polymorphisms in the genes for cytokines and glutathione S-transferase omega on sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2004;368:140-3 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in the cytokines and GSTO do not play a major role in Japanese AD patients. ..
  4. Gauldie J, Richards C, Harnish D, Lansdorp P, Baumann H. Interferon beta 2/B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute phase protein response in liver cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7251-5 pubmed
    ..we examined the relationship of hepatocyte-stimulating factor derived from peripheral blood monocytes to interferon beta 2 (IFN-beta 2), which has been cloned...
  5. Srinivasan S, Hatley M, Reilly K, Danziger E, Hedrick C. Modulation of PPARalpha expression and inflammatory interleukin-6 production by chronic glucose increases monocyte/endothelial adhesion. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:851-7 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that IL-6 production is increased in diabetes and contributes to early vascular inflammatory changes. PPARalpha protects EC from glucose-mediated monocyte adhesion, in part through regulation of IL-6 production. ..
  6. Härtel C, Finas D, Ahrens P, Kattner E, Schaible T, Muller D, et al. Polymorphisms of genes involved in innate immunity: association with preterm delivery. Mol Hum Reprod. 2004;10:911-5 pubmed
  7. Marrone D, Pertosa G, Simone S, Loverre A, Capobianco C, Cifarelli M, et al. Local activation of interleukin 6 signaling is associated with arteriovenous fistula stenosis in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;49:664-73 pubmed
    ..Recent studies showed that interleukin 6 (IL-6) has a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by binding 2 specific receptors, gp80 and gp130...
  8. Baranowska Bik A, Bik W, Wolinska Witort E, Martynska L, Chmielowska M, Barcikowska M, et al. Plasma beta amyloid and cytokine profile in women with Alzheimer's disease. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008;29:75-9 pubmed
    ..However, those differences were not statistically significant. In addition, we did not detect any correlations between plasma beta amyloid and investigated cytokines. ..
  9. Popko K, Gorska E, Potapinska O, Wasik M, Stoklosa A, Plywaczewski R, et al. Frequency of distribution of inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha gene polymorphism in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;59 Suppl 6:607-14 pubmed
    ..The study revealed a significant correlation between polymorphism located in the promoter region of inflammatory cytokine genes and obesity-related OSAS. ..
  10. Zhang Y, Bharadwaj U, Logsdon C, Chen C, Yao Q, Li M. ZIP4 regulates pancreatic cancer cell growth by activating IL-6/STAT3 pathway through zinc finger transcription factor CREB. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:1423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of cyclin D1, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in pancreatic cancer xenografts and ..
  11. Samuel J, Kelberman D, Smith A, Humphries S, Woo P. Identification of a novel regulatory region in the interleukin-6 gene promoter. Cytokine. 2008;42:256-264 pubmed publisher
  12. Manginas A, Tsiavou A, Chaidaroglou A, Giamouzis G, Degiannis D, Panagiotakos D, et al. Inflammatory cytokine gene variants in coronary artery disease patients in Greece. Coron Artery Dis. 2008;19:575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence that the IL-6-174G/C polymorphism may be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease, contributing to genetic susceptibility for myocardial infarction. ..
  13. Hartman Z, Poage G, den Hollander P, Tsimelzon A, Hill J, Panupinthu N, et al. Growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells relies upon coordinate autocrine expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. Cancer Res. 2013;73:3470-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these findings offer a rationale for dual inhibition of IL-6/IL-8 signaling as a therapeutic strategy to improve outcomes for patients with TNBCs. ..
  14. Kang M, Kang S. Interleukin-6 induces proliferation in adult spinal cord-derived neural progenitors via the JAK2/STAT3 pathway with EGF-induced MAPK phosphorylation. Cell Prolif. 2008;41:377-92 pubmed publisher
    ..It may represent novel therapeutic targets for pharmacological intervention in central nervous system disease, including spinal cord injury. ..
  15. Rincon M, Broadwater G, Harris L, Crocker A, Weaver D, Dressler L, et al. Interleukin-6, multidrug resistance protein-1 expression and response to paclitaxel in women with metastatic breast cancer: results of cancer and leukemia group B trial 159806. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006;100:301-8 pubmed
    ..IHC expression of IL-6 and PGP levels in tumor cells is not a predictive marker for response to paclitaxel in women with metastatic breast cancer. ..
  16. Feng S, Tang Q, Sun M, Chun J, Evans C, Gao A. Interleukin-6 increases prostate cancer cells resistance to bicalutamide via TIF2. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:665-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest that bicalutamide-IL-6-targeted adjunctive therapy may lead to a more effective intervention than bicalutamide alone. ..
  17. Liu K, Altmann C, Smits G, Krawczeski C, Edelstein C, Devarajan P, et al. Serum interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 are early biomarkers of acute kidney injury and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation in children undergoing cardiac surgery: a case-control study. Crit Care. 2009;13:R104 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, among patients with AKI, high IL-6 levels are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, suggesting that circulating cytokines in patients with AKI may have deleterious effects on other organs, including the lungs. ..
  18. Rokavec M, Wu W, Luo J. IL6-mediated suppression of miR-200c directs constitutive activation of inflammatory signaling circuit driving transformation and tumorigenesis. Mol Cell. 2012;45:777-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, targeting this signaling circuit represents an effective therapeutic avenue for breast cancer prevention and treatment. ..
  19. Gordon A, Kiss Toth E, Stockley I, Eastell R, Wilkinson J. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-6 genes affect risk of osteolysis in patients with total hip arthroplasty. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..An uncommon haplotype within the promoter region of the gene for IL-6 is positively associated with osteolysis. ..
  20. Berg K, Madsen H, Garred P, Wiseth R, Gunnes S, Videm V. The additive contribution from inflammatory genetic markers on the severity of cardiovascular disease. Scand J Immunol. 2009;69:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the additive contribution from different inflammatory genetic markers strongly enhances the individual severity of cardiovascular disease. ..
  21. Zerbini L, Wang Y, Cho J, Libermann T. Constitutive activation of nuclear factor kappaB p50/p65 and Fra-1 and JunD is essential for deregulated interleukin 6 expression in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2206-15 pubmed
  22. Henao M, Montes C, Paris S, Garcia L. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in Colombian patients with different clinical presentations of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2006;86:11-9 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that IL-10 low-producer polymorphism and IFN-gamma high-producer polymorphism are associated with pleural TB. ..
  23. Duan H, Simpson Haidaris P. Functional analysis of interleukin 6 response elements (IL-6REs) on the human gamma-fibrinogen promoter: binding of hepatic Stat3 correlates negatively with transactivation potential of type II IL-6REs. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41270-81 pubmed
    ..Together these data suggest that Stat3 transactivation via IL-6REs on FBG promoters likely involves participation of additional transcription factors and/or coactivators to achieve optimal coordinated up-regulation during an APR. ..
  24. Gao S, Mark K, Leslie K, Pao W, Motoi N, Gerald W, et al. Mutations in the EGFR kinase domain mediate STAT3 activation via IL-6 production in human lung adenocarcinomas. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3846-56 pubmed
    ..Therefore, mutant EGFR could activate the gp130/JAK/STAT3 pathway by means of IL-6 upregulation in primary human lung adenocarcinomas, making this pathway a potential target for cancer treatment. ..
  25. Goodman W, Levine A, Massari J, Sugiyama H, McCormick T, Cooper K. IL-6 signaling in psoriasis prevents immune suppression by regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:3170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting IL-6 signaling pathways in psoriasis may rebalance Treg/T effector activity and ameliorate disease. ..
  26. Wypasek E, Undas A, Sniezek Maciejewska M, Kapelak B, Plicner D, Stepien E, et al. The increased plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery are associated with the interleukin-6-174G > C gene polymorphism. Ann Clin Biochem. 2010;47:343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of the -174C allele determines to some extent higher plasma CRP and IL-6 concentrations pre- and postoperatively in CABG patients. ..
  27. Takeichi T, Sugiura K, Muro Y, Matsumoto K, Ogawa Y, Futamura K, et al. Overexpression of LEDGF/DFS70 induces IL-6 via p38 activation in HaCaT cells, similar to that seen in the psoriatic condition. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2760-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are compatible with the expression pattern in psoriatic tissues. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that ectopic expression of LEDGF/DFS70 in KCs could be involved in the pathology of psoriasis vulgaris. ..
  28. Gu F, Li Q, Gao Q, Jiang J, Zhu K, Huang X, et al. IL-17 induces AKT-dependent IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 activation and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:150 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-17 mediated tumor-promoting role involves a direct effect on HCC cells through IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 induction by activating the AKT pathway. ..
  29. Shields D, Fitzgerald A, O Neill P, Muckian C, Kenny D, Moran B, et al. The contribution of genetic factors to thrombotic and bleeding outcomes in coronary patients randomised to IIb/IIIa antagonists. Pharmacogenomics J. 2002;2:182-90 pubmed
    ..004). Thus, genetic polymorphisms may be associated with subsequent myocardial infarction, and may also be associated with treatment-associated bleeding among coronary patients. ..
  30. Yeung M, Pulliam L, Lau A. The HIV envelope protein gp120 is toxic to human brain-cell cultures through the induction of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. AIDS. 1995;9:137-43 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrated that HIV-1 rgp120SF2 can upregulate at least two known neurotoxic cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, which may injure neural cells and contribute to the neuropathology observed in AIDS dementia patients. ..
  31. Sharma R, Zucknick M, London R, Kacevska M, Liddle C, Clarke S. Systemic inflammatory response predicts prognosis in patients with advanced-stage colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2008;7:331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In this patient group, inflammatory markers predict for clinical outcome. This could improve prognostication and allow for intervention strategies to reduce tumor-associated inflammation. ..
  32. Spooren A, Kooijman R, Lintermans B, Van Craenenbroeck K, Vermeulen L, Haegeman G, et al. Cooperation of NFkappaB and CREB to induce synergistic IL-6 expression in astrocytes. Cell Signal. 2010;22:871-81 pubmed publisher
    ..As astrocytic IL-6 overexpression has been associated with neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes, our findings might have important physiological consequences. ..
  33. Ebihara N, Matsuda A, Nakamura S, Matsuda H, Murakami A. Role of the IL-6 classic- and trans-signaling pathways in corneal sterile inflammation and wound healing. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:8549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the role of the IL-6 classic- and trans-signaling pathways in corneal sterile inflammation and wound healing...
  34. Lo S, Huang C, Lin H, Chen W, Tsai C, Tsai F. Cytokine (IL-6) and chemokine (IL-8) gene polymorphisms among rheumatoid arthritis patients in Taiwan. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2008;26:632-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, further single nucleotide polymorphism studies of this 3'UTR region may give more novel findings and understanding of the genetic basis of rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  35. Yadav A, Kumar B, Datta J, Teknos T, Kumar P. IL-6 promotes head and neck tumor metastasis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the JAK-STAT3-SNAIL signaling pathway. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:1658-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show a novel function for IL-6 in mediating EMT in head and neck tumor cells and increasing their metastatic potential. ..
  36. Treszl A, Kocsis I, Szathmari M, Schuler A, Heninger E, Tulassay T, et al. Genetic variants of TNF-[FC12]a, IL-1beta, IL-4 receptor [FC12]a-chain, IL-6 and IL-10 genes are not risk factors for sepsis in low-birth-weight infants. Biol Neonate. 2003;83:241-5 pubmed
    ..We concluded that these genetic polymorphisms do not influence the risk and course of sepsis in VLBW neonates. ..
  37. Sakao K, Takahashi K, Arai Y, Saito M, Honjo K, Hiraoka N, et al. Osteoblasts derived from osteophytes produce interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and matrix metalloproteinase-13 in osteoarthritis. J Bone Miner Metab. 2009;27:412-23 pubmed publisher
    ..By controlling the expression of these genes in the osteophytes, the progression of cartilage degeneration in OA may be reduced, suggesting a new treatment strategy for OA. ..
  38. Fabris M, Quartuccio L, Lombardi S, Saracco M, Atzeni F, Carletto A, et al. The CC homozygosis of the -174G>C IL-6 polymorphism predicts a lower efficacy of rituximab therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Autoimmun Rev. 2012;11:315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..No definite association between gene polymorphisms and IL-6 serum levels was noticed. Present results suggest a possible role for IL-6 genotyping to better plan treatment with RTX in RA, and larger studies are worthwhile. ..
  39. Grimm C, Watrowski R, Baumühlner K, Natter C, Tong D, Wolf A, et al. Genetic variations of interleukin-1 and -6 genes and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;121:537-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Haplotype analysis does not reveal any high-risk combinations for the susceptibility of CIN. The single nucleotide polymorphism IL1A -889 is independently associated with risk of high grade CIN. ..
  40. Satizabal C, Zhu Y, Mazoyer B, Dufouil C, Tzourio C. Circulating IL-6 and CRP are associated with MRI findings in the elderly: the 3C-Dijon Study. Neurology. 2012;78:720-7 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-6, and, to a lesser degree, CRP levels were associated with WMH severity as well as global markers of brain atrophy. These results suggest that an inflammatory process may be involved in both age-associated brain alterations. ..
  41. Ghose R, Liou L, Herrmann C, Rice A. Induction of TAK (cyclin T1/P-TEFb) in purified resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes by combination of cytokines. J Virol. 2001;75:11336-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that induction of TAK by cytokines secreted in the microenvironment of lymphoid tissue may be involved in the reactivation of HIV-1 in CD4(+) T lymphocytes harboring a latent provirus. ..
  42. Boulanger M, Chow D, Brevnova E, Garcia K. Hexameric structure and assembly of the interleukin-6/IL-6 alpha-receptor/gp130 complex. Science. 2003;300:2101-4 pubmed
    ..The quaternary structures of other IL-6/IL-12 family signaling complexes are likely constructed by means of a similar topological blueprint. ..
  43. Huth C, Illig T, Herder C, Gieger C, Grallert H, Vollmert C, et al. Joint analysis of individual participants' data from 17 studies on the association of the IL6 variant -174G>C with circulating glucose levels, interleukin-6 levels, and body mass index. Ann Med. 2009;41:128-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that C-allele carriers of the IL6 -174G>C polymorphism have lower fasting glucose levels on average, which substantiates previous findings of decreased T2DM risk of these subjects. ..
  44. Scheller J, Chalaris A, Schmidt Arras D, Rose John S. The pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of the cytokine interleukin-6. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:878-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 11th European Symposium on Calcium. ..
  45. Shimamoto K, Ito T, Ozaki Y, Amuro H, Tanaka A, Nishizawa T, et al. Serum interleukin 6 before and after therapy with tocilizumab is a principal biomarker in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2013;40:1074-81 pubmed publisher
    Biologic treatments including the humanized anti-interleukin 6 (anti-IL-6) receptor antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) provide therapeutic options for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
  46. Cox E, Hoffmann S, DiMercurio B, Wesley R, Harlan D, Kirk A, et al. Cytokine polymorphic analyses indicate ethnic differences in the allelic distribution of interleukin-2 and interleukin-6. Transplantation. 2001;72:720-6 pubmed
    ..These findings may have relevance in making prognostic determinations or tailoring immunomodulatory regimens after renal transplantation. ..
  47. Devaraj S, Venugopal S, Singh U, Jialal I. Hyperglycemia induces monocytic release of interleukin-6 via induction of protein kinase c-{alpha} and -{beta}. Diabetes. 2005;54:85-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, inhibition of PKC-alpha and -beta can ameliorate the proinflammatory state of diabetes. ..
  48. Yu Y, Ge N, Xie M, Sun W, Burlingame S, Pass A, et al. Phosphorylation of Thr-178 and Thr-184 in the TAK1 T-loop is required for interleukin (IL)-1-mediated optimal NFkappaB and AP-1 activation as well as IL-6 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:24497-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding is the first report that substitution of key serine/threonine residues with acidic residues mimics the phosphorylated state of TAK1 and renders TAK1 active during its induced activation. ..
  49. Chan K, Brennan K, You N, Lu X, Song Y, Hsu Y, et al. Common variations in the genes encoding C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6, and the risk of clinical diabetes in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Clin Chem. 2011;57:317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..8 kb of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) gene, and 14 tSNPs across 4.8 kb of the IL6 [interleukin 6 (interferon, beta 2)] gene. Plasma concentrations of TNF-? receptor 2 (TNF-?-R2) and IL-6 were measured...
  50. El Hage N, Wu G, Wang J, Ambati J, Knapp P, Reed J, et al. HIV-1 Tat and opiate-induced changes in astrocytes promote chemotaxis of microglia through the expression of MCP-1 and alternative chemokines. Glia. 2006;53:132-46 pubmed
    ..Importantly, increased glial expression of MOR can trigger an opiate-driven amplification/positive feedback of MCP-1 production and inflammation. ..
  51. Jee S, Chu C, Chiu H, Huang Y, Tsai W, Liao Y, et al. Interleukin-6 induced basic fibroblast growth factor-dependent angiogenesis in basal cell carcinoma cell line via JAK/STAT3 and PI3-kinase/Akt pathways. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:1169-75 pubmed
    ..The IL-6-mediated bFGF upregulation is through activation of JAK/STAT3 and PI3-Kinase/Akt pathways. ..
  52. Tsui K, Wang S, Chung L, Feng T, Lee T, Chang P, et al. Mechanisms by which interleukin-6 attenuates cell invasion and tumorigenesis in human bladder carcinoma cells. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:791212 pubmed publisher
  53. Tsiotra P, Tsigos C, Yfanti E, Anastasiou E, Vikentiou M, Psarra K, et al. Visfatin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA expression is increased in mononuclear cells from type 2 diabetic women. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39:758-63 pubmed
  54. Razquin C, Martinez J, Martinez Gonzalez M, Fernandez Crehuet J, Santos J, Marti A. A Mediterranean diet rich in virgin olive oil may reverse the effects of the -174G/C IL6 gene variant on 3-year body weight change. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54 Suppl 1:S75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..However, after 3 years of nutritional intervention with MD+VOO, these subjects were predicted to have the greatest reduction in body weight. ..