IL 15


Gene Symbol: IL 15
Description: interleukin 15
Alias: IL-15, interleukin-15
Species: human
Products:     IL 15

Top Publications

  1. Giri J, Ahdieh M, Eisenman J, Shanebeck K, Grabstein K, Kumaki S, et al. Utilization of the beta and gamma chains of the IL-2 receptor by the novel cytokine IL-15. EMBO J. 1994;13:2822-30 pubmed
    ..The differential ability of some cells to bind and respond to IL-2 and IL-15 implies the existence of an additional IL-15-specific component. ..
  2. Hoontrakoon R, Chu H, Gardai S, Wenzel S, McDonald P, Fadok V, et al. Interleukin-15 inhibits spontaneous apoptosis in human eosinophils via autocrine production of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and nuclear factor-kappaB activation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;26:404-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results suggest that IL-15, either alone or in combination with TNF-alpha, may perpetuate allergic inflammation by reduction of spontaneous eosinophil apoptosis through autocrine production of GM-CSF and NF-kappaB activation. ..
  3. Kim H, Hwang K, Kang I. Dual roles of IL-15 in maintaining IL-7RalphalowCCR7- memory CD8+ T cells in humans via recovering the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway. J Immunol. 2007;179:6734-40 pubmed
    ..Moreover, IL-15 can be useful in reviving impaired proliferative function of such memory CD8(+) T cells with effector functions against infections and tumors via rescuing the PI3K/AKT pathway. ..
  4. Krutzik S, Hewison M, Liu P, Robles J, Stenger S, Adams J, et al. IL-15 links TLR2/1-induced macrophage differentiation to the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway. J Immunol. 2008;181:7115-20 pubmed
    ..Therefore, IL-15 links TLR2/1-induced macrophage differentiation to the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway. ..
  5. de Jong J, Farner N, Widmer M, Giri J, Sondel P. Interaction of IL-15 with the shared IL-2 receptor beta and gamma c subunits. The IL-15/beta/gamma c receptor-ligand complex is less stable than the IL-2/beta/gamma c receptor-ligand complex. J Immunol. 1996;156:1339-48 pubmed
    ..This result was identical for both surface-iodinated YT cells and immunoprecipitates that were probed for IL-2R beta and IL-2R gamma c on Western blots. ..
  6. Kurys G, Tagaya Y, Bamford R, Hanover J, Waldmann T. The long signal peptide isoform and its alternative processing direct the intracellular trafficking of interleukin-15. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:30653-9 pubmed
    ..In terms of a more positive role, we propose that intracellular infection may relieve the burdens on translation and intracellular trafficking to yield effective IL-15 expression. ..
  7. Lindemann M, Hu Z, Benczik M, Liu K, Gaffen S. Differential regulation of the IL-17 receptor by gammac cytokines: inhibitory signaling by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:14100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there are intrinsic signaling differences between IL-2 and IL-15 that can be attributed to differences in activation of the PI3K pathway. ..
  8. Lamana A, Ortiz A, Alvaro Gracia J, Díaz Sánchez B, Novalbos J, García Vicuña R, et al. Characterization of serum interleukin-15 in healthy volunteers and patients with early arthritis to assess its potential use as a biomarker. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2010;21:186-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies will be necessary to determine whether the clinical evolution or response to treatment of patients with high sIL-15 levels differs. ..
  9. Berard M, Brandt K, Bulfone Paus S, Tough D. IL-15 promotes the survival of naive and memory phenotype CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2003;170:5018-26 pubmed
    ..These results show that IL-15 has multiple effects on CD8 T cells and possesses the potential to regulate the life span of naive as well as memory CD8(+) T cells. ..

More Information


  1. Zhang X, Yan K, Wang Z, Yang S, Zhang G, Fan X, et al. Polymorphisms in interleukin-15 gene on chromosome 4q31.2 are associated with psoriasis vulgaris in Chinese population. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:2544-51 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we provided early evidence for the important role of IL-15 genetic variants in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, probably by increasing interleukin production and inflammation in the lesions of psoriasis. ..
  2. Eisenman J, Ahdieh M, Beers C, Brasel K, Kennedy M, Le T, et al. Interleukin-15 interactions with interleukin-15 receptor complexes: characterization and species specificity. Cytokine. 2002;20:121-9 pubmed
    ..These data show that hu IL-15 may be used in mouse model systems, however care must be taken when comparing the efficacy and toxicity of cytokines across species. ..
  3. de Totero D, Meazza R, Capaia M, Fabbi M, Azzarone B, Balleari E, et al. The opposite effects of IL-15 and IL-21 on CLL B cells correlate with differential activation of the JAK/STAT and ERK1/2 pathways. Blood. 2008;111:517-24 pubmed
    ..The knowledge of the signaling pathways regulating CLL cell survival and proliferation may provide new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. ..
  4. Bergamaschi C, Bear J, Rosati M, Beach R, Alicea C, Sowder R, et al. Circulating IL-15 exists as heterodimeric complex with soluble IL-15R? in human and mouse serum. Blood. 2012;120:e1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the form of IL-15 present in either normal or lymphodepleted mice agrees with the human data. These results have important implications for development of assays and materials for clinical applications of IL-15. ..
  5. Ku C, Murakami M, Sakamoto A, Kappler J, Marrack P. Control of homeostasis of CD8+ memory T cells by opposing cytokines. Science. 2000;288:675-8 pubmed
    ..This division requires interleukin-15 and is markedly increased by inhibition of interleukin-2 (IL-2). Therefore, the numbers of CD8+ memory T cells in animals are controlled by a balance between IL-15 and IL-2. ..
  6. Meazza R, Verdiani S, Biassoni R, Coppolecchia M, Gaggero A, Orengo A, et al. Identification of a novel interleukin-15 (IL-15) transcript isoform generated by alternative splicing in human small cell lung cancer cell lines. Oncogene. 1996;12:2187-92 pubmed
    ..A possible functional role of IL-15, different from 'IL-2-like' activity, in human tumours, is suggested. ..
  7. Tamura Y, Watanabe K, Kantani T, Hayashi J, Ishida N, Kaneki M. Upregulation of circulating IL-15 by treadmill running in healthy individuals: is IL-15 an endocrine mediator of the beneficial effects of endurance exercise?. Endocr J. 2011;58:211-5 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that IL-15 might play a role in the systemic anti-obesogenic and insulin-sensitizing effects of endurance exercise, not only as a paracrine and autocrine but also as an endocrine factor. ..
  8. Castro I, Yu A, Dee M, Malek T. The basis of distinctive IL-2- and IL-15-dependent signaling: weak CD122-dependent signaling favors CD8+ T central-memory cell survival but not T effector-memory cell development. J Immunol. 2011;187:5170-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are consistent with a model whereby low, intermediate, and high CD122 signaling support T(CM) memory survival, T(EM) programming, and terminal T effector cell differentiation, respectively. ..
  9. Chen J, Feigenbaum L, Awasthi P, Butcher D, Anver M, Golubeva Y, et al. Insulin-dependent diabetes induced by pancreatic beta cell expression of IL-15 and IL-15R?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13534-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together our data suggest that disordered IL-15 and IL-15R? may be involved in T1D pathogenesis and the IL-15/IL15R? system and its signaling pathway may be rational therapeutic targets for early T1D. ..
  10. Gokkusu C, Aydin M, Ozkok E, Tulubas F, Elitok A, Pamukcu B, et al. Influences of genetic variants in interleukin-15 gene and serum interleukin-15 levels on coronary heart disease. Cytokine. 2010;49:58-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study supports the hypothesis that genetic variation in IL-15 gene and IL-15 levels influence the risk of CHD. Further studies are needed to confirm our hypothesis. ..
  11. Mortier E, Quéméner A, Vusio P, Lorenzen I, Boublik Y, Grötzinger J, et al. Soluble interleukin-15 receptor alpha (IL-15R alpha)-sushi as a selective and potent agonist of IL-15 action through IL-15R beta/gamma. Hyperagonist IL-15 x IL-15R alpha fusion proteins. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:1612-9 pubmed
    ..Such hyper-IL-15 fusion proteins appear to constitute potent adjuvants for the expansion of lymphocyte subsets. ..
  12. Giri J, Kumaki S, Ahdieh M, Friend D, Loomis A, Shanebeck K, et al. Identification and cloning of a novel IL-15 binding protein that is structurally related to the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor. EMBO J. 1995;14:3654-63 pubmed
    ..IL-15R alpha is structurally similar to IL-2R alpha; together they define a new cytokine receptor family. The distribution of IL-15 and IL-15R alpha mRNA suggests that IL-15 may have biological activities distinct from IL-2. ..
  13. Kurz T, Strauch K, Dietrich H, Braun S, Hierl S, Jerkic S, et al. Multilocus haplotype analyses reveal association between 5 novel IL-15 polymorphisms and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:896-901 pubmed
    ..0232 for the atopic versus the control population by using FAMHAP. These results strongly underscore previous findings that suggest a potential role of this cytokine in allergic diseases. ..
  14. Neely G, Epelman S, Ma L, Colarusso P, Howlett C, Amankwah E, et al. Monocyte surface-bound IL-15 can function as an activating receptor and participate in reverse signaling. J Immunol. 2004;172:4225-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, the current study has established that cell surface IL-15 is more than just a ligand; it can function as a receptor and participate in reverse signaling that results in cellular adhesion and production of inflammatory cytokines. ..
  15. Klebanoff C, Finkelstein S, Surman D, Lichtman M, Gattinoni L, Theoret M, et al. IL-15 enhances the in vivo antitumor activity of tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1969-74 pubmed
    ..These results provide several avenues for improving adoptive immunotherapy of cancer in patients. ..
  16. Yanagita M, Shimabukuro Y, Nozaki T, Yoshimura N, Watanabe J, Koide H, et al. IL-15 up-regulates iNOS expression and NO production by gingival epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:329-34 pubmed
    ..The enhanced NO production by IL-15 was inhibited by AMT, an iNOS-specific inhibitor. These results suggest that IL-15 is a potent regulator of iNOS expression by HGEC and involved in innate immunity in the mucosal epithelium. ..
  17. Villadsen L, Schuurman J, Beurskens F, Dam T, Dagnaes Hansen F, Skov L, et al. Resolution of psoriasis upon blockade of IL-15 biological activity in a xenograft mouse model. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:1571-80 pubmed
    ..These results obtained with this IL-15-specific mAb support an important role for IL-15 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. ..
  18. Toth B, Haufe T, Scholz C, Kuhn C, Friese K, Karamouti M, et al. Placental interleukin-15 expression in recurrent miscarriage. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2010;64:402-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Staining results were confirmed by real-time PCR (TaqMan). Increased expression of IL-15 in the decidua of patients with RM may be linked to disturbed implantation and vascularization with consecutive placental and fetal rejection. ..
  19. Yang J, Cheng C, Yang W, Pei D, Cao X, Fan Y, et al. Genome-wide interrogation of germline genetic variation associated with treatment response in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. JAMA. 2009;301:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the prototype for a drug-responsive malignancy. Although cure rates exceed 80%, considerable unexplained interindividual variability exists in treatment response...
  20. Lodolce J, Burkett P, Koka R, Boone D, Ma A. Regulation of lymphoid homeostasis by interleukin-15. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2002;13:429-39 pubmed
    ..IL-15 has been shown to regulate the homeostasis of both innate and adaptive immune cells, and this review will discuss several ways in which this pleiotropic cytokine may support lymphoid homeostasis. ..
  21. Hanick N, Rickert M, Varani L, Bankovich A, Cochran J, Kim D, et al. Elucidation of the interleukin-15 binding site on its alpha receptor by NMR. Biochemistry. 2007;46:9453-61 pubmed
    ..The interface, as predicted here, leaves open the possibility of trans-presentation of IL-15 by IL-15Ralpha on an opposing cell. ..
  22. Giron Michel J, Caignard A, Fogli M, Brouty Boye D, Briard D, van Dijk M, et al. Differential STAT3, STAT5, and NF-kappaB activation in human hematopoietic progenitors by endogenous interleukin-15: implications in the expression of functional molecules. Blood. 2003;102:109-17 pubmed
  23. Benahmed M, Meresse B, Arnulf B, Barbe U, Mention J, Verkarre V, et al. Inhibition of TGF-beta signaling by IL-15: a new role for IL-15 in the loss of immune homeostasis in celiac disease. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:994-1008 pubmed
  24. Ennaciri J, Ahmad R, Menezes J. Interaction of monocytic cells with respiratory syncytial virus results in activation of NF-kappaB and PKC-alpha/beta leading to up-regulation of IL-15 gene expression. J Leukoc Biol. 2007;81:625-31 pubmed
    ..This study, demonstrating the ability of RSV to induce IL-15 expression, might explain, at least in part, the exacerbated, inflammatory response triggered by RSV infection. ..
  25. Alves N, Hooibrink B, Arosa F, van Lier R. IL-15 induces antigen-independent expansion and differentiation of human naive CD8+ T cells in vitro. Blood. 2003;102:2541-6 pubmed
    Recent studies in mice have shown that although interleukin 15 (IL-15) plays an important role in regulating homeostasis of memory CD8+ T cells, it has no apparent function in controlling homeostatic proliferation of naive T cells...
  26. Bierbaum S, Nickel R, Zitnik S, Ahlert I, Lau S, Deichmann K, et al. Confirmation of association of IL-15 with pediatric asthma and comparison of different controls. Allergy. 2006;61:576-80 pubmed
    ..Association of IL-15 with asthma was confirmed. Although super controls might be the most suitable, more numbers are needed. This might hamper the value of these controls especially when investigating common diseases. ..
  27. Grabstein K, Eisenman J, Shanebeck K, Rauch C, Srinivasan S, Fung V, et al. Cloning of a T cell growth factor that interacts with the beta chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. Science. 1994;264:965-8 pubmed
    ..Monoclonal antibodies to the beta chain of the IL-2 receptor inhibited the biological activity of IL-15, and IL-15 competed for binding with IL-2, indicating that IL-15 uses components of the IL-2 receptor. ..
  28. Pistilli E, Devaney J, Gordish Dressman H, Bradbury M, Seip R, Thompson P, et al. Interleukin-15 and interleukin-15R alpha SNPs and associations with muscle, bone, and predictors of the metabolic syndrome. Cytokine. 2008;43:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..04), and baseline muscle quality (p=0.04). All associations were consistent in showing a potential involvement of the IL-15 pathway with muscle and bone phenotypes and predictors of metabolic syndrome. ..
  29. Duitman E, Orinska Z, Bulanova E, Paus R, Bulfone Paus S. How a cytokine is chaperoned through the secretory pathway by complexing with its own receptor: lessons from interleukin-15 (IL-15)/IL-15 receptor alpha. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4851-61 pubmed publisher
  30. Kurowska M, Rudnicka W, Kontny E, Janicka I, Chorazy M, Kowalczewski J, et al. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients express functional IL-15 receptor complex: endogenous IL-15 in autocrine fashion enhances cell proliferation and expression of Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-2. J Immunol. 2002;169:1760-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have demonstrated that a distinctive phenotype of RA FLS, i.e., persistent activation, proliferation, and resistance to apoptosis, is related to the autocrine activation of IL-15Rs by FLS-derived IL-15. ..
  31. Kaibe M, Ohishi M, Ito N, Yuan M, Takagi T, Terai M, et al. Serum interleukin-15 concentration in patients with essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18:1019-25 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a systemic inflammatory response involving IL-15 might be involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in patients with essential hypertension. ..
  32. Cario G, Izraeli S, Teichert A, Rhein P, Skokowa J, Möricke A, et al. High interleukin-15 expression characterizes childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with involvement of the CNS. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:4813-20 pubmed
    ..80; 95% CI, 3.38 to 56.31). Quantification of leukemic IL-15 expression at diagnosis predicts CNS status and could be a new tool to further tailor CNS-directed therapy in childhood ALL. ..
  33. Jinushi M, Takehara T, Tatsumi T, Kanto T, Groh V, Spies T, et al. Autocrine/paracrine IL-15 that is required for type I IFN-mediated dendritic cell expression of MHC class I-related chain A and B is impaired in hepatitis C virus infection. J Immunol. 2003;171:5423-9 pubmed
  34. Tagaya Y, Kurys G, Thies T, Losi J, Azimi N, Hanover J, et al. Generation of secretable and nonsecretable interleukin 15 isoforms through alternate usage of signal peptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14444-9 pubmed
    Two isoforms of human interleukin 15 (IL-15) exist...
  35. Tang F, Chen Z, Ciszewski C, Setty M, Solus J, Tretiakova M, et al. Cytosolic PLA2 is required for CTL-mediated immunopathology of celiac disease via NKG2D and IL-15. J Exp Med. 2009;206:707-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal an unrecognized link between NKG2D and tissue inflammation, which may underlie the emerging role of NKG2D in various immunopathological conditions and define new therapeutic targets. ..
  36. Kuniyasu H, Ohmori H, Sasaki T, Sasahira T, Yoshida K, Kitadai Y, et al. Production of interleukin 15 by human colon cancer cells is associated with induction of mucosal hyperplasia, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:4802-10 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that IL-15 produced by metastatic colon carcinoma cells can induce hyperplasia in the mucosa adjacent to colon cancer, thus contributing to angiogenesis and progression of the disease. ..
  37. Zdrenghea M, Telcian A, Laza Stanca V, Bellettato C, Edwards M, Nikonova A, et al. RSV infection modulates IL-15 production and MICA levels in respiratory epithelial cells. Eur Respir J. 2012;39:712-20 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? upregulated RSV induction of soluble IL-15 but inhibited induction of MICA. Upregulation of IL-15, MHC I and MICA are likely to be important mechanisms in activating immune responses to RSV by epithelial cells. ..
  38. Handisurya A, Steiner G, Stix U, Ecker R, Pfaffeneder Mantai S, Langer D, et al. Differential expression of interleukin-15, a pro-inflammatory cytokine and T-cell growth factor, and its receptor in human prostate. Prostate. 2001;49:251-62 pubmed
    ..Since IFN-gamma, a T-lymphocyte product, stimulates prostatic IL-15 production; chronic inflammation might be triggered by this paracrine loop. ..
  39. Sugiura T, Harigai M, Kawaguchi Y, Takagi K, Fukasawa C, Ohsako Higami S, et al. Increased IL-15 production of muscle cells in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Int Immunol. 2002;14:917-24 pubmed
    ..Blocking of IL-15 production might be of therapeutic value in PM/DM. ..
  40. Boyiadzis M, Memon S, Carson J, Allen K, Szczepanski M, Vance B, et al. Up-regulation of NK cell activating receptors following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation under a lymphodepleting reduced intensity regimen is associated with elevated IL-15 levels. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2008;14:290-300 pubmed publisher
  41. Xu S, Sun Z, Sun Y, Zhu J, Li X, Zhang X, et al. IL-15 and dendritic cells induce proliferation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells from peripheral blood. Immunol Lett. 2011;140:59-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings might explain the proliferation of Tregs in the absence of IL-2 in vivo and provide a novel method to achieve large-scale proliferation of Tregs in vitro in order to obtain cell numbers sufficient for immunotherapy. ..
  42. Luo X, Jin R, Wang F, Jia B, Luan K, Cheng F, et al. Interleukin-15 inhibits the expression of differentiation markers induced by Ca(2+) in keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2016;25:544-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An anti-IL-15 antibody neutralized the effect of IL-15 on KC differentiation. These results indicate that IL-15 inhibits the Ca(2+) -induced differentiation of KCs, mainly via the attenuation of Ca(2+) -stimulated PI3K-AKT signalling. ..
  43. Adachi T, Kobayashi T, Sugihara E, Yamada T, Ikuta K, Pittaluga S, et al. Hair follicle-derived IL-7 and IL-15 mediate skin-resident memory T cell homeostasis and lymphoma. Nat Med. 2015;21:1272-9 pubmed publisher
  44. Chen Y, Kuo M, Cheng P, Hsaio H, Lee P, Lin S. Regulation of CD28 expression on umbilical cord blood and adult peripheral blood CD8+ T cells by interleukin(IL)-15/IL-21. Cytokine. 2012;58:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that combining IL-21 and IL-15 immunotherapy may be better than IL-15 alone to ameliorate graft-versus-host disease while preserving antitumor effect in the post-UCB transplantation period. ..
  45. Desbois M, Le Vu P, Coutzac C, Marcheteau E, Béal C, Terme M, et al. IL-15 Trans-Signaling with the Superagonist RLI Promotes Effector/Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses and Enhances Antitumor Activity of PD-1 Antagonists. J Immunol. 2016;197:168-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, this work provides evidence that the sushi-IL-15R?/IL-15 fusion protein RLI enhances antitumor activity of anti-PD-1 treatment and is a promising approach to stimulate host immunity. ..
  46. Lebrec H, Horner M, Gorski K, Tsuji W, Xia D, Pan W, et al. Homeostasis of human NK cells is not IL-15 dependent. J Immunol. 2013;191:5551-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that NK cell homeostasis is obligatorily dependent upon IL-15 in both mice and NHPs, but that IL-15 is dispensable for maintenance of circulating human NK cells. ..
  47. Krenciute G, Prinzing B, Yi Z, Wu M, Liu H, Dotti G, et al. Transgenic Expression of IL15 Improves Antiglioma Activity of IL13R?2-CAR T Cells but Results in Antigen Loss Variants. Cancer Immunol Res. 2017;5:571-581 pubmed publisher
    ..The emergence of antigen loss variants highlights the need to target multiple tumor antigens. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(7); 571-81. ©2017 AACR. ..
  48. Gong W, Xiao W, Hu M, Weng X, Qian L, Pan X, et al. Ex vivo expansion of natural killer cells with high cytotoxicity by K562 cells modified to co-express major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related protein A, 4-1BB ligand, and interleukin-15. Tissue Antigens. 2010;76:467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that K562-MICA-4-1BBL-IL-15 cells would be developed for expansion of NK cells ex vivo and may have important implications for clinical immunotherapy. ..
  49. Porrata L, Inwards D, Micallef I, Johnston P, Ansell S, Hogan W, et al. Interleukin-15 affects patient survival through natural killer cell recovery after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Clin Dev Immunol. 2010;2010:914945 pubmed publisher
    ..7, P < .0001) NK-15. Multivariate analysis showed only NK-15 as a prognostic factor for survival, suggesting that the survival benefit observed by IL-15 is most likely mediated by enhanced NK cell recovery post-APHSCT. ..
  50. Halvorsen E, Strønen E, Hammer H, Goll G, Sollid L, Molberg O. Interleukin-15 induces interleukin-17 production by synovial T cell lines from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Immunol. 2011;73:243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Th17 cells from the RA ST were enriched in the CD4+ CCR6+ population, and they were sensitive to exogenous IL-15. Th17 cells present within the synovial compartment may contribute to the RA pathogenesis and local joint damage. ..
  51. Ahmad R, El Bassam S, Cordeiro P, Menezes J. Requirement of TLR2-mediated signaling for the induction of IL-15 gene expression in human monocytic cells by HSV-1. Blood. 2008;112:2360-8 pubmed publisher
  52. Lee N, Shin M, Kang K, Yoo S, Mohanty S, Montgomery R, et al. Human monocytes have increased IFN-γ-mediated IL-15 production with age alongside altered IFN-γ receptor signaling. Clin Immunol. 2014;152:101-10 pubmed publisher
  53. De Francesco M, Poiesi C, Ricotta D, Manca N. HIV p17 reverses the anti-inflammatory activity of IL-4 on IL-15 stimulated monocytes and modulates their ability to secrete MIP-1 alpha. Virus Res. 2006;118:170-7 pubmed
    ..The ability of HIV p17 to contribute to an altered pattern of secreted soluble factors might imply a key role for this viral protein in the development of AIDS pathogenesis. ..
  54. Sarra M, Cupi M, Monteleone I, Franzè E, Ronchetti G, Di Sabatino A, et al. IL-15 positively regulates IL-21 production in celiac disease mucosa. Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6:244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, neutralization of IL-15 in biopsies of inactive CD patients inhibited peptic-tryptic digest of gliadin-induced IL-21 expression. These findings indicate that in CD, IL-15 positively regulates IL-21 production. ..
  55. Vallera D, Felices M, McElmurry R, McCullar V, Zhou X, Schmohl J, et al. IL15 Trispecific Killer Engagers (TriKE) Make Natural Killer Cells Specific to CD33+ Targets While Also Inducing Persistence, In Vivo Expansion, and Enhanced Function. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:3440-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These qualities are ideal for NK cell therapy of myeloid malignancies or targeting antigens of solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 22(14); 3440-50. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Talmadge, p. 3419. ..
  56. Kitaya K, Yamaguchi T, Honjo H. Central role of interleukin-15 in postovulatory recruitment of peripheral blood CD16(-) natural killer cells into human endometrium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:2932-40 pubmed
    ..These results support the idea that endogenous IL-15 in secretory phase endometrium plays a central role in postovulatory recruitment of PB CD16(-) NK cells into the human endometrium. ..
  57. Barlic J, McDermott D, Merrell M, Gonzales J, Via L, Murphy P. Interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-2 reciprocally regulate expression of the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 through selective NFAT1- and NFAT2-dependent mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48520-34 pubmed
    ..We propose that expression of CX3CR1 and possibly other immunoregulatory genes may be determined in part by the balance of NFAT1 and NFAT2 activity in leukocytes. ..
  58. Wysocka M, Benoit B, Newton S, Azzoni L, Montaner L, Rook A. Enhancement of the host immune responses in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma by CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and IL-15. Blood. 2004;104:4142-9 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications for the potential enhancement of antitumor immunity among patients with advanced CTCL...
  59. Sehgal K, Ragheb R, Fahmy T, Dhodapkar M, Dhodapkar K. Nanoparticle-mediated combinatorial targeting of multiple human dendritic cell (DC) subsets leads to enhanced T cell activation via IL-15-dependent DC crosstalk. J Immunol. 2014;193:2297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that simultaneous targeting of multiple DC subsets may improve NP vaccines by engaging DC crosstalk and provides a novel approach to improving vaccines against pathogens and tumors. ..
  60. Thiant S, Moutuou M, LeBoeuf D, Guimond M. Homeostatic cytokines in immune reconstitution and graft-versus-host disease. Cytokine. 2016;82:24-32 pubmed publisher
  61. Amash A, Huleihel M, Eyal S, Maor E, Myatt L, Holcberg G. The expression of interleukin-15 and interleukin-18 by human term placenta is not affected by lipopolysaccharide. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2007;18:188-94 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our results indicate that IL-15 and IL-18 are not part of the mechanism of the response of human placenta to LPS. ..
  62. Pinto L, Depner M, Steudemann L, Klopp N, Illig T, von Mutius E, et al. IL15 gene variants are not associated with asthma and atopy. Allergy. 2009;64:643-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 15 (IL15) promotes activation and proliferation of CD8+ T cells and enhances the differentiation into Th2 cells...
  63. Cepero Donates Y, Lacraz G, Ghobadi F, Rakotoarivelo V, Orkhis S, Mayhue M, et al. Interleukin-15-mediated inflammation promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cytokine. 2016;82:102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that IL-15 is implicated in the high fat diet-induced lipid accumulation and inflammation in the liver, leading to fatty liver disease. ..
  64. Sim G, Liu C, Wang E, Liu H, Creasy C, Dai Z, et al. IL2 Variant Circumvents ICOS+ Regulatory T-cell Expansion and Promotes NK Cell Activation. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016;4:983-994 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that F42K could be a potential substitute for WT IL2 as a cytokine therapy for cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(11); 983-94. ©2016 AACR. ..
  65. Nielsen A, Hojman P, Erikstrup C, Fischer C, Plomgaard P, Mounier R, et al. Association between interleukin-15 and obesity: interleukin-15 as a potential regulator of fat mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4486-93 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-15 overexpression in skeletal muscle of mice reduced trunk fat mass but not sc fat mass. Our results indicate that IL-15 may be a regulator of trunk fat mass. ..
  66. Rueda B, Lopez Nevot M, Gonzalez Gay M, Balsa A, Pascual Salcedo D, Garcia A, et al. Molecular screening and association study of IL15 gene polymorphisms in rheumatoid arthritis. Cytokine. 2007;38:84-9 pubmed
    b>Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine known to play a relevant role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis...
  67. Tamzalit F, Barbieux I, Plet A, Heim J, Nedellec S, Morisseau S, et al. IL-15.IL-15R? complex shedding following trans-presentation is essential for the survival of IL-15 responding NK and T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:8565-70 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-15R? complex cleaved from presenting cells allows responding cells to internalize, store and use IL-15.IL-15R? complex for their own proliferation and survival. ..