Gene Symbol: IL-18
Description: interleukin 18
Alias: IGIF, IL-18, IL-1g, IL1F4, interleukin-18, IFN-gamma-inducing factor, IL-1 gamma, iboctadekin, interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing factor), interleukin-1 gamma
Species: human
Products:     IL-18

Top Publications

  1. Rasouli M, Kalani M, Moravej A, Kiany S. Interleukin-18 single nucleotide polymorphisms contribute to the susceptibility to brucellosis in Iranian patients. Cytokine. 2011;54:272-6 pubmed publisher
  2. Saenz Lopez P, Carretero R, Vazquez F, Martin J, Sanchez E, Tallada M, et al. Impact of interleukin-18 polymorphisms-607 and -137 on clinical characteristics of renal cell carcinoma patients. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:309-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphism variants in the IL-18 gene (IL-18-607 and IL-18-137) may be associated with a worse prognosis for RCC. High levels of IL-18 production may play a major role in the growth, invasion and metastasis of renal cancer. ..
  3. Siew E, Ikizler T, Gebretsadik T, Shintani A, Wickersham N, Bossert F, et al. Elevated urinary IL-18 levels at the time of ICU admission predict adverse clinical outcomes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1497-505 pubmed publisher
    ..86 [95% CI: 1.31 to 2.64]). uIL-18 did not reliably predict AKI development, but did predict poor clinical outcomes in a broadly selected, critically ill adult population. ..
  4. Yang Y, Qiao J, Li M. Association of polymorphisms of interleukin-18 gene promoter region with polycystic ovary syndrome in chinese population. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2010;8:125 pubmed publisher
    ..Carriage of the C allele at position -137 in the promoter of the IL-18 gene may play a protective role from the development of PCOS IR. ..
  5. Lee H, Yoon S, Song S, Park Y, Kim T, Kim S, et al. Interleukin-18-mediated interferon-gamma secretion is regulated by thymosin beta 4 in human NK cells. Immunobiology. 2011;216:1155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicated that T?4 is regulated by IL-18 and is involved in IL-18-enhanced IFN-? secretion in NK cells. ..
  6. Pawlik A, Kurzawski M, Drozdzik M, Dziedziejko V, Safranow K, Herczynska M. Interleukin-18 gene (IL18) promoter polymorphisms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol. 2009;38:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that these polymorphisms in the IL18 gene are associated only with some disease parameters and are generally not factors significantly influencing the course of RA. ..
  7. Ming L, Wen Q, Qiao H, Dong Z. Interleukin-18 and IL18 -607A/C and -137G/C gene polymorphisms in patients with penicillin allergy. J Int Med Res. 2011;39:388-98 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, IL18 -607A/C and -137G/C promoter polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to penicillin allergy. In particular, the -137G/C position appears to play an important role in IL18 expression. ..
  8. Li Y, Zou Y, Cai B, Yang B, Ying B, Shi Y, et al. The associations of IL-18 serum levels and promoter polymorphism with tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and hepatic allograft dysfunction in Chinese liver transplantation recipients. Gene. 2012;491:251-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine, which promotes the secretions of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-2 and IFN-?. All those inflammatory cytokines can influence the CYP450 and MDR dependent drug disposition...
  9. Wu S, Liang W, Wang G, Li L, Wang D, Chen C. Polymorphisms of the IL-18 promoter and bronchial asthma. Mol Med Rep. 2012;6:1385-8 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Haghshenas M, Hosseini S, Mahmoudi M, Saberi Firozi M, Farjadian S, Ghaderi A. IL-18 serum level and IL-18 promoter gene polymorphism in Iranian patients with gastrointestinal cancers. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:1119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, increasing serum IL-18 level may have clinical importance as a diagnostic marker in patients with stomach and colorectal cancer. ..
  2. Babar M, Ryan A, Anderson L, Segurado R, Turner G, Murray L, et al. Genes of the interleukin-18 pathway are associated with susceptibility to Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107:1331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..As both of these SNPs have been demonstrated as expression quantitative trait loci affecting expression of the respective genes, this strongly implicates IL-18 signaling in susceptibility to BE and EAC. ..
  3. Altinova A, Engin D, Akbay E, Akturk M, Toruner F, Ersoy R, et al. Association of polymorphisms in the IL-18 and IL-12 genes with susceptibility to Type 1 diabetes in Turkish patients. J Endocrinol Invest. 2010;33:451-4 pubmed publisher
    ..01). The results of the present study show that the IL- 18 and IL-12p40 polymorphisms may have some effect on the onset age and deterioration of glycemic control in Turkish patients with T1DM. ..
  4. Han M, Yue J, Lian Y, Zhao Y, Wang H, Liu L. Relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism of interleukin-18 and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in the Chinese Han population. Microbiol Immunol. 2011;55:388-93 pubmed publisher
    ..01, OR [95%CI] = 0.70 [0.57-0.85]) for TB. The present findings suggest that polymorphisms in the IL-18 gene may affect susceptibility to TB and increase the risk of developing the disease in the Chinese Han population. ..
  5. Cheong J, Cho S, Oh B, Kimm K, Lee K, Shin S, et al. Association of interleukin-18 gene polymorphisms with hepatitis B virus clearance. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:1113-9 pubmed publisher
    ..13-0.82; P = 0.01) were significantly associated with HBV clearance in a recessive model. This study indicates that the -148C, +8925G, and +13925C alleles of the IL-18 gene are likely associated with HBV clearance in a Korean population. ..
  6. Monroy C, Cortes A, Lopez M, D Amelio A, Etzel C, Younes A, et al. Hodgkin disease risk: role of genetic polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions in inflammation pathway genes. Mol Carcinog. 2011;50:36-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study is the first to report the association between polymorphisms in inflammation genes and HD susceptibility risk. ..
  7. Pei F, Han Y, Zhang X, Yan C, Huang M, Huang L, et al. Association of interleukin-18 gene promoter polymorphisms with risk of acute myocardial infarction in northern Chinese Han population. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2009;47:523-9 pubmed publisher
    ..No relationship between -137G/C polymorphism and AMI was found. This study shows for the first time that the IL-18 gene promoter -607C/A polymorphism may be considered a genetic risk factor for AMI in northern Chinese Han population. ..
  8. Kawayama T, Okamoto M, Imaoka H, Kato S, Young H, Hoshino T. Interleukin-18 in pulmonary inflammatory diseases. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2012;32:443-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the pathological roles of IL-18 in pulmonary inflammatory diseases. ..
  9. Volin M, Koch A. Interleukin-18: a mediator of inflammation and angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2011;31:745-51 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-18 has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of RA. ..
  10. Sanchez E, Palomino Morales R, Ortego Centeno N, Jimenez Alonso J, Gonzalez Gay M, Lopez Nevot M, et al. Identification of a new putative functional IL18 gene variant through an association study in systemic lupus erythematosus. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:3739-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the novel IL18 rs360719 variant may play an important role in determining the susceptibility to SLE and it could be a key factor in the expression of the IL18 gene. ..
  11. Izakovicova Holla L, Hrdlickova B, Schüller M, Buckova D, Kindlova D, Izakovic V, et al. Haplotype analysis of the interleukin-18 gene in Czech patients with allergic disorders. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:592-7 pubmed publisher
    ..59-7.14). In contrast, there was no relationship among the IL-18 variants and total serum IgE level. Our results indicate that promoter polymorphisms in the IL-18 gene act in interaction and could play a role in allergic disorders. ..
  12. Opstad T, Pettersen A, Arnesen H, Seljeflot I. Circulating levels of IL-18 are significantly influenced by the IL-18 +183 A/G polymorphism in coronary artery disease patients with diabetes type 2 and the metabolic syndrome: an observational study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:110 pubmed publisher NCT00222261. ..
  13. Puxeddu I, Italiani P, Giungato P, Pratesi F, Panza F, Bartaloni D, et al. Free IL-18 and IL-33 cytokines in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Cytokine. 2013;61:741-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased levels of free IL-18 and IL-18BP, but not IL-33, was detected in CSU. Whether IL-18 up-regulation is a consequence of inflammation or one of the causes of the pathology needs to be addressed. ..
  14. Sun L, Hu F, Yu Z, Li H, Liu H, Wang X, et al. Lean body mass, interleukin 18, and metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy Chinese. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18104 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to investigate how lean body mass is related to circulating Interleukin 18 (IL-18) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) among apparently healthy Chinese...
  15. Galbiati V, Papale A, Galli C, Marinovich M, Corsini E. Role of ROS and HMGB1 in contact allergen-induced IL-18 production in human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:2719-2727 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that different intracellular sources of ROS are triggered by contact allergens, and an important role for HMGB1 in chemical allergen-induced IL-18 production was demonstrated. ..
  16. Samsami Dehaghani A, Shahriary K, Kashef M, Naeimi S, Fattahi M, Mojtahedi Z, et al. Interleukin-18 gene promoter and serum level in women with ovarian cancer. Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36:2393-7 pubmed publisher
  17. Ying B, Shi Y, Pan X, Song X, Huang Z, Niu Q, et al. Association of polymorphisms in the human IL-10 and IL-18 genes with rheumatoid arthritis. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:379-85 pubmed publisher
    ..05), but the genotype and allele frequency of IL-18-607 was not associated with IL-18 serum level (P>0.05). Taken together, our findings provide new insight for the polymorphism of IL-10 gene in the pathogenesis of RA. ..
  18. Grzegorzewska A, Wobszal P, Jagodziński P. Interleukin-18 promoter polymorphism and development of antibodies to surface antigen of hepatitis B virus in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2012;35:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..239 (95% CI 0.079-0.728, p = 0.010), and for CC versus TT it was 0.240 (95% CI 0.078-0.738, p = 0.009). In HD patients, the IL-18 -1297CC genotype may play a role in anti-HBsAg development in response to HBV surface antigen. ..
  19. Welsh P, Woodward M, Rumley A, MacMahon S, Lowe G. Does interleukin-18 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha have an independent association with the risk of coronary heart disease? Results from a prospective study in New Zealand. Cytokine. 2010;50:94-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These cytokines may play a role in CHD pathology, but may not be robust risk biomarkers. ..
  20. Welsh P, Woodward M, Rumley A, Lowe G. Associations of circulating TNFalpha and IL-18 with myocardial infarction and cardiovascular risk markers: the Glasgow Myocardial Infarction Study. Cytokine. 2009;47:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Independently elevated TNFalpha among those with previous MI may reflect cardiac expression of TNFalpha in ongoing myocardial remodeling. ..
  21. Blom L, Poulsen L. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures. J Immunol. 2012;189:4331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we report that the IL-1 family "alarmins" IL-18 and IL-33 in addition to amplifying both Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines block production of the regulatory cytokine IL-10 in Th1 cultures. ..
  22. Ben Aleya W, Sfar I, Habibi I, Mouelhi L, Aouadi H, Makhlouf M, et al. Interleukin-18 gene polymorphisms in tunisian patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Digestion. 2011;83:269-74 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains to be determined precisely how the IL-18 alleles influence the pathogenesis of IBD. ..
  23. Jaiswal P, Singh V, Srivastava P, Mittal R. Association of IL-12, IL-18 variants and serum IL-18 with bladder cancer susceptibility in North Indian population. Gene. 2013;519:128-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A relation between IL18 (-137) G/C in heterozygous genotype with elevated IL-18 serum level and bladder cancer risk has been registered in the present study. ..
  24. Mi Y, Yu Q, Yu M, Xu B, Zhang L, Cheng W, et al. Review and pooled analysis of studies on -607(C/A) and -137(G/C) polymorphisms in IL-18 and cancer risk. Med Oncol. 2011;28:1107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our pooled analysis supported that IL-18 is a good candidate for large-scale epidemiological case-control studies that may be a low-penetrance susceptibility biomarker for cancer. ..
  25. Moravej A, Rasouli M, Asaei S, Kalani M, Mansoori Y. Association of interleukin-18 gene variants with susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in Iranian population. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:4009-14 pubmed publisher
    ..001). In conclusion, this study suggests that the inheritance of T allele at the position -656 may be considered as a genetic factor for resistance to VL. ..
  26. Ibrahim G, Eltabbakh M, Gomaa A, Mohamed E. Interleukin-18 gene polymorphisms in Egyptian patients with allergic diseases. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2012;26:385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of IL-18 in allergy may be too complex to be reflected in a simple association study. ..
  27. Messaoudi S, Dandana M, Magdoud K, Meddeb S, Ben Slama N, Hizem S, et al. Interleukin-18 promoter polymorphisms and risk of idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss in a Tunisian population. J Reprod Immunol. 2012;93:109-13 pubmed publisher
    ..001), and CGAA (corrected P<0.001) haplotypes to be associated with increased RPL risk, after adjusting for age and BMI. These results demonstrate that -105G/A and -656C/A IL-18 variants are significantly associated with RPL. ..
  28. Hartford M, Wiklund O, Hulten L, Persson A, Karlsson T, Herlitz J, et al. Interleukin-18 as a predictor of future events in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:2039-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between IL-18 and noncardiovascular mortality is intriguing and warrants further study. ..
  29. Harada M, Obara K, Hirota T, Yoshimoto T, Hitomi Y, Sakashita M, et al. A functional polymorphism in IL-18 is associated with severity of bronchial asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:1048-55 pubmed publisher
  30. Liu J, Liu J, Wei M, He Y, Zhou Y, Song X, et al. Effect of IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms on prostate cancer occurrence and prognosis in Han Chinese population. Genet Mol Res. 2013;12:820-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Tavares N, Santos M, Moura R, Araujo J, Guimaraes R, Crovella S, et al. Interleukin 18 (IL18) gene promoter polymorphisms are associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Brazilian patients. Cytokine. 2013;62:286-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a cytokine that plays an important role in the Th1 response, by its ability to induce IFN-? production in T cells and natural killer cells...
  32. Mo C, Dai Y, Kang N, Cui L, He W. Ectopic expression of human MutS homologue 2 on renal carcinoma cells is induced by oxidative stress with interleukin-18 promotion via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:19242-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Because ?? T cells play an important role in the early stage of innate anti-tumor response, ?? T cell activation triggered by ectopically expressed hMSH2 may be an important event in immunosurveillance for carcinogenesis. ..
  33. Novick D, Elbirt D, Miller G, Dinarello C, Rubinstein M, Sthoeger Z. High circulating levels of free interleukin-18 in patients with active SLE in the presence of elevated levels of interleukin-18 binding protein. J Autoimmun. 2010;34:121-6 pubmed publisher
  34. Weiss T, Arnesen H, Trøseid M, Kaun C, Hjerkinn E, Huber K, et al. Adipose tissue expression of interleukin-18 mRNA is elevated in subjects with metabolic syndrome and independently associated with fasting glucose. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2011;123:650-4 pubmed publisher
  35. Pan H, Leng R, Ye D. Lack of association of interleukin-18 gene promoter -607 A/C polymorphism with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases: a meta-analysis. Lupus. 2011;20:945-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, there is still not enough evidence to indicate the association of IL-18 gene promoter -607 A/C polymorphism and the development of autoimmune diseases. ..
  36. Al Khateeb G, Sater M, Finan R, Mustafa F, Al Busaidi A, Al Sulaiti M, et al. Analysis of interleukin-18 promoter polymorphisms and changes in interleukin-18 serum levels underscores the involvement of interleukin-18 in recurrent spontaneous miscarriage. Fertil Steril. 2011;96:921-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that reduced IL-18 levels and rs360717 and rs1946519 IL-18 variants are significantly associated with RSM. ..
  37. Migliorini P, Anzilotti C, Pratesi F, Quattroni P, Bargagna M, Dinarello C, et al. Serum and urinary levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor IL-18BP in systemic lupus erythematosus. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2010;21:264-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the overproduction of IL-18BP, free IL-18 is still significantly higher in SLE patients than in controls, and its serum levels are a marker of disease activity. ..
  38. Jefferis B, Papacosta O, Owen C, Wannamethee S, Humphries S, Woodward M, et al. Interleukin 18 and coronary heart disease: prospective study and systematic review. Atherosclerosis. 2011;217:227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..25, [corrected] 1.55) after additional risk factor adjustment and 1.34 (95% CI 1.17, 1.53) [corrected] after additional adjustment for inflammatory markers. Circulating IL-18 is prospectively and independently associated with CVD risk. ..
  39. Hernesniemi J, Anttila K, Nieminen T, Kahonen M, Mononen N, Nikus K, et al. IL-18 gene polymorphism, cardiovascular mortality and coronary artery disease. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010;40:994-1001 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 18(IL-18) is a pro-atherosclerotic cytokine...
  40. Moschen A, Molnar C, Enrich B, Geiger S, Ebenbichler C, Tilg H. Adipose and liver expression of interleukin (IL)-1 family members in morbid obesity and effects of weight loss. Mol Med. 2011;17:840-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Excessive weight loss changes the adipose and liver expression profile of IL-1F members toward a more antiinflammatory direction. ..
  41. He M, Cornelis M, Kraft P, van Dam R, Sun Q, Laurie C, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies variants at the IL18-BCO2 locus associated with interleukin-18 levels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:885-90 pubmed publisher
    ..0002 and 0.0006, respectively). The 2 SNPs together explained 2.9% of variation of plasma IL-18 levels. This study identified several novel variants at the IL18-BCO2 locus associated with IL-18 levels. ..
  42. Nong L, Luo B, Zhang L, Nong H. Interleukin-18 gene promoter polymorphism and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a Chinese population. DNA Cell Biol. 2009;28:507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with the results of the genotyping analyses, the -137 C/-607 A haplotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of NPC as compared with the -137 G/-607 C haplotype (OR = 1.721; 95% CI, 1.262-2.349; p = 0.001). ..
  43. Zhang N, Yu J, Yu N, Lu R, Ma T, Wang N, et al. Interleukin-18 promoter polymorphisms and risk of ischemic stroke. Brain Res Bull. 2010;81:590-4 pubmed publisher
    ..341, P = 0.005, power = 100%). Our findings suggest that these functional polymorphisms in the IL-18 promoter are involved in development of IS in the Han Chinese population. ..
  44. Liu J, Liu J, Zhou Y, Li S, Li Y, Song X, et al. Association between promoter variants of interleukin-18 and schizophrenia in a Han Chinese population. DNA Cell Biol. 2011;30:913-7 pubmed publisher
  45. Ma Y, Zhang B, Tang R, Liu Y, Peng G. Interleukin-18 promoter polymorphism and asthma risk: a meta-analysis. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:1371-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no evidence of publication bias. The present meta-analysis suggested that IL-18 -607C/A polymorphism in promoter region was associated with asthma risk. ..
  46. Liu W, Han B, Sun B, Gao Y, Huang Y, Hu M. Overexpression of interleukin-18 induces growth inhibition, apoptosis and gene expression changes in a human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line. J Int Med Res. 2012;40:537-44 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that IL-18 plays a role in the regulation of tongue squamous cell carcinoma and may represent a potential therapeutic target. ..
  47. Hivert M, Sun Q, Shrader P, Mantzoros C, Meigs J, Hu F. Circulating IL-18 and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated IL-18 levels are associated with higher risk of diabetes. This association is independent of usual risk factors, including BMI and adipokine levels. ..
  48. Birbian N, Singh J, Jindal S. Protective role of IL-18 -137G/C polymorphism in a North Indian population with asthma: a pilot study. Cytokine. 2013;61:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The IL-18 -137G/C polymorphism confers a significant protection from asthma in the studied North Indian population. This is the first study to report the protective association of the polymorphism with the disease. ..
  49. Liang X, Liu S, Chen Y, Yan L, Li H, Xuan H, et al. Combination of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and interleukin-18 as early biomarker for the diagnosis and progressive assessment of acute kidney injury following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: a prospective nested case-control study. Biomarkers. 2010;15:332-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of these two biomarkers facilitates the early diagnosis and assessment of the likely progression of AKI after CPB. ..
  50. Xu X, Li D, He Q, Gao J, Chen B, Xie A. Interleukin-18 promoter polymorphisms and risk of Parkinson's disease in a Han Chinese population. Brain Res. 2011;1381:90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..610). Results in this study revealed that the IL-18 607C/A polymorphism is a risk factor for sporadic LOPD in Han Chinese population, while IL-18 137G/C polymorphism is not a risk factor for sporadic PD in the Han Chinese population. ..
  51. Grisoni M, Proust C, Alanne M, Desuremain M, Salomaa V, Kuulasmaa K, et al. Lack of association between polymorphisms of the IL18R1 and IL18RAP genes and cardiovascular risk: the MORGAM Project. BMC Med Genet. 2009;10:44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis suggests that the variability of IL18R1 and IL18RAP genes are unlikely to contribute to modulate the risk of CVD. ..
  52. Sugiura T, Kawaguchi Y, Ikari K, Ichida H, Kawamoto M, Momohara S, et al. Interleukin-18 promoter polymorphisms in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis: protective effect of the T allele and T/T genotype at rs360722. Mod Rheumatol. 2011;21:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..20 versus 0.27, P = 0.0006, OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.58-0.86). Therefore, presence of the T allele and T/T genotype at rs360722 reduces the susceptibility of Japanese people to RA. ..
  53. Tian H, Shi G, Yang G, Zhang J, Li Y, Du T, et al. Cellular immunotherapy using irradiated lung cancer cell vaccine co-expressing GM-CSF and IL-18 can induce significant antitumor effects. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:48 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a new insight into therapeutic mechanisms of IL-18 plus GM-CSF modified tumor cell vaccine and provide a potential clinical cancer immunotherapeutic agent for improved antitumor immunity. ..
  54. Farjadfar A, Mojtahedi Z, Ghayumi M, Erfani N, Haghshenas M, Ghaderi A. Interleukin-18 promoter polymorphism is associated with lung cancer: a case-control study. Acta Oncol. 2009;48:971-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required to determine the possible association between IL-18 polymorphisms and different histological types of lung cancer. ..
  55. Hernesniemi J, Karhunen P, Oksala N, Kahonen M, Levula M, Rontu R, et al. Interleukin 18 gene promoter polymorphism: a link between hypertension and pre-hospital sudden cardiac death: the Helsinki Sudden Death Study. Eur Heart J. 2009;30:2939-46 pubmed publisher
    The interleukin 18 (IL-18) gene has a single nucleotide promoter region (-137) G-to-C polymorphism (rs187238) which leads to attenuated transcriptional activity of the gene and to lower production of pro-atherogenic IL-18...