IL 31


Gene Symbol: IL 31
Description: interleukin 31
Alias: IL-31, interleukin-31
Species: human
Products:     IL 31

Top Publications

  1. Kasraie S, Niebuhr M, Werfel T. Interleukin (IL)-31 induces pro-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes and macrophages following stimulation with staphylococcal exotoxins. Allergy. 2010;65:712-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our findings provide a new link between staphylococcal colonization and the worsening of inflammation via IL-31. Further therapeutic considerations may include IL-31 as a target in AD. ..
  2. Cheung P, Wong C, Ho A, Hu S, Chen D, Lam C. Activation of human eosinophils and epidermal keratinocytes by Th2 cytokine IL-31: implication for the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Int Immunol. 2010;22:453-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The above findings suggest a crucial immunopathological role of IL-31 in AD through activation of eosinophils-keratinocytes system. ..
  3. Sonkoly E, Muller A, Lauerma A, Pivarcsi A, Soto H, Kemeny L, et al. IL-31: a new link between T cells and pruritus in atopic skin inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:411-7 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings show that IL-31 may represent a novel target for antipruritic drug development. ..
  4. Dillon S, Sprecher C, Hammond A, Bilsborough J, Rosenfeld Franklin M, Presnell S, et al. Interleukin 31, a cytokine produced by activated T cells, induces dermatitis in mice. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:752-60 pubmed
    ..Here we identify a four-helix bundle cytokine we have called interleukin 31 (IL-31), which is preferentially produced by T helper type 2 cells...
  5. Neis M, Peters B, Dreuw A, Wenzel J, Bieber T, Mauch C, et al. Enhanced expression levels of IL-31 correlate with IL-4 and IL-13 in atopic and allergic contact dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;118:930-7 pubmed
    ..In both types of eczema, expression of IL-31 is associated with the expression of the TH2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. IL-31 might contribute not only to the development of AD but also to ACD-provoked skin inflammation. ..
  6. Sokołowska Wojdyło M, Gleń J, Zabłotna M, Rębała K, Trzeciak M, Sikorska M, et al. The frequencies of haplotypes defined by three polymorphisms of the IL-31 gene: -1066, -2057, and IVS2+12 in Polish patients with atopic dermatitis. Int J Dermatol. 2015;54:62-7 pubmed publisher
  7. Raap U, Wichmann K, Bruder M, Ständer S, Wedi B, Kapp A, et al. Correlation of IL-31 serum levels with severity of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:421-3 pubmed publisher
  8. Ko M, Peng Y, Chen H, Hsu S, Pai M, Yang J, et al. Interleukin-31 is associated with uremic pruritus in patients receiving hemodialysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;71:1151-1159.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..The cause-effect relationship between IL-31 and uremic pruritus could not be assessed by the cross-sectional study design. IL-31 may play an important role in the pathophysiology of uremic pruritus. ..
  9. Raap U, Weißmantel S, Gehring M, Eisenberg A, Kapp A, Fölster Holst R. IL-31 significantly correlates with disease activity and Th2 cytokine levels in children with atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23:285-8 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Zhang Q, Putheti P, Zhou Q, Liu Q, Gao W. Structures and biological functions of IL-31 and IL-31 receptors. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2008;19:347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the recent findings on the biological characterization and physiological roles of IL-31 and its receptors. ..
  2. Kasraie S, Niebuhr M, Baumert K, Werfel T. Functional effects of interleukin 31 in human primary keratinocytes. Allergy. 2011;66:845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Altered function of IL-31 may have implications for cutaneous inflammation in eczema where skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus and dysregulation of TLR-2 have been described. ..
  3. Raap U, Wieczorek D, Gehring M, Pauls I, Ständer S, Kapp A, et al. Increased levels of serum IL-31 in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:464-6 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-31 serum levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of CU. This is supported by the finding that not all patients with CU respond to antihistamine treatment but to the treatment with immunosuppressive drugs. ..
  4. Takaoka A, Arai I, Sugimoto M, Yamaguchi A, Tanaka M, Nakaike S. Expression of IL-31 gene transcripts in NC/Nga mice with atopic dermatitis. Eur J Pharmacol. 2005;516:180-1 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that IL-31 may participate in the cause of itch sensation and promote scratching behavior in NC/Nga mice with atopic dermatitis. ..
  5. Kulczycka Siennicka L, Cynkier A, Waszczykowska E, Woźniacka A, Żebrowska A. The Role of Intereukin-31 in Pathogenesis of Itch and Its Intensity in a Course of Bullous Pemphigoid and Dermatitis Herpetiformis. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:5965492 pubmed publisher
    ..Intensity of itch is surprisingly huge problem for the patients and the obtained results are comparable with results presented by atopic patients. ..
  6. Liu W, Luo R, Chen Y, Sun C, Wang J, Zhou L, et al. Interleukin-31 promotes helper T cell type-2 inflammation in children with allergic rhinitis. Pediatr Res. 2015;77:20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that IL-31 expression in AR aggravated and amplified Th2 inflammation as well as mucin production, and provide a possible explanation for IL-31's regulatory role in the pathogenesis of AR. ..
  7. Jaligama S, Patel V, Wang P, Sallam A, Harding J, KELLEY M, et al. Radical containing combustion derived particulate matter enhance pulmonary Th17 inflammation via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2018;15:20 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, our in vivo studies demonstrated a role for AHR in EPFR-induced pulmonary Th17 responses including neutrophilic inflammation. ..
  8. Le Saux S, Rousseau F, Barbier F, Ravon E, Grimaud L, Danger Y, et al. Molecular dissection of human interleukin-31-mediated signal transduction through site-directed mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3470-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that IL-31 recognizes its receptor complex through two different binding sites, and we propose a three-dimensional model for IL-31. ..
  9. Takamori A, Nambu A, Sato K, Yamaguchi S, Matsuda K, Numata T, et al. IL-31 is crucial for induction of pruritus, but not inflammation, in contact hypersensitivity. Sci Rep. 2018;8:6639 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that IL-31 is responsible for pruritus, but not induction of local skin inflammation, during CHS induced by FITC and DNFB. ..
  10. Olivry T, Mayhew D, Paps J, Linder K, Peredo C, Rajpal D, et al. Early Activation of Th2/Th22 Inflammatory and Pruritogenic Pathways in Acute Canine Atopic Dermatitis Skin Lesions. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1961-1969 pubmed publisher
  11. Musolino C, Allegra A, Mannucci C, Russo S, Alonci A, Maisano V, et al. Possible Role of Interleukin-31/33 Axis in Imatinib Mesylate-Associated Skin Toxicity. Turk J Haematol. 2015;32:168-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Bu rapor, bildiğimizce, imatinin mesilat tedavisi ile ilişkili deri yan etkilerinin patogenezinde interlökin-31/33 aksının olası rolünü tanımlayan ilk çalışmadır. ..
  12. Ouyang H, Cheng J, Zheng Y, Du J. Role of IL-31 in regulation of Th2 cytokine levels in patients with nasal polyps. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;271:2703-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that enhanced Th2 cytokine levels was correlated with IL-31 expression in NPs and provide a possible explanation for IL-31's regulatory role in the pathogenesis of NPs. ..
  13. Dai X, Okazaki H, Hanakawa Y, Murakami M, Tohyama M, Shirakata Y, et al. Eccrine sweat contains IL-1?, IL-1? and IL-31 and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67666 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal. ..
  14. Trifonov V, Pasqualucci L, Dalla Favera R, Rabadan R. MutComFocal: an integrative approach to identifying recurrent and focal genomic alterations in tumor samples. BMC Syst Biol. 2013;7:25 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of MutComFocal to large-scale cancer data provides the opportunity to pinpoint the key functional genomic alterations in tumors. ..
  15. Yu J, Park Y, Lee S, Chae S. Polymorphisms of interleukin-31 are associated with anti-CCP levels in females with rheumatoid arthritis. J Genet. 2014;93:813-7 pubmed
  16. Malek M, Gleń J, Rębała K, Kowalczyk A, Sobjanek M, Nowicki R, et al. Il-31 does not correlate to pruritus related to early stage cutaneous T-cell lymphomas but is involved in pathogenesis of the disease. Acta Derm Venereol. 2015;95:283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between the interleukin 31 (IL-31) serum level, the degree of pruritus and CTCL severity; and to compare the frequency of IL-31 gene ..
  17. Okano M, Fujiwara T, Higaki T, Makihara S, Haruna T, Noda Y, et al. Characterization of pollen antigen-induced IL-31 production by PBMCs in patients with allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:277-9, 279.e1-11 pubmed publisher
  18. Werfel T, Wittmann M. Regulatory role of T lymphocytes in atopic dermatitis. Chem Immunol Allergy. 2008;94:101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Alterations in innate and adaptive immunity involving T cells result in susceptibility to skin infections and in hyperreactivity reactions to environmental stimuli which in turn determine the course and severity of atopic dermatitis. ..
  19. Li B, Su H, Cao J, Zhang L. CXCL13 rather than IL-31 is a potential indicator in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Cytokine. 2017;89:91-97 pubmed publisher
    ..938, whose sensitivity and specificity was 82.8% and 100%, respectively. This study indicated that CXCL13 rather than IL-31 may have clinical values of diagnosis and prognosis in HCC. ..
  20. Szegedi K, Kremer A, Kezic S, Teunissen M, Bos J, Luiten R, et al. Increased frequencies of IL-31-producing T cells are found in chronic atopic dermatitis skin. Exp Dermatol. 2012;21:431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that a substantial part of previously reported increased IL-31 mRNA levels in AD skin is T cell derived and that these cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. ..
  21. Feld M, Garcia R, Buddenkotte J, Katayama S, Lewis K, Muirhead G, et al. The pruritus- and TH2-associated cytokine IL-31 promotes growth of sensory nerves. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;138:500-508.e24 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding might help us understand the clinical observation that patients with atopic dermatitis experience increased sensitivity to minimal stimuli inducing sustained itch. ..
  22. Lange M, Gleń J, Zabłotna M, Nedoszytko B, Sokołowska Wojdyło M, Rebała K, et al. Interleukin-31 Polymorphisms and Serum IL-31 Level in Patients with Mastocytosis: Correlation with Clinical Presen-tation and Pruritus. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017;97:47-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, distinct polymorphic variants of the IL-31 gene may be involved in the patho-genesis of mastocytosis, and IL-31 may be involved in the induction of pruritus in patients with mastocytosis. ..
  23. Jawa R, Chattopadhyay S, Tracy E, Wang Y, Huntoon K, Dayton M, et al. Regulated expression of the IL-31 receptor in bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells, pulmonary fibroblasts, and pulmonary macrophages. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008;28:207-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In A549 cells, TGF-beta magnified IL-31-dependent suppression of proliferation. The data suggest that increased IL-31Ralpha expression correlates with an enhanced response to IL-31. ..
  24. Davidi S, Fremder E, Kan T, Raviv Z, Timaner M, Karin N, et al. The antiangiogenic role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-31. Oncotarget. 2017;8:16430-16444 pubmed publisher
    ..The IL31 anti-tumor activity is explained, in part, by the anti-angiogenic effects demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo highlighting the potential use of IL31 as an anti-cancer drug. ..
  25. Zucchelli M, Torkvist L, Bresso F, Halfvarson J, Söderhäll C, Lee Y, et al. No association between the eczema genes COL29A1 and IL31 and inflammatory bowel disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2009;15:961-2 pubmed publisher
  26. Lan C, Tu H, Wu C, Ko Y, Yu H, Lu Y, et al. Distinct SPINK5 and IL-31 polymorphisms are associated with atopic eczema and non-atopic hand dermatitis in Taiwanese nursing population. Exp Dermatol. 2011;20:975-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The barrier function, particularly those regulated by SPINK5, may play an important role in the development of both atopic eczema and non-atopic hand dermatitis. ..
  27. Chai R, Liu B, Qi F. The significance of the levels of IL-4, IL-31 and TLSP in patients with asthma and/or rhinitis. Immunotherapy. 2017;9:331-337 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We got the same tendency in in vivo experiments. IL-4, IL-31, IL-33 and TSLP may be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and rhinitis; dust mite and mugwort allergy could increase them significantly. ..
  28. Ezzat M, Hasan Z, Shaheen K. Serum measurement of interleukin-31 (IL-31) in paediatric atopic dermatitis: elevated levels correlate with severity scoring. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011;25:334-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study confirm the importance of IL-31 in AD pathophysiology. Serum IL-31 level is an objective reliable marker of AD severity in children. It may represent a novel target for antipruritic drug development. ..
  29. Möbs M, Gryzik S, Haidar A, Humme D, Beyer M, Vandersee S. Analysis of the IL-31 pathway in Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. Arch Dermatol Res. 2015;307:479-85 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the results of IL-2 stimulation as well as the increased IL-31 levels in patients with strong pruritus offer a rationale for therapeutic approach in this subset of patients. ..
  30. Singer E, Shin D, Nattkemper L, Benoit B, Klein R, Didigu C, et al. IL-31 is produced by the malignant T-cell population in cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma and correlates with CTCL pruritus. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:2783-2785 pubmed publisher
  31. Schulz F, Marenholz I, Fölster Holst R, Chen C, Sternjak A, Baumgrass R, et al. A common haplotype of the IL-31 gene influencing gene expression is associated with nonatopic eczema. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120:1097-102 pubmed
  32. Ginaldi L, De Martinis M, Ciccarelli F, Saitta S, Imbesi S, Mannucci C, et al. Increased levels of interleukin 31 (IL-31) in osteoporosis. BMC Immunol. 2015;16:60 pubmed publisher
    ..Although they did not reflect the severity of osteoporosis and/or the presence of fractures, they clearly correlated with age, as reflected by the higher levels of this cytokine in aged patients. ..
  33. Huang H, Chen J, Guo J, Lan Y, Wei Y. The association of interleukin-31 polymorphisms with interleukin-31 serum levels and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatol Int. 2016;36:799-805 pubmed publisher
    ..The rs7977932 C/G polymorphism of IL-31 gene and its sIL-31 levels were associated with SLE in the Chinese population. Our data suggest that IL-31 gene may play a role in the development of SLE. ..
  34. Dousset L, Seneschal J, Boniface K, Charreau S, Ezzedine K, Milpied B, et al. A Th2 cytokine interleukin-31 signature in a case of sporadic lichen amyloidosis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2015;95:223-4 pubmed publisher
  35. Stott B, Lavender P, Lehmann S, Pennino D, Durham S, Schmidt Weber C. Human IL-31 is induced by IL-4 and promotes TH2-driven inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132:446-54.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-31 is not a TH2 cytokine in the classical sense but is likely to be expressed by a number of cells in an allergic situation in which IL-4 is present and possibly contribute to the allergic reaction. ..
  36. Sokołowska Wojdyło M, Glen J, Zabłotna M, Rebała K, Sikorska M, Florek A, et al. Association of distinct IL-31 polymorphisms with pruritus and severity of atopic dermatitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013;27:662-4 pubmed publisher
  37. Cornelissen C, Marquardt Y, Czaja K, Wenzel J, Frank J, Lüscher Firzlaff J, et al. IL-31 regulates differentiation and filaggrin expression in human organotypic skin models. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;129:426-33, 433.e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that IL-31 is an important regulator of keratinocyte differentiation and demonstrates a link between the presence of IL-31 in skin, as found in patients with AD, and filaggrin expression. ..
  38. Gutzmer R, Mommert S, Gschwandtner M, Zwingmann K, Stark H, Werfel T. The histamine H4 receptor is functionally expressed on T(H)2 cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 was not altered by the H(4)R. Human CD4(+) T cells express a functional H(4)R. The receptor is upregulated under T(H)2 conditions, and its stimulation leads to induction of AP-1 and IL-31. ..
  39. Hänel K, Pfaff C, Cornelissen C, Amann P, Marquardt Y, Czaja K, et al. Control of the Physical and Antimicrobial Skin Barrier by an IL-31-IL-1 Signaling Network. J Immunol. 2016;196:3233-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, by interfering with IL-31, a currently evaluated drug target, we will have to consider that low doses of IL-31 promote the antimicrobial barrier, and thus a complete inhibition of IL-31 signaling may be undesirable. ..
  40. Bilsborough J, Leung D, Maurer M, Howell M, Boguniewicz M, Boguniewcz M, et al. IL-31 is associated with cutaneous lymphocyte antigen-positive skin homing T cells in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:418-25 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that IL-31 expression is associated with CLA(+) T cells and might contribute to the development of AD-induced skin inflammation and pruritus. ..
  41. Guarneri F, Minciullo P, Mannucci C, Calapai F, Saitta S, Cannavò S, et al. IL-31 and IL-33 circulating levels in allergic contact dermatitis. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;47:156-8 pubmed
    ..In the future, IL-31 could be a possible therapeutic target of all pruritic skin diseases resistant to conventional therapies. ..
  42. Ferretti E, Corcione A, Pistoia V. The IL-31/IL-31 receptor axis: general features and role in tumor microenvironment. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;102:711-717 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting strategies for the IL-31/IL-31R axis have been developed, including the CIMM331 humanized anti-human IL-31RA antibody recently tested in a phase I/Ib study. ..
  43. Maier E, Mittermeir M, Ess S, Neuper T, Schmiedlechner A, Duschl A, et al. Prerequisites for Functional Interleukin 31 Signaling and Its Feedback Regulation by Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS3). J Biol Chem. 2015;290:24747-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study identifies crucial requirements for IL-31 signaling and shows its counter-regulation by SOCS3. ..
  44. Welz Kubiak K, Kobuszewska A, Reich A. IL-31 is overexpressed in lichen planus but its level does not correlate with pruritus severity. J Immunol Res. 2015;2015:854747 pubmed publisher
    ..11, P = 0.65. Pruritus is a very common symptom of LP. For the first time we have demonstrated that IL-31 is overexpressed in the lesional skin of LP but its expression does not correlate with intensity of pruritus. ..
  45. Nagy N, Tanaka A, Techanukul T, McGrath J. Common IL-31 gene haplotype associated with non-atopic eczema is not implicated in epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa. Acta Derm Venereol. 2010;90:631-2 pubmed publisher
  46. Shen M, Siu S, Byrd S, Edelmann K, Patel N, Ketchem R, et al. Diverse functions of reactive cysteines facilitate unique biosynthetic processes of aggregate-prone interleukin-31. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:976-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present study not only illustrated various functions that cysteines perform during IL-31 biosynthesis and secretion, but also highlighted their potential roles in cytokine effector functions. ..
  47. Horejs Hoeck J, Schwarz H, Lamprecht S, Maier E, Hainzl S, Schmittner M, et al. Dendritic cells activated by IFN-?/STAT1 express IL-31 receptor and release proinflammatory mediators upon IL-31 treatment. J Immunol. 2012;188:5319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Because these cytokines are crucially involved in skin inflammation, we hypothesize that IL-31-specific activation of dendritic cells may be part of a positive feedback loop driving the progression of inflammatory skin diseases. ..
  48. Shah S, Ishinaga H, Hou B, Okano M, Takeuchi K. Effects of interleukin-31 on MUC5AC gene expression in nasal allergic inflammation. Pharmacology. 2013;91:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that IL-31 plays an important role in mucus overproduction in nasal allergic inflammation. ..
  49. Kasraie S, Niebuhr M, Werfel T. Interleukin (IL)-31 activates signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1, STAT-5 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and down-regulates IL-12p40 production in activated human macrophages. Allergy. 2013;68:739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may be relevant in Th2 inflammatory responses and may help to develop therapeutic strategies in IL-31-associated diseases such as AD. ..
  50. Gangemi S, Franchina T, Minciullo P, Profita M, Zanghi M, David A, et al. IL-33/IL-31 axis: a new pathological mechanisms for EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors-associated skin toxicity. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:2673-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This report, to the best of our knowledge, is the first work describing a possible involvement of IL-31/IL-33 axis in the pathogenesis of skin side effects related to EGFR-TK inhibitors treatment. ..
  51. Tseng W, Lo M, Guo M, Hsieh K, Chang W, Kuo H. IL-31 associated with coronary artery lesion formation in Kawasaki disease. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e105195 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-31 was increased after IVIG treatment in patients with KD and was significantly associated with CAL formation. The results from this study may help to identify a novel risk factor for predicting KD and CAL formation. ..
  52. Gao Y, Ou Q, Wu J, Zhang B, Shen L, Chen S, et al. Potential diagnostic value of serum/pleural fluid IL-31 levels for tuberculous pleural effusion. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20607 pubmed publisher
    ..0% and 95.1%, respectively. Thus, we identified a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of TPE for clinical application. ..
  53. Moaaz M, Abo El Nazar S, Abd El Rahman M, Soliman E. Stem Cell Factor and Interleukin-31 Expression: Association with IgE among Egyptian Patients with Atopic and Nonatopic Bronchial Asthma. Immunol Invest. 2016;45:87-106 pubmed publisher
  54. Zeng X, Zhang Z, Gao Q, Wang Y, Yu X, Zhou B, et al. Clinical Significance of Serum Interleukin-31 and Interleukin-33 Levels in Patients of Endometrial Cancer: A Case Control Study. Dis Markers. 2016;2016:9262919 pubmed publisher
    ..With their sensitivity and specificity, the interleukins may be useful biomarkers for endometrial cancer's prognosis. ..
  55. Ferretti E, Tripodo C, Pagnan G, Guarnotta C, Marimpietri D, Corrias M, et al. The interleukin (IL)-31/IL-31R axis contributes to tumor growth in human follicular lymphoma. Leukemia. 2015;29:958-67 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-31 and IL-31RA expression was higher in lymph nodes from FL patients with grade IIIa compared with grade I/II, suggesting a paracrine and/or autocrine role of IL-31/IL-31RA complex in tumor progression through microvesicle shedding. ..
  56. Hong C, Yu H, Ko Y, Chang W, Chuang H, Chen G, et al. Functional regulation of interleukin-31 production by its genetic polymorphism in patients with extrinsic atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2012;92:430-2 pubmed publisher
  57. Ming D, Yu X, Guo R, Deng Y, Li J, Lin C, et al. Elevated TGF-β1/IL-31 Pathway Is Associated with the Disease Severity of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Liver Cirrhosis. Viral Immunol. 2015;28:209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest possible roles of the TGF-β1/IL-31 pathway in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis during chronic HBV infection. ..
  58. Yagi Y, Andoh A, Nishida A, Shioya M, Nishimura T, Hashimoto T, et al. Interleukin-31 stimulates production of inflammatory mediators from human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts. Int J Mol Med. 2007;19:941-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrated that IL-31 is a potent inducer of proinflammatory mediators in human colonic SEMFs. IL-31 may function as a proinflammatory cytokine derived from Th2 cells...
  59. Niyonsaba F, Ushio H, Hara M, Yokoi H, Tominaga M, Takamori K, et al. Antimicrobial peptides human beta-defensins and cathelicidin LL-37 induce the secretion of a pruritogenic cytokine IL-31 by human mast cells. J Immunol. 2010;184:3526-34 pubmed publisher
  60. Maier E, Werner D, Duschl A, Bohle B, Horejs Hoeck J. Human Th2 but not Th9 cells release IL-31 in a STAT6/NF-?B-dependent way. J Immunol. 2014;193:645-54 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, in vitro polarized Th2 cells, but not Th9 cells, are able to release IL-31. ..
  61. Nygaard U, Hvid M, Johansen C, Buchner M, Fölster Holst R, Deleuran M, et al. TSLP, IL-31, IL-33 and sST2 are new biomarkers in endophenotypic profiling of adult and childhood atopic dermatitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2016;30:1930-1938 pubmed publisher
    ..This robustness strengthens their potential use in biomarker-based stratification and could be instrumental in identifying subgroups and predicting the possible benefit of therapeutic and prevention approaches. ..
  62. Kato A, Fujii E, Watanabe T, Takashima Y, Matsushita H, Furuhashi T, et al. Distribution of IL-31 and its receptor expressing cells in skin of atopic dermatitis. J Dermatol Sci. 2014;74:229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of IL-31 in infiltrating cells of severe AD skin and of IL-31RA in nerve fibers of AD dermis and normal DRG indicates IL-31 signaling may be a contributing factor in the persistence and exacerbation of AD skin lesions. ..
  63. Kyoya M, Kawakami T, Soma Y. Serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and interleukin-31 levels as biomarkers for monitoring in adult atopic dermatitis. J Dermatol Sci. 2014;75:204-7 pubmed publisher
  64. Yamamura K, Uruno T, Shiraishi A, Tanaka Y, Ushijima M, Nakahara T, et al. The transcription factor EPAS1 links DOCK8 deficiency to atopic skin inflammation via IL-31 induction. Nat Commun. 2017;8:13946 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, we find that DOCK8 is an adaptor and negative regulator of nuclear translocation of EPAS1. Thus, EPAS1 links DOCK8 deficiency to atopic skin inflammation via IL-31 induction in CD4+ T cells. ..
  65. Song H, Peng Y, Zhou B, Chen N, Xie X, Dou Q, et al. Associations between Interleukin-31 Gene Polymorphisms and Dilated Cardiomyopathy in a Chinese Population. Dis Markers. 2017;2017:4191365 pubmed publisher
    ..548, 95%CI = 0.345-0.869, P = 0.011). Thus, we concluded that IL-31 gene polymorphisms were tightly associated with DCM susceptibility and contributed to worse prognosis in DCM patients. ..
  66. Hermanns H. Oncostatin M and interleukin-31: Cytokines, receptors, signal transduction and physiology. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2015;26:545-58 pubmed publisher