Gene Symbol: IL-6
Description: interleukin 6
Alias: BSF-2, BSF2, CDF, HGF, HSF, IFN-beta-2, IFNB2, IL-6, interleukin-6, B-cell differentiation factor, B-cell stimulatory factor 2, CTL differentiation factor, hybridoma growth factor, interferon beta-2, interleukin BSF-2
Species: human
Products:     IL-6

Top Publications

  1. Herbert A, Liu C, Karamohamed S, Liu J, Manning A, Fox C, et al. BMI modifies associations of IL-6 genotypes with insulin resistance: the Framingham Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006;14:1454-61 pubmed
    ..The -174 IL-6 promoter polymorphism modifies the association of obesity with IR and diabetes risk in men. Weight loss regimens targeted at reducing the risk of diabetes may be of particular benefit for men with a -174 IL-6 CC genotype. ..
  2. Pierce B, Biggs M, DeCambre M, Reiner A, Li C, Fitzpatrick A, et al. C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and prostate cancer risk in men aged 65 years and older. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20:1193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..21). Our results suggest that circulating CRP and IL-6 do not influence PCa risk. SNPs at the CRP locus are not associated with PCa risk in this cohort, while the association between rs1800795 and PCa risk warrants further investigation. ..
  3. Hou T, Ray S, Lee C, Brasier A. The STAT3 NH2-terminal domain stabilizes enhanceosome assembly by interacting with the p300 bromodomain. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the STAT3 NH(2)-terminal domain plays an important role in the interleukin-6 signaling pathway by interacting with the p300 bromodomain, thereby stabilizing enhanceosome assembly. ..
  4. dela Paz N, Simeonidis S, Leo C, Rose D, Collins T. Regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression by the POU domain transcription factor Oct-1. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8424-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, the cytokine interleukin-6 induces Oct-1 gene expression, providing a biologically relevant means by which NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression can be selectively reverted by Oct-1 to quiescent levels. ..
  5. Ferreira R, Freitag D, Cutler A, Howson J, Rainbow D, Smyth D, et al. Functional IL6R 358Ala allele impairs classical IL-6 receptor signaling and influences risk of diverse inflammatory diseases. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003444 pubmed publisher
  6. Lagmay J, London W, Gross T, Termuhlen A, Sullivan N, Axel A, et al. Prognostic significance of interleukin-6 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in neuroblastoma: rs1800795 (promoter) and rs8192284 (receptor). Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:5234-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the rs1800795 SNP [-174 IL-6 (G > C)] has been shown to correlate with production of IL-6, this cytokine may represent a target for development of new therapies in neuroblastoma. ..
  7. Islam O, Gong X, Rose John S, Heese K. Interleukin-6 and neural stem cells: more than gliogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:188-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that IL-6 mediates both processes depending on its specific soluble receptor sIL-6R-alpha has implications for the potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  8. Gangwar R, Mittal B, Mittal R. Association of interleukin-6 -174G>C promoter polymorphism with risk of cervical cancer. Int J Biol Markers. 2009;24:11-6 pubmed
    ..Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a multifunctional cytokine, regulates inflammation and various physiological processes. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association of the IL-6 -174G>C polymorphism with predisposition to cervical cancer...
  9. He J, Foreman M, Shumansky K, Zhang X, Akhabir L, Sin D, et al. Associations of IL6 polymorphisms with lung function decline and COPD. Thorax. 2009;64:698-704 pubmed publisher
    ..01< or =p< or =0.04 in additive genetic models). The results suggest that the IL6_-174G/C SNP is associated with a rapid decline in FEV(1) and susceptibility to COPD in smokers. ..

More Information

Publications568 found, 100 shown here

  1. Stoica A, Stoica E, Constantinescu I, Uscatescu V, Ginghina C. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 gene polymorphism, endothelial dysfunction, and postoperative prognosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52:103-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Liu Z, Tang N, Cao X, Liu W, Qiu X, Cheng J, et al. Lack of association between the promoter polymorphisms of MMP-3 and IL-6 genes and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a case-control study in a Chinese Han population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:1701-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that the MMP-3 promoter polymorphism is not associated with AIS in the Chinese population. Further studies, however, are needed to rule out the potential association with other promoter polymorphisms in IL-6. ..
  3. Martínez Escribano J, Moya Quiles M, Muro M, Montes Ares O, Hernández Caselles T, Frías J, et al. Interleukin-10, interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma gene polymorphisms in melanoma patients. Melanoma Res. 2002;12:465-9 pubmed
    ..However, IL10 low expression genotypes may be associated with a poorer outcome in melanoma patients. ..
  4. Williams A, Steffens F, Reinecke C, Meyer D. The Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine profile of HIV-infected individuals: a multivariate cytokinomics approach. Cytokine. 2013;61:521-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This possibility was supported by other clinical indicators. Taken together, the measured cytokines (IL-6, 10 and 17) have potential prognostic value. ..
  5. Vozarova B, Fernandez Real J, Knowler W, Gallart L, Hanson R, Gruber J, et al. The interleukin-6 (-174) G/C promoter polymorphism is associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus in Native Americans and Caucasians. Hum Genet. 2003;112:409-13 pubmed
    ..001). These findings are consistent with a role for genetic determinants of inflammation in the development of T2DM in both Native Americans and Caucasians. ..
  6. Hirano T, Yasukawa K, Harada H, Taga T, Watanabe Y, Matsuda T, et al. Complementary DNA for a novel human interleukin (BSF-2) that induces B lymphocytes to produce immunoglobulin. Nature. 1986;324:73-6 pubmed
    ..The primary sequence of BSF-2 deduced from the cDNA reveals that BSF-2 is a novel interleukin consisting of 184 amino acids...
  7. Xu B, Niu X, Wang Z, Cheng W, Tong N, Mi Y, et al. IL-6 -174G>C polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis involving 29,377 cases and 37,739 controls. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:2589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..GG). This meta-analysis showed the evidence that the -174G>C of the IL-6 gene was a low-penetrance susceptibility gene for bladder cancer. Further larger, preferably prospective studies are needed to confirm this relationship. ..
  8. Huygen F, Ramdhani N, van Toorenenbergen A, Klein J, Zijlstra F. Mast cells are involved in inflammatory reactions during Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1. Immunol Lett. 2004;91:147-54 pubmed
    ..Involvement of mast cells is relatively easy to detect by measurement of tryptase...
  9. Huang X, Zhuang J, Ren Y, Zhou L, Zhou Q. [Association of interleukin-6 and interleukin-18 gene polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis in Guangdong Han population]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007;27:1661-4 pubmed
  10. Nile C, Read R, Akil M, Duff G, Wilson A. Methylation status of a single CpG site in the IL6 promoter is related to IL6 messenger RNA levels and rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:2686-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that methylation of a single CpG in the IL6 promoter region may affect IL6 gene regulation and may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA. ..
  11. Berishaj M, Gao S, Ahmed S, Leslie K, Al Ahmadie H, Gerald W, et al. Stat3 is tyrosine-phosphorylated through the interleukin-6/glycoprotein 130/Janus kinase pathway in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9:R32 pubmed
    ..We examined IL-6 levels in primary breast tumors and found a positive correlation between pStat3 and IL-6 expression. In summary, a principal mechanism of Stat3 activation in breast cancer is through the IL-6/gp130/Jak pathway. ..
  12. Lane D, Matte I, Rancourt C, Piche A. Prognostic significance of IL-6 and IL-8 ascites levels in ovarian cancer patients. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:210 pubmed publisher
    ..033) was an independent predictor of shorter progression-free survival. Elevated IL-6, but not IL-8, ascites level is an independent predictor of shorter progression-free survival. ..
  13. Kristiansen O, Nolsøe R, Larsen L, Gjesing A, Johannesen J, Larsen Z, et al. Association of a functional 17beta-estradiol sensitive IL6-174G/C promoter polymorphism with early-onset type 1 diabetes in females. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:1101-10 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, higher IL6 promoter activity may confer risk to T1DM in very young females. This excess risk is negated with increasing age, possibly by the increasing E(2) levels in puberty. ..
  14. Shi T, Zhu M, He J, Wang M, Li Q, Zhou X, et al. Polymorphisms of the Interleukin 6 gene contribute to cervical cancer susceptibility in Eastern Chinese women. Hum Genet. 2013;132:301-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 6 (IL6) encodes a cytokine protein, which functions in inflammation, maintains immune homeostasis and plays important roles in cervical carcinogenesis...
  15. Michalek J, Svetlikova P, Fedora M, Klimovic M, Klapacova L, Bartosova D, et al. Interleukin-6 gene variants and the risk of sepsis development in children. Hum Immunol. 2007;68:756-60 pubmed
    ..IL-6 gene polymorphisms G-174>C and G-572>C could be the predictors of risk of development and/or the predictors of the severity of sepsis in children. ..
  16. Weigert C, Brodbeck K, Staiger H, Kausch C, Machicao F, Häring H, et al. Palmitate, but not unsaturated fatty acids, induces the expression of interleukin-6 in human myotubes through proteasome-dependent activation of nuclear factor-kappaB. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23942-52 pubmed
    ..We conclude that IL-6 expression may be modulated by the composition of circulating FFA, e.g. by diet, and that skeletal muscle cells could be target cells for IL-6. ..
  17. Zhai R, Liu G, Yang C, Huang C, Wu C, Christiani D. The G to C polymorphism at -174 of the interleukin-6 gene is rare in a Southern Chinese population. Pharmacogenetics. 2001;11:699-701 pubmed
    ..Only one GC heterozygous and no CC homozygous variants were found. Our results suggest that the frequency of the C allele in this Chinese population is lower than in Caucasian and east Indian populations. ..
  18. Senn J, Klover P, Nowak I, Zimmers T, Koniaris L, Furlanetto R, et al. Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3), a potential mediator of interleukin-6-dependent insulin resistance in hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:13740-6 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that induction of SOCS-3 in liver may be an important mechanism of IL-6-mediated insulin resistance. ..
  19. Mohlig M, Boeing H, Spranger J, Osterhoff M, Kroke A, Fisher E, et al. Body mass index and C-174G interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism interact in predicting type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1885-90 pubmed
  20. Hou C, Fong Y, Tang C. HMGB-1 induces IL-6 production in human synovial fibroblasts through c-Src, Akt and NF-?B pathways. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:2006-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that HMGB-1-increased IL-6 production in human synovial fibroblasts via the RAGE receptor, c-Src, Akt, p65, and NF-?B signaling pathways. ..
  21. Stephens J, Hurel S, Cooper J, Acharya J, Miller G, Humphries S. A common functional variant in the interleukin-6 gene is associated with increased body mass index in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mol Genet Metab. 2004;82:180-6 pubmed
    ..The increased cardiovascular risk associated with the -174C allele may account for the lower frequency of this allele in those with type 2 diabetes. ..
  22. Mirowska Guzel D, Gromadzka G, Mach A, Czlonkowski A, Czlonkowska A. Association of IL1A, IL1B, ILRN, IL6, IL10 and TNF-? polymorphisms with risk and clinical course of multiple sclerosis in a Polish population. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;236:87-92 pubmed publisher
    ..88; p<0.00001). In turn, IL1A 4845 TT genotype determined earlier appearance of MS onset whereas IL1B-511 TT genotype was associated with later occurrence of MS but faster disability progression. ..
  23. Ota N, Nakajima T, Nakazawa I, Suzuki T, Hosoi T, Orimo H, et al. A nucleotide variant in the promoter region of the interleukin-6 gene associated with decreased bone mineral density. J Hum Genet. 2001;46:267-72 pubmed
    ..303 +/- 0.066g/cm2; P < 0.05). Given the several lines of evidence from different genetic studies, we suggest that IL6 is, indeed, one of the genes affecting bone metabolism, in which variations can lead to osteoporosis. ..
  24. Ahrens P, Kattner E, Kohler B, Hartel C, Seidenberg J, Segerer H, et al. Mutations of genes involved in the innate immune system as predictors of sepsis in very low birth weight infants. Pediatr Res. 2004;55:652-6 pubmed
    ..5% versus 2.4% in homozygous IL6-174G carriers with prophylaxis; p = 0.033). ..
  25. Lacha J, Hribova P, Kotsch K, Brabcova I, Bartosova K, Volk H, et al. Effect of cytokines and chemokines (TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, RANTES) gene polymorphisms in kidney recipients on posttransplantation outcome: influence of donor-recipient match. Transplant Proc. 2005;37:764-6 pubmed
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that the strength of the alloimmune response after transplantation is in part genetically determined. Donor-recipient matching of cytokine gene polymorphisms has a marginal effect. ..
  26. Upadhyay R, Jain M, Kumar S, Ghoshal U, Mittal B. Association of interleukin-6 (-174G>C) promoter polymorphism with risk of squamous cell esophageal cancer and tumor location: an exploratory study. Clin Immunol. 2008;128:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..34; P=0.034). Patients having IL-6 -174C non-carrier genotype were at elevated risk of metastasis (OR=2.49; P=0.005). In conclusion, IL-6 -174G>C gene polymorphism may confer high risk for EC and its clinical characteristics. ..
  27. Lieb W, Pavlik R, Erdmann J, Mayer B, Holmer S, Fischer M, et al. No association of interleukin-6 gene polymorphism (-174 G/C) with myocardial infarction or traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Cardiol. 2004;97:205-12 pubmed
    ..0001). This extensive investigation failed to obtain evidence that the IL-6 -174 G/C promoter polymorphism affects traditional cardiovascular risk factors or the prevalence of myocardial infarction in a Caucasian sample. ..
  28. Kalburgi N, Bhatia A, Bilichodmath S, Patil S, Mangalekar S, Bhat K. Interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism (-174 G/C) in Indian patients with chronic periodontitis. J Oral Sci. 2010;52:431-7 pubmed
    ..04. In this population, the presence of the G/G genotype of IL-6 (-174) might increase susceptibility to chronic periodontitis, whereas the C/C genotype may have a protective effect. ..
  29. Shariat S, Kattan M, Traxel E, Andrews B, Zhu K, Wheeler T, et al. Association of pre- and postoperative plasma levels of transforming growth factor beta(1) and interleukin 6 and its soluble receptor with prostate cancer progression. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:1992-9 pubmed
    We have shown that preoperative plasma levels of transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)), interleukin 6 (IL)-6, and its receptor (IL-6sR) are associated with prostate cancer progression and metastasis...
  30. Wong V, Yu J, Cheng A, Wong G, Chan H, Chu E, et al. High serum interleukin-6 level predicts future hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2766-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This may assist clinicians in selecting high-risk patients for HCC surveillance program. ..
  31. Khalaf H, Jass J, Olsson P. Differential cytokine regulation by NF-kappaB and AP-1 in Jurkat T-cells. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:26 pubmed publisher
    ..This complex regulation of CXCL8 suggests that there is a need to further evaluate the signalling pathways in order to develop new treatment for diseases with elevated CXCL8 levels, such as AIDS and autoimmune diseases. ..
  32. Zhu Q, Zhang X, Zhang L, Li W, Wu H, Yuan X, et al. The IL-6-STAT3 axis mediates a reciprocal crosstalk between cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells and neutrophils to synergistically prompt gastric cancer progression. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1295 pubmed publisher
    ..The reciprocal interaction between GC-MSCs and neutrophils presents a novel mechanism for the role of MSCs in remodeling cancer niche and provides a potential target for gastric cancer therapy. ..
  33. Huang S, Wu M, Shun C, Wang H, Lin M, Kuo M, et al. Interleukin-6 increases vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in gastric carcinoma. J Biomed Sci. 2004;11:517-27 pubmed
    ..This study provides evidence that the multifunctional cytokine, IL-6, may induce VEGF expression which increases angiogenesis in gastric carcinogenesis. ..
  34. Shen J, Arnett D, Perez Martinez P, Parnell L, Lai C, Peacock J, et al. The effect of IL6-174C/G polymorphism on postprandial triglyceride metabolism in the GOLDN studyboxs. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:1839-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenomenon could be responsible for the observed association of this genetic variant with cardiovascular disease risk. ..
  35. Belfer I, Wu T, Hipp H, Walter J, Scully M, Nyquist P, et al. Linkage of large-vessel carotid atherosclerotic stroke to inflammatory genes via a systematic screen. Int J Stroke. 2010;5:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in proinflammatory genes may contribute to interindividual differences in the development of symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic disease. ..
  36. Menon R, Velez D, Simhan H, Ryckman K, Jiang L, Thorsen P, et al. Multilocus interactions at maternal tumor necrosis factor-alpha, tumor necrosis factor receptors, interleukin-6 and interleukin-6 receptor genes predict spontaneous preterm labor in European-American women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194:1616-24 pubmed
  37. Trindade S, Olczak T, Gomes Filho I, de Moura Costa L, Vale V, Galdino Neto M, et al. Porphyromonas gingivalis HmuY-induced production of interleukin-6 and IL-6 polymorphism in chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2013;84:650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..gingivalis HmuY may be associated with increased IL-6 production during CP. Furthermore, patients with periodontitis and individuals with higher HmuY-induced production of IL-6 show a high frequency of the G allele at position -174. ..
  38. Malinowska K, Neuwirt H, Cavarretta I, Bektic J, Steiner H, Dietrich H, et al. Interleukin-6 stimulation of growth of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo through activation of the androgen receptor. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:155-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, data in the present study demonstrate that IL-6 may cause growth of androgen receptor-positive tumours in vitro and in vivo through activation of the androgen receptor. ..
  39. Tong Y, Wang Z, Geng Y, Liu J, Zhang R, Lin Q, et al. The association of functional polymorphisms of IL-6 gene promoter with ischemic stroke: analysis in two Chinese populations. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:481-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The C allele frequency at the -174 promoter region of IL-6 was rare in Chinese IS patients and controls from either ethnic group. We conclude that IL-6-572GC may be an independent risk factor for IS in the Chinese Han population. ..
  40. Lee S, Chun J, Nadiminty N, Lou W, Gao A. Interleukin-6 undergoes transition from growth inhibitor associated with neuroendocrine differentiation to stimulator accompanied by androgen receptor activation during LNCaP prostate cancer cell progression. Prostate. 2007;67:764-73 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the transition of IL-6 from a paracrine growth inhibitor to an autocrine growth stimulator suggests that IL-6 plays an important role during prostate cancer progression, possibly androgen-independent progression. ..
  41. Patel J, Nair S, Ochoa E, Huda R, Roberts N, Chonmaitree T. Interleukin-6?¹?? and tumor necrosis factor ??³?? polymorphisms enhance cytokine production by human macrophages exposed to respiratory viruses. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2010;30:917-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This, in turn, may influence the susceptibility to, severity of, and recovery from respiratory virus infections, or influence the immune response to and reactogenicity of viral vaccines. ..
  42. Nishimoto N, Terao K, Mima T, Nakahara H, Takagi N, Kakehi T. Mechanisms and pathologic significances in increase in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble IL-6 receptor after administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and Castleman disease. Blood. 2008;112:3959-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We also concluded that the increased level of free IL-6 during tocilizumab treatment closely reflects the actual endogenous IL-6 production and true disease activity. ..
  43. Xiao L, Yan Y, Xie C, Fan W, Xuan D, Wang C, et al. Association among interleukin-6 gene polymorphism, diabetes and periodontitis in a Chinese population. Oral Dis. 2009;15:547-53 pubmed publisher
    ..058, OR= 0.523, 95% CI: 0.268-1.022). The IL-6-572 genotype and allele distributions are unique to subjects with CP&T2DM in a Chinese population. ..
  44. Chen M, Li T, Lin S, Bi D, Zhu D, Shang Q, et al. Association of Interleukin 6 gene polymorphisms with genetic susceptibilities to spastic tetraplegia in males: a case-control study. Cytokine. 2013;61:826-30 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be caused by infection (such as chorioamnionitis), asphyxia or multiple genetic factors. The Interleukin 6 gene (IL6) was suggested to be involved in the susceptibilities to CP risk as a kind of proinflammatory ..
  45. Cahill C, Rogers J. Interleukin (IL) 1beta induction of IL-6 is mediated by a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent AKT/IkappaB kinase alpha pathway targeting activator protein-1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25900-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel pathway is a parallel pathway to the PI 3-kinase/AKT upstream of NFkappaB and both are involved in IL-6 gene transcription in response to IL-1. ..
  46. Jones G, McLoughlin R, Hammond V, Parker C, Williams J, Malhotra R, et al. Loss of CD4+ T cell IL-6R expression during inflammation underlines a role for IL-6 trans signaling in the local maintenance of Th17 cells. J Immunol. 2010;184:2130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the activation status of a T cell population is linked with an alteration in IL-6 responsiveness. ..
  47. Gu W, Du D, Huang J, Zhang L, Liu Q, Zhu P, et al. Identification of interleukin-6 promoter polymorphisms in the Chinese Han population and their functional significance. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:1437-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The -572 polymorphism, a unique variation in the IL-6 promoter in the Chinese Han population, may be used as a relevant risk estimate for sepsis in trauma patients. ..
  48. Maitra A, Shanker J, Dash D, John S, Sannappa P, Rao V, et al. Polymorphisms in the IL6 gene in Asian Indian families with premature coronary artery disease--the Indian Atherosclerosis Research Study. Thromb Haemost. 2008;99:944-50 pubmed publisher
    Inflammation plays a major role in coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the polymorphisms in the interleukin 6 (IL6) gene and their effect on the expression of acute-phase proteins in premature CAD in Asian Indian families...
  49. Guerreiro C, Ferreira P, Tavares L, Santos P, Neves M, Brito M, et al. Fatty acids, IL6, and TNFalpha polymorphisms: an example of nutrigenetics in Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:2241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6; 95% CI=1.0-13.0; OR=5.92; 95% CI=1.3-26.5, respectively). These results show that different types of fat may interact with cytokine genotype, modulating disease activity. ..
  50. Chen R, Chang C, Chen W, Tsai C, Tsai F. Proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms among Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients. J Clin Lab Anal. 2006;20:260-5 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we suggest that an IL-6 gene promoter (-572) C/G polymorphism could represent a potential "candidate" genetic marker to predict an individual's susceptibility to HT. ..
  51. Gopel W, Hartel C, Ahrens P, Konig I, Kattner E, Kuhls E, et al. Interleukin-6-174-genotype, sepsis and cerebral injury in very low birth weight infants. Genes Immun. 2006;7:65-8 pubmed
    We investigated the association between the interleukin 6 (IL-6)-174-genotype and unfavorable outcomes in preterm infants since it has been reported that the IL-6-174GG-genotype is associated with increased susceptibility to sepsis, and ..
  52. Nikolopoulos G, Dimou N, Hamodrakas S, Bagos P. Cytokine gene polymorphisms in periodontal disease: a meta-analysis of 53 studies including 4178 cases and 4590 controls. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35:754-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies may contribute to the investigation of the potential multigenetic predisposition of the disease and reinforce our findings. ..
  53. Honsawek S, Deepaisarnsakul B, Tanavalee A, Yuktanandana P, Bumrungpanichthaworn P, Malila S, et al. Association of the IL-6 -174G/C gene polymorphism with knee osteoarthritis in a Thai population. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:1674-80 pubmed
    ..3, 95% confidence interval = 1.6-6.9, P = 0.001). These findings suggest that the -174G/C polymorphism of the IL-6 gene promoter plays a role in the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis. ..
  54. Baune B, Konrad C, Grotegerd D, Suslow T, Birosova E, Ohrmann P, et al. Interleukin-6 gene (IL-6): a possible role in brain morphology in the healthy adult brain. J Neuroinflammation. 2012;9:125 pubmed publisher
    Cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) have been implicated in dual functions in neuropsychiatric disorders. Little is known about the genetic predisposition to neurodegenerative and neuroproliferative properties of cytokine genes...
  55. Gallagher P, Lowe G, Fitzgerald T, Bella A, Greene C, McElvaney N, et al. Association of IL-10 polymorphism with severity of illness in community acquired pneumonia. Thorax. 2003;58:154-6 pubmed
    ..Additionally, no interaction between all three SNP genotypes and disease severity was observed. A polymorphism affecting IL-10 expression may influence the severity of illness in patients with CAP. ..
  56. Ishiguro H, Akimoto K, Nagashima Y, Kagawa E, Sasaki T, Sano J, et al. Coexpression of aPKC?/? and IL-6 in prostate cancer tissue correlates with biochemical recurrence. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1576-81 pubmed publisher
    ..03 in the multivariate analysis). These results indicate a strong correlation between aPKC?/? and IL-6 in prostate tumors, and that the aPKC?/?-IL-6 axis is a reliable prognostic factor for the biochemical recurrence of this cancer. ..
  57. Hamid Y, Rose C, Urhammer S, Glumer C, Nolsøe R, Kristiansen O, et al. Variations of the interleukin-6 promoter are associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in Caucasian Danes. Diabetologia. 2005;48:251-60 pubmed
    The cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an essential regulator of the acute phase response associated with insulin-resistant states including type 2 diabetes and obesity...
  58. Chang Y, Huang C, Shiau M. The C-174G promoter polymorphism of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene that affects insulin sensitivity in Caucasians is not involved in the pathogenesis of Taiwanese type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2004;15:117-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results demonstrated that IL-6 C-174G polymorphism is unlikely to play a role in the development of Taiwanese type 2 diabetes, regardless of its protective or promoting role. ..
  59. Jansson H, Lyssenko V, Gustavsson A, Hamberg K, Soderfeldt B, Groop L, et al. Analysis of the interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 polymorphisms in patients with chronic periodontitis. A pilot study. Swed Dent J. 2006;30:17-23 pubmed
    ..SNPs in IL-1alpha [+4845C>T], IL-1beta [-3954C>T] and IL-6 [-174G>C] do not seem to increase the susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in this group of subjects. ..
  60. Niemand C, Nimmesgern A, Haan S, Fischer P, Schaper F, Rossaint R, et al. Activation of STAT3 by IL-6 and IL-10 in primary human macrophages is differentially modulated by suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. J Immunol. 2003;170:3263-72 pubmed
  61. Kristiansen O, Mandrup Poulsen T. Interleukin-6 and diabetes: the good, the bad, or the indifferent?. Diabetes. 2005;54 Suppl 2:S114-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, the two types of diabetes are also in this respect less apart than apparent. However, the mechanisms are not clear, and we therefore propose future directions for studies in this field. ..
  62. Meng F, Wehbe Janek H, Henson R, Smith H, Patel T. Epigenetic regulation of microRNA-370 by interleukin-6 in malignant human cholangiocytes. Oncogene. 2008;27:378-86 pubmed
    ..These studies define a mechanism by which inflammation-associated cytokines can epigenetically modulate gene expression and directly contribute to tumor biology. ..
  63. Libra M, Signorelli S, Bevelacqua Y, Navolanic P, Bevelacqua V, Polesel J, et al. Analysis of G(-174)C IL-6 polymorphism and plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes and peripheral arterial disease. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59:211-5 pubmed
    To determine whether the G(-174)C interleukin 6 (IL-6) polymorphism influences the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in individuals with type 2 diabetes...
  64. Kutluturk F, Yarman S, Sarvan F, Kekik C. Association of cytokine gene polymorphisms (IL6, IL10, TNF-?, TGF-? and IFN-?) and Graves' disease in Turkish population. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2013;13:163-7 pubmed
    ..TNF-?-308GA and IL-6 -174CC gene polymorphisms are involved in susceptibility to GD in Turkish population. The polymorphism hypothesis in pro-inflammatory cytokines might be involved in predisposition to GD. ..
  65. Underwood P, Chamarthi B, Williams J, Sun B, Vaidya A, Raby B, et al. Replication and meta-analysis of the gene-environment interaction between body mass index and the interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism with higher insulin resistance. Metabolism. 2012;61:667-71 pubmed publisher
    ..05 × 10(-6)). This rare replication of a gene-environment interaction extends the generalizability of the results to hypertension while highlighting this polymorphism as a marker of IR in obese individuals. ..
  66. Chang C, Hsiao C, Yeh Y, Chang G, Tsai Y, Chen Y, et al. Circulating interleukin-6 level is a prognostic marker for survival in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:1977-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with high circulating IL-6 also responded poorly to chemotherapy. Therefore, a high level of circulating IL-6 was associated with an inferior response and survival outcome in NSCLC patients treated with chemotherapy. ..
  67. Pawlik A, Domanski L, Rozanski J, Florczak M, Wrzesniewska J, Dutkiewicz G, et al. The cytokine gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic kidney graft rejection. Transpl Immunol. 2005;14:49-52 pubmed
    ..The results of present study suggest that the genetically determined low IL-6 production may be the risk factor of chronic allograft nephropathy development. ..
  68. Liton P, Luna C, Bodman M, Hong A, Epstein D, Gonzalez P. Induction of IL-6 expression by mechanical stress in the trabecular meshwork. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:1229-36 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a role for IL-6 in the homeostatic modulation of aqueous humor outflow resistance. ..
  69. Tateishi Y, Oda S, Nakamura M, Watanabe K, Kuwaki T, Moriguchi T, et al. Depressed heart rate variability is associated with high IL-6 blood level and decline in the blood pressure in septic patients. Shock. 2007;28:549-53 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest that depression of HRV is closely related to rapid changes in blood pressure. Thus, heart rate variability indices are associated with both the severity and poor outcome of sepsis. ..
  70. Salnikova L, Smelaya T, Moroz V, Golubev A, Rubanovich A. Functional polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, ACE, and IL-6 genes contribute to susceptibility to community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e433-42 pubmed publisher
  71. To Y, Dohi M, Matsumoto K, Tanaka R, Sato A, Nakagome K, et al. A two-way interaction between hepatocyte growth factor and interleukin-6 in tissue invasion of lung cancer cell line. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;27:220-6 pubmed
    Although both hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and interleukin (IL)-6 play important roles in invasion of cancer cells, interaction between these two critical factors has not been well elucidated...
  72. Olivetta E, Percario Z, Fiorucci G, Mattia G, Schiavoni I, Dennis C, et al. HIV-1 Nef induces the release of inflammatory factors from human monocyte/macrophages: involvement of Nef endocytotic signals and NF-kappa B activation. J Immunol. 2003;170:1716-27 pubmed
    ..Our data add new hints supporting the idea that the presence of Nef is per se heavily detrimental for monocyte/macrophages and relative cross-talking cell types. ..
  73. Kryczek I, Zou L, Rodriguez P, Zhu G, Wei S, Mottram P, et al. B7-H4 expression identifies a novel suppressive macrophage population in human ovarian carcinoma. J Exp Med. 2006;203:871-81 pubmed
    ..Blocking B7-H4 or depleting B7-H4+ tumor macrophages may represent novel strategies to enhance T cell tumor immunity in cancer. ..
  74. Kanazawa T, Nishino H, Hasegawa M, Ohta Y, Iino Y, Ichimura K, et al. Interleukin-6 directly influences proliferation and invasion potential of head and neck cancer cells. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264:815-21 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IL-6 can directly influence cell proliferation and the invasion potential as the first step of tumor metastasis. ..
  75. Bao S, Yang W, Zhou S, Ye Z. Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms in -174G/C and -634C/G promoter region of interleukin-6 and prostate cancer. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2008;28:693-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNP in -634C/G was, to some extent, associated with the development and progression of prostate cancer. The population with GG+CG genetype has higher risk for prostate cancer. ..
  76. Tang C, Chen C, Chen W, Fong Y. IL-6 increases MMP-13 expression and motility in human chondrosarcoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:11056-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that IL-6 and IL-6 receptor interaction enhances migration of chondrosarcoma through an increase in MMP-13 production...
  77. Hefler L, Grimm C, Ackermann S, Malur S, Radjabi Rahat A, Leodolter S, et al. An interleukin-6 gene promoter polymorphism influences the biological phenotype of ovarian cancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63:3066-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the mutant -174 C allele of IL6 influences the biological phenotype of ovarian cancer because it is associated with early stage and improved DFS and overall survival. ..
  78. Smith K, Bateman A, Fussell H, Howell W. Cytokine gene polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility and prognosis. Eur J Immunogenet. 2004;31:167-73 pubmed
    ..02, Pc = 0.36 and P = 0.05, Pc = 0.90, respectively). These results suggest that the role of cytokine promoter SNPs in both susceptibility to and prognosis in breast cancer requires further investigation in a larger study. ..
  79. Kwon K, Kim S, Oh S, Lee S, Han J, Kim K, et al. Clinical significance of preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:203 pubmed publisher
    ..Preoperative serum VEGF and CRP level increased in colorectal cancer patients. High VEGF level has been proposed as a poor prognostic factor for overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer. ..
  80. Quaranta M, Camponeschi B, Straface E, Malorni W, Viora M. Induction of interleukin-15 production by HIV-1 nef protein: a role in the proliferation of uninfected cells. Exp Cell Res. 1999;250:112-21 pubmed
    ..Our results might suggest that Nef enhances the rate of viral replication by a novel mechanism involving the production of IL-15. ..
  81. Landi S, Moreno V, Gioia Patricola L, Guino E, Navarro M, De Oca J, et al. Association of common polymorphisms in inflammatory genes interleukin (IL)6, IL8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, NFKB1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma with colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63:3560-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first report that IL6, IL8, and PPARG genes are important in relation to inflammation-related risk of sporadic CRC. ..
  82. Losito A, Kalidas K, Santoni S, Jeffery S. Association of interleukin-6 -174G/C promoter polymorphism with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in dialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2003;64:616-22 pubmed
    ..The results strengthen the hypothesis that chronic inflammation is a mechanism of cardiovascular damage in dialysis patients and the role played by the IL-6 system in this mechanism. ..
  83. Duluc D, Delneste Y, Tan F, Moles M, Grimaud L, Lenoir J, et al. Tumor-associated leukemia inhibitory factor and IL-6 skew monocyte differentiation into tumor-associated macrophage-like cells. Blood. 2007;110:4319-30 pubmed
  84. Rudofsky G, Schlotterer A, Reismann P, Engel J, Grafe I, Tafel J, et al. The -174G>C IL-6 gene promoter polymorphism and diabetic microvascular complications. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion these data suggest no major influence of the -174G>C variant in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene on the development of microvascular complications in patients with diabetes. ..
  85. Ljungman P, Bellander T, Schneider A, Breitner S, Forastiere F, Hampel R, et al. Modification of the interleukin-6 response to air pollution by interleukin-6 and fibrinogen polymorphisms. Environ Health Perspect. 2009;117:1373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This information could offer an opportunity to identify postinfarction patients who would benefit more than others from a cleaner environment and antiinflammatory treatment. ..
  86. Wei H, Zou H, Sheikh A, Malik M, Dobkin C, Brown W, et al. IL-6 is increased in the cerebellum of autistic brain and alters neural cell adhesion, migration and synaptic formation. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, increased IL-6 expression may be partially responsible for the pathogenesis of autism. ..
  87. di Renzo L, Bertoli A, Bigioni M, Del Gobbo V, Premrov M, Calabrese V, et al. Body composition and -174G/C interleukin-6 promoter gene polymorphism: association with progression of insulin resistance in normal weight obese syndrome. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14:2699-706 pubmed
    ..174 G/C IL-6 promoter polymorphism represents a marker which could help to identify, time in advance, "vulnerable" individuals at risk of age and obesity related diseases. ..
  88. Martinez A, Pascual M, Pascual Salcedo D, Balsa A, Martin J, de la Concha E. Genetic polymorphisms in Spanish rheumatoid arthritis patients: an association and linkage study. Genes Immun. 2003;4:117-21 pubmed
    ..No other allele in the present study is found to be associated to RA. Our data suggest that most of the loci studied play no major role in the susceptibility to RA, the IL-10 gene being the sole exception. ..
  89. Zidan H, Elbehedy R, Azab S. IL6-174 G/C gene polymorphism and its relation to serum IL6 in Egyptian children with community-acquired pneumonia. Cytokine. 2014;67:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum IL6 levels were significantly increased in these children while there was no relation between GG genotype and serum IL6. In conclusion, IL6-174 G/C gene polymorphism may contribute to susceptibility to CAP in Egyptian children. ..
  90. Tsatsanis C, Zacharioudaki V, Androulidaki A, Dermitzaki E, Charalampopoulos I, Minas V, et al. Adiponectin induces TNF-alpha and IL-6 in macrophages and promotes tolerance to itself and other pro-inflammatory stimuli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;335:1254-63 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that adiponectin constant presence in the circulation in high levels (in lean subjects) renders macrophages resistant to pro-inflammatory stimuli, including its own. ..
  91. Carregaro F, Carta A, Cordeiro J, Lobo S, Silva E, Leopoldino A. Polymorphisms IL10-819 and TLR-2 are potentially associated with sepsis in Brazilian patients. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:649-56 pubmed
    ..Seven of the nine polymorphisms showed similar distributions in allele frequencies between patients and controls. Interestingly, our data suggest that the IL10-819 and TLR-2 polymorphisms may be potential predictors of sepsis. ..