Gene Symbol: IGF2
Description: insulin like growth factor 2
Alias: C11orf43, GRDF, IGF-II, PP9974, insulin-like growth factor II, T3M-11-derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A), insulin-like growth factor type 2, preptin
Species: human
Products:     IGF2

Top Publications

  1. Byun H, Wong H, Birnstein E, Wolff E, Liang G, Yang A. Examination of IGF2 and H19 loss of imprinting in bladder cancer. Cancer Res. 2007;67:10753-8 pubmed
    ..We found 2/9 (22.2%) cases that displayed LOI of IGF2 and 2/16 (12.5%) that had LOI of H19, as determined by the evaluation of mRNA for biallelic expression...
  2. Souren N, Paulussen A, Steyls A, Loos R, Brandao R, Gielen M, et al. Parent-of-origin specific linkage and association of the IGF2 gene region with birth weight and adult metabolic risk factors. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:962-70 pubmed publisher
    The maternally imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is an important fetal growth factor and is also suggested to have postnatal metabolic effects...
  3. Pan Y, He B, Li T, Zhu C, Zhang L, Wang B, et al. Targeted tumor gene therapy based on loss of IGF2 imprinting. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;10:290-8 pubmed
    Loss of imprinting (LOI) of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) is one of the most common epigenetic abnormalities seen in human neoplasms...
  4. Ito Y, Koessler T, Ibrahim A, Rai S, Vowler S, Abu Amero S, et al. Somatically acquired hypomethylation of IGF2 in breast and colorectal cancer. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2633-43 pubmed publisher
    The imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene is expressed predominantly from the paternal allele...
  5. Dai N, Rapley J, Angel M, Yanik M, Blower M, Avruch J. mTOR phosphorylates IMP2 to promote IGF2 mRNA translation by internal ribosomal entry. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1159-72 pubmed publisher
    Variants in the IMP2 (insulin-like growth factor 2 [IGF2] mRNA-binding protein 2) gene are implicated in susceptibility to type 2 diabetes...
  6. Kim Y, Yoon J, Kim C, Kim L, Park B, Shin H, et al. IGF2 polymorphisms are associated with hepatitis B virus clearance and hepatocellular carcinoma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;346:38-44 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to determine whether IGF2 polymorphisms are associated with the clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  7. Murphy S, Huang Z, Wen Y, Spillman M, Whitaker R, Simel L, et al. Frequent IGF2/H19 domain epigenetic alterations and elevated IGF2 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2006;4:283-92 pubmed
    Overexpression of the imprinted insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF2) is a prominent characteristic of gynecologic malignancies...
  8. Adkins R, Krushkal J, Klauser C, Magann E, Morrison J, Somes G. Association between small for gestational age and paternally inherited 5' insulin haplotypes. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32:372-80 pubmed
    ..Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the insulin (INS) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) genes were genotyped in mothers and newborns...
  9. Richardson A, Hamilton N, Davis W, Brito C, De Leon D. Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) activates estrogen receptor-? and -? via the IGF-1 and the insulin receptors in breast cancer cells. Growth Factors. 2011;29:82-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel mechanism of IGF-2 synergistic cross-talk signaling with ER-? and ER-? can promote estrogen-independent BC progression and provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of BC patients. ..

More Information


  1. Cerrato F, Sparago A, Verde G, De Crescenzo A, Citro V, Cubellis M, et al. Different mechanisms cause imprinting defects at the IGF2/H19 locus in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Wilms' tumour. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1427-35 pubmed publisher
    The parent of origin-dependent expression of the IGF2 and H19 genes is controlled by the imprinting centre 1 (IC1) consisting in a methylation-sensitive chromatin insulator...
  2. Mohlin S, Hamidian A, Påhlman S. HIF2A and IGF2 expression correlates in human neuroblastoma cells and normal immature sympathetic neuroblasts. Neoplasia. 2013;15:328-34 pubmed
    ..can, during development, be distinguished by distinct gene expression patterns, and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a marker of sympathetic chromaffin cells, whereas sympathetic neuroblasts lack IGF2 expression...
  3. St Pierre J, Hivert M, Perron P, Poirier P, Guay S, Brisson D, et al. IGF2 DNA methylation is a modulator of newborn's fetal growth and development. Epigenetics. 2012;7:1125-32 pubmed publisher
    The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, located within a cluster of imprinted genes on chromosome 11p15, encodes a fetal and placental growth factor affecting birth weight...
  4. Murrell A, Heeson S, Cooper W, Douglas E, Apostolidou S, Moore G, et al. An association between variants in the IGF2 gene and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome: interaction between genotype and epigenotype. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:247-55 pubmed
    ..syndrome (BWS) is a fetal overgrowth disorder involving the deregulation of a number of genes, including IGF2 and CDKN1C, in the imprinted gene cluster on chromosome 11p15.5...
  5. Adkins R, Somes G, Morrison J, Hill J, Watson E, Magann E, et al. Association of birth weight with polymorphisms in the IGF2, H19, and IGF2R genes. Pediatr Res. 2010;68:429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IGF2, H19, and IGF2R genes for associations with birth weight variation in 342 mother-newborn pairs (birth weight 2.1-4...
  6. Delaine C, Alvino C, McNeil K, Mulhern T, Gauguin L, De Meyts P, et al. A novel binding site for the human insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II)/mannose 6-phosphate receptor on IGF-II. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18886-94 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Thr(16) was identified as playing a major role in determining why IGF-II, but not IGF-I, binds with high affinity to the IGF2R. ..
  7. Heijmans B, Kremer D, Tobi E, Boomsma D, Slagboom P. Heritable rather than age-related environmental and stochastic factors dominate variation in DNA methylation of the human IGF2/H19 locus. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:547-54 pubmed
    ..influences and the combined effect of environmental and stochastic factors to variation in DNA methylation of the IGF2/H19 locus...
  8. Greenall S, Bentley J, Pearce L, Scoble J, Sparrow L, Bartone N, et al. Biochemical characterization of individual human glycosylated pro-insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II and big-IGF-II isoforms associated with cancer. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..IGF-II isoforms thus possess unique biological properties that may enable them to escape normal sequestration avenues and remain bioavailable in vivo to sustain oncogenic signaling. ..
  9. Wu J, Qin Y, Li B, He W, Sun Z. Hypomethylated and hypermethylated profiles of H19DMR are associated with the aberrant imprinting of IGF2 and H19 in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Genomics. 2008;91:443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..carcinoma (HCC) tissues and 7 normal adult liver tissues were screened for heterozygous polymorphisms in IGF2, H19, and the differentially methylated region of H19 (H19DMR) using PCR-RFLP and PCR sequencing...
  10. Bracko O, Singer T, Aigner S, Knobloch M, Winner B, Ray J, et al. Gene expression profiling of neural stem cells and their neuronal progeny reveals IGF2 as a regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. J Neurosci. 2012;32:3376-87 pubmed publisher
    ..significantly higher levels in DG NSCs than in immature neurons was the growth factor insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)...
  11. Watanabe N, Nakadate H, Haruta M, Sugawara W, Sasaki F, Tsunematsu Y, et al. Association of 11q loss, trisomy 12, and possible 16q loss with loss of imprinting of insulin-like growth factor-II in Wilms tumor. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2006;45:592-601 pubmed
    We evaluated the WT1 and IGF2 status and performed chromosome and/or comparative genomic hybridization analysis in 43 tumor samples from patients with Wilms tumor...
  12. Haruta M, Arai Y, Sugawara W, Watanabe N, Honda S, Ohshima J, et al. Duplication of paternal IGF2 or loss of maternal IGF2 imprinting occurs in half of Wilms tumors with various structural WT1 abnormalities. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008;47:712-27 pubmed publisher
    ..To clarify whether genetic subtypes of WT1 abnormalities are correlated with IGF2 or CTNNB1 alterations or clinicopathological characteristics, we performed comprehensive WT1, IGF2, and CTNNB1 ..
  13. Schrager M, Roth S, Ferrell R, Metter E, Russek Cohen E, Lynch N, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-2 genotype, fat-free mass, and muscle performance across the adult life span. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;97:2176-83 pubmed
    The influence of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) genotype on total body fat-free mass (FFM), muscle strength, and sustained power (SP) was evaluated repeatedly at approximately 2-yr intervals in two cohorts from the Baltimore ..
  14. Garcia Fernandez M, Sierra I, Puche J, Guerra L, Castilla Cortazar I. Liver mitochondrial dysfunction is reverted by insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) in aging rats. J Transl Med. 2011;9:123 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytoprotective effects of IGF-II are related to mitochondrial protection leading to increased ATP production reducing free radical generation, oxidative damage and apoptosis. ..
  15. Nativio R, Wendt K, Ito Y, Huddleston J, Uribe Lewis S, Woodfine K, et al. Cohesin is required for higher-order chromatin conformation at the imprinted IGF2-H19 locus. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000739 pubmed publisher
    ..At the imprinted IGF2-H19 locus, CTCF plays an important role in organizing allele-specific higher-order chromatin conformation and ..
  16. Aslan M, Celik O, Karsavuran N, Celik N, Dogan D, Botan E, et al. Maternal serum and cord blood preptin levels in gestational diabetes mellitus. J Perinatol. 2011;31:350-5 pubmed publisher
    To assess preptin concentrations in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and in the cord blood of their fetuses...
  17. Hoyo C, Fortner K, Murtha A, Schildkraut J, Soubry A, Demark Wahnefried W, et al. Association of cord blood methylation fractions at imprinted insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), plasma IGF2, and birth weight. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23:635-45 pubmed publisher
    Altered methylation at Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) regulatory regions has previously been associated with obesity, and several malignancies including colon, esophageal, and prostate adenocarcinomas, presumably via changes in ..
  18. Brown J, Delaine C, Zaccheo O, Siebold C, Gilbert R, van Boxel G, et al. Structure and functional analysis of the IGF-II/IGF2R interaction. EMBO J. 2008;27:265-76 pubmed
    ..Mutagenesis analyses confirm this IGF-II 'binding-hotspot', revealing that IGF-binding proteins and IGF2R have converged on the same high-affinity site. ..
  19. Cooley S, Donnelly J, Geary M, Rodeck C, Hindmarsh P. Maternal insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1, IGF-2) and IGF BP-3 and the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:658-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a significant positive correlation does exist between maternal IGF-2 levels and PET. Maternal IGF-2 has a significant positive correlation with PET. ..
  20. Koukoura O, Sifakis S, Soufla G, Zaravinos A, Apostolidou S, Jones A, et al. Loss of imprinting and aberrant methylation of IGF2 in placentas from pregnancies complicated with fetal growth restriction. Int J Mol Med. 2011;28:481-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the altered epigenetic mechanisms that regulate IGF2 imprinting in placentas from fetal growth restricted (FGR) pregnancies affect IGF2 expression leading to impaired ..
  21. Sandhu M, Gibson J, Heald A, Dunger D, Wareham N. Low circulating IGF-II concentrations predict weight gain and obesity in humans. Diabetes. 2003;52:1403-8 pubmed
    ..006). Our data suggest that circulating IGF-II levels may play a role in body weight regulation and development of obesity in men and women with normal glucose tolerance. ..
  22. Brouwer Visser J, Lee J, McCullagh K, Cossio M, Wang Y, Huang G. Insulin-like growth factor 2 silencing restores taxol sensitivity in drug resistant ovarian cancer. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e100165 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to validate IGF2 as a potential therapeutic target in drug resistant ovarian cancer and to determine the efficacy of targeting IGF2 ..
  23. Gomes M, Soares M, Pasqualim Neto A, Marcondes C, Lobo R, Ramos E. Association between birth weight, body mass index and IGF2/ApaI polymorphism. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2005;15:360-2 pubmed
    ..In adult humans, polymorphisms of the IGF2 gene have been associated with predisposition to obesity...
  24. Stessman J, Maaravi Y, Hammerman Rozenberg R, Cohen A, Nemanov L, Gritsenko I, et al. Candidate genes associated with ageing and life expectancy in the Jerusalem longitudinal study. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005;126:333-9 pubmed
    ..MTHFR), cathepsin D (CAD), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), angiotensinogen (AGT) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), Leiden factor 7, p53 oncogene, dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and the serotonin transporter (SERT)...
  25. Tabano S, Colapietro P, Cetin I, Grati F, Zanutto S, Mandò C, et al. Epigenetic modulation of the IGF2/H19 imprinted domain in human embryonic and extra-embryonic compartments and its possible role in fetal growth restriction. Epigenetics. 2010;5:313-24 pubmed
    Genomic imprinting, resulting in parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression, is mainly achieved by DNA methylation. IGF2 and H19, belonging to the same cluster of imprinted genes and regulated by ICR1, DMR2 and H19 promoter elements, play ..
  26. Zuo Q, Yan R, Feng D, Zhao R, Chen C, Jiang Y, et al. Loss of imprinting and abnormal expression of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene in gastric cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2011;50:390-6 pubmed publisher
    This study examined the frequency of loss of imprinting (LOI) and expression of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, and their relationship to selected clinical and pathological factors, in a well defined series of 90 Chinese ..
  27. Fowke J, Matthews C, Yu H, Cai Q, Cohen S, Buchowski M, et al. Racial differences in the association between body mass index and serum IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP3. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010;17:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..cross-sectional analysis investigated whether BMI or BMI at age 21 years contributes to racial differences in IGF1, IGF2, IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), or free IGF1...
  28. Pidsley R, Dempster E, Troakes C, Al Sarraj S, Mill J. Epigenetic and genetic variation at the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region on 11p15.5 is associated with cerebellum weight. Epigenetics. 2012;7:155-63 pubmed publisher
    b>IGF2 is a paternally expressed imprinted gene with an important role in development and brain function...
  29. Eeles R, Kote Jarai Z, Al Olama A, Giles G, Guy M, Severi G, et al. Identification of seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci through a genome-wide association study. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1116-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to replicating previous associations, we identified seven new prostate cancer susceptibility loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 8, 11 and 22 (with P = 1.6 x 10(-8) to P = 2.7 x 10(-33)). ..
  30. Tobi E, Slagboom P, van Dongen J, Kremer D, Stein A, Putter H, et al. Prenatal famine and genetic variation are independently and additively associated with DNA methylation at regulatory loci within IGF2/H19. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37933 pubmed publisher
    ..single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the genetic variation (tagging SNPs) with DNA methylation at the imprinted IGF2/H19 region, a model for an epigenetically regulated genomic region...
  31. Gebeshuber C, Martinez J. miR-100 suppresses IGF2 and inhibits breast tumorigenesis by interfering with proliferation and survival signaling. Oncogene. 2013;32:3306-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Stable overexpression of miR-100 strongly reduced IGF2 expression and inhibited tumor growth...
  32. Soon P, Gill A, Benn D, Clarkson A, Robinson B, McDonald K, et al. Microarray gene expression and immunohistochemistry analyses of adrenocortical tumors identify IGF2 and Ki-67 as useful in differentiating carcinomas from adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:573-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of IGF2, MAD2L1, and CCNB1 were significantly higher in ACCs compared with ACAs while ABLIM1, NAV3, SEPT4, and RPRM were ..
  33. Murphy R, Baptista J, Holly J, Umpleby A, Ellard S, Harries L, et al. Severe intrauterine growth retardation and atypical diabetes associated with a translocation breakpoint disrupting regulation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..b>IGF2 gene expression is regulated by a complex system of enhancers and promoters that determine tissue-specific and ..
  34. Monk D, Sanches R, Arnaud P, Apostolidou S, Hills F, Abu Amero S, et al. Imprinting of IGF2 P0 transcript and novel alternatively spliced INS-IGF2 isoforms show differences between mouse and human. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:1259-69 pubmed
    ..gene have been shown to be essential for normal placental function, as mice carrying paternal null alleles for the Igf2-P0 transcript are growth restricted at birth...
  35. Kaku K, Osada H, Seki K, Sekiya S. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and IGF2 receptor gene variants are associated with fetal growth. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:363-7 pubmed
    ..was to investigate the associations between the neonatal birth weight and the genotypes of polymorphic loci in the IGF2 and IGF2 receptor (IGF2R) genes...
  36. Lu L, Katsaros D, Wiley A, Rigault de la Longrais I, Risch H, Puopolo M, et al. The relationship of insulin-like growth factor-II, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, and estrogen receptor-alpha expression to disease progression in epithelial ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:1208-14 pubmed
    ..The study also indicates that IGF-II and IGFBP-3 have limited value in prognosis because of their strong associations with disease stage and tumor grade. ..
  37. Denley A, Bonython E, Booker G, Cosgrove L, Forbes B, Ward C, et al. Structural determinants for high-affinity binding of insulin-like growth factor II to insulin receptor (IR)-A, the exon 11 minus isoform of the IR. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:2502-12 pubmed
    ..Activation of IGF-1R by the chimeras reflected their binding affinities whereas the phosphorylation of the two IR isoforms was more complex. ..
  38. Antonazzo P, Alvino G, Cozzi V, Grati F, Tabano S, Sirchia S, et al. Placental IGF2 expression in normal and intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) pregnancies. Placenta. 2008;29:99-101 pubmed
  39. Zeschnigk M, Albrecht B, Buiting K, Kanber D, Eggermann T, Binder G, et al. IGF2/H19 hypomethylation in Silver-Russell syndrome and isolated hemihypoplasia. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008;16:328-34 pubmed
    ..In 30% of patients, the differentially methylated IGF2/H19 imprinting center region (ICR1) on chromosome 11p15 was found to be hypomethylated, as determined by Southern ..
  40. Steegers Theunissen R, Obermann Borst S, Kremer D, Lindemans J, Siebel C, Steegers E, et al. Periconceptional maternal folic acid use of 400 microg per day is related to increased methylation of the IGF2 gene in the very young child. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7845 pubmed publisher
    ..mothers and children affect methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene differentially methylation region (IGF2 DMR) in the child...
  41. Hoyo C, Murtha A, Schildkraut J, Jirtle R, Demark Wahnefried W, Forman M, et al. Methylation variation at IGF2 differentially methylated regions and maternal folic acid use before and during pregnancy. Epigenetics. 2011;6:928-36 pubmed
    ..aberrant DNA methylation at two differentially methylated regions (DMRs) regulating Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) expression in infants...
  42. Soares M, Huber J, Rios A, Ramos E. Investigation of IGF2/ApaI and H19/RsaI polymorphisms in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2010;20:295-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our study was to verify if single polymorphic sites within IGF2 and H19 genes and their consequent haplotypes influence risk and/or prognosis of familial melanoma...
  43. Demars J, Shmela M, Rossignol S, Okabe J, Netchine I, Azzi S, et al. Analysis of the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region uncovers new genetic defects, including mutations of OCT-binding sequences, in patients with 11p15 fetal growth disorders. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:803-14 pubmed publisher
    The imprinted expression of the IGF2 and H19 genes is controlled by the imprinting control region 1 (ICR1) located at chromosome 11p15.5...
  44. Chao W, D Amore P. IGF2: epigenetic regulation and role in development and disease. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2008;19:111-20 pubmed publisher
    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) is perhaps the most intricately regulated of all growth factors characterized to date...
  45. Cui H, Cruz Correa M, Giardiello F, Hutcheon D, Kafonek D, Brandenburg S, et al. Loss of IGF2 imprinting: a potential marker of colorectal cancer risk. Science. 2003;299:1753-5 pubmed
    Loss of imprinting (LOI), an epigenetic alteration affecting the insulin-like growth factor II gene (IGF2), is found in normal colonic mucosa of about 30% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, but it is found in only 10% of healthy ..
  46. Liu Y, Lu Y, Liu W, Xie H, Luo X, Wu X, et al. Connective tissue growth factor is a downstream mediator for preptin-induced proliferation and differentiation in human osteoblasts. Amino Acids. 2010;38:763-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Preptin, a newly isolated 34-amino-acid peptide hormone that is cosecreted with insulin and amylin from pancreatic beta-cells, has emerged as a regulatory element in bone metabolism, but its mechanism remains unclear...
  47. Adkins R, Fain J, Krushkal J, Klauser C, Magann E, Morrison J. Association between paternally inherited haplotypes upstream of the insulin gene and umbilical cord IGF-II levels. Pediatr Res. 2007;62:451-5 pubmed
    The insulin (INS) and IGF 2 (IGF2) genes are in close proximity to each other and undergo maternal imprinting during fetal growth...
  48. Shetty P, Movva S, Pasupuleti N, Vedicherlla B, Vattam K, Venkatasubramanian S, et al. Regulation of IGF2 transcript and protein expression by altered methylation in breast cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137:339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..assess the role of methylation in regulating transcription and protein expression of Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), an oncogene with parental imprinting...
  49. Heude B, Ong K, Luben R, Wareham N, Sandhu M. Study of association between common variation in the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene and indices of obesity and body size in middle-aged men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2734-8 pubmed
    The IGF2 gene (IGF2) plays a key role in growth and is a candidate for association with obesity...
  50. Honda S, Arai Y, Haruta M, Sasaki F, Ohira M, Yamaoka H, et al. Loss of imprinting of IGF2 correlates with hypermethylation of the H19 differentially methylated region in hepatoblastoma. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1891-9 pubmed publisher
    b>IGF2, a maternally imprinted foetal growth factor gene, is implicated in many childhood tumours including hepatoblastoma (HB); however, the genetic and epigenetic alterations have not comprehensively been studied...
  51. Rodriguez S, Gaunt T, Dennison E, Chen X, Syddall H, Phillips D, et al. Replication of IGF2-INS-TH*5 haplotype effect on obesity in older men and study of related phenotypes. Eur J Hum Genet. 2006;14:109-16 pubmed
    Interindividual variation of the IGF2-INS-TH region influences risk of a variety of diseases and complex traits...
  52. Sakatani T, Kaneda A, Iacobuzio Donahue C, Carter M, de Boom Witzel S, Okano H, et al. Loss of imprinting of Igf2 alters intestinal maturation and tumorigenesis in mice. Science. 2005;307:1976-8 pubmed
    Loss of imprinting (LOI) of the insulin-like growth factor II gene (IGF2) is an epigenetic alteration that results in a modest increase in IGF2 expression, and it is present in the normal colonic mucosa of about 30% of patients with ..
  53. Bachner Melman R, Zohar A, Nemanov L, Heresco Levy U, Gritsenko I, Ebstein R. Association between the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) and scores on the Eating Attitudes Test in nonclinical subjects: a family-based study. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162:2256-62 pubmed
    An interesting candidate gene for eating disorders is the gene for insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2). Located on chromosome 11p15...
  54. Petry C, Seear R, Wingate D, Manico L, Acerini C, Ong K, et al. Associations between paternally transmitted fetal IGF2 variants and maternal circulating glucose concentrations in pregnancy. Diabetes. 2011;60:3090-6 pubmed publisher
    To test the hypothesis that polymorphic variation in the paternally transmitted fetal IGF2 gene is associated with maternal glucose concentrations in the third trimester of pregnancy...
  55. Beeghly A, Katsaros D, Wiley A, Rigault de la Longrais I, Prescott A, Chen H, et al. IGF-II promoter methylation and ovarian cancer prognosis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007;133:713-23 pubmed
    ..This study shows that methylation varies among three IGF-II promoters in ovarian cancer and that this variation seems to have biologic implications as it relates to clinical features and prognosis of the disease. ..
  56. Maenaka S, Hikichi T, Imai M, Minamoto T, Kawahara E. Loss of imprinting in IGF2 in colorectal carcinoma assessed by microdissection. Oncol Rep. 2006;15:791-5 pubmed
    To ascertain the implications of loss of imprinting (LOI) of the insulin-like growth factor II gene (IGF2) for carcinogenesis, the precise frequency of LOI in colorectal carcinoma was examined using a laser capture microdissection method, ..
  57. Wu L, Wang L, Shangguan S, Chang S, Wang Z, Lu X, et al. Altered methylation of IGF2 DMR0 is associated with neural tube defects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;380:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene, maternally imprinted, has a key role in fetal development...
  58. Turan N, Katari S, Gerson L, Chalian R, Foster M, Gaughan J, et al. Inter- and intra-individual variation in allele-specific DNA methylation and gene expression in children conceived using assisted reproductive technology. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001033 pubmed publisher
    ..intra- and inter-individual variation in DNA methylation at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the IGF2/H19 and IGF2R loci in a population of children conceived in vitro or in vivo...
  59. Heaton J, Wood M, Kim A, Lima L, Barlaskar F, Almeida M, et al. Progression to adrenocortical tumorigenesis in mice and humans through insulin-like growth factor 2 and ?-catenin. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:1017-33 pubmed publisher
    Dysregulation of the WNT and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathways has been implicated in sporadic and syndromic forms of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC)...
  60. Woodson K, Flood A, Green L, Tangrea J, Hanson J, Cash B, et al. Loss of insulin-like growth factor-II imprinting and the presence of screen-detected colorectal adenomas in women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:407-10 pubmed
    ..These findings are intriguing and need to be confirmed in larger studies. ..
  61. McKay J, Groom A, Potter C, Coneyworth L, Ford D, Mathers J, et al. Genetic and non-genetic influences during pregnancy on infant global and site specific DNA methylation: role for folate gene variants and vitamin B12. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33290 pubmed publisher
    ..Global (LUMA) and gene specific (IGF2, ZNT5, IGFBP3) DNA methylation were quantified in 430 infants by Pyrosequencing®...
  62. Zhao R, DeCoteau J, Geyer C, Gao M, Cui H, Casson A. Loss of imprinting of the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) gene in esophageal normal and adenocarcinoma tissues. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:2117-22 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate loss of imprinting (LOI) and expression of the IGF2 gene in matched esophageal normal and adenocarcinoma tissues, we studied a prospective cohort of 77 patients who underwent esophageal resection between 1998 and 2003...
  63. Almeida M, Fragoso M, Lotfi C, Santos M, Nishi M, Costa M, et al. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and its receptor in pediatric and adult adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3524-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, a selective IGF-IR kinase inhibitor had antitumor effects in adult and pediatric adrenocortical tumor cell lines, suggesting that IGF-IR inhibitors represent a promising therapy for human adrenocortical carcinoma. ..
  64. Sayer A, Syddall H, O Dell S, Chen X, Briggs P, Briggs R, et al. Polymorphism of the IGF2 gene, birth weight and grip strength in adult men. Age Ageing. 2002;31:468-70 pubmed
    ..b>IGF II has proliferative effects in adult muscle and is one of the major determinants of fetal growth; polymorphism in ..
  65. Nagaya K, Makita Y, Taketazu G, Okamoto T, Nakamura E, Hayashi T, et al. Paternal allele of IGF2 gene haplotype CTG is associated with fetal and placental growth in Japanese. Pediatr Res. 2009;66:135-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined three tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to investigate haplotype frequency of IGF2 relative to size at birth in 134 healthy Japanese infants...
  66. Dejeux E, Olaso R, Dousset B, Audebourg A, Gut I, Terris B, et al. Hypermethylation of the IGF2 differentially methylated region 2 is a specific event in insulinomas leading to loss-of-imprinting and overexpression. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:939-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Particularly, overexpression of the imprinted IGF2 was caused by the hypermethylation of CpGs in the differentially methylated region 2 (DMR2)...
  67. Paradowska A, Fenic I, Konrad L, Sturm K, Wagenlehner F, Weidner W, et al. Aberrant epigenetic modifications in the CTCF binding domain of the IGF2/H19 gene in prostate cancer compared with benign prostate hyperplasia. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:87-96 pubmed
    Expression of the imprinted genes insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19 depends on the methylation pattern of their common imprinting control region (ICR) located on chromosome 11p15...
  68. Boissonnas C, Abdalaoui H, Haelewyn V, Fauque P, Dupont J, Gut I, et al. Specific epigenetic alterations of IGF2-H19 locus in spermatozoa from infertile men. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010;18:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..the DNA methylation status of 47 CpGs located in differentially methylated regions (DMRs), the DMR0 and DMR2 of the IGF2 gene and in the 3rd and 6th CTCF-binding sites of the H19 DMR in human sperm from men with normal semen and ..
  69. Devaney J, Hoffman E, Gordish Dressman H, Kearns A, Zambraski E, Clarkson P. IGF-II gene region polymorphisms related to exertional muscle damage. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:1815-23 pubmed
    ..In women, fewer significant associations appeared. ..
  70. Dammann R, Kirsch S, Schagdarsurengin U, Dansranjavin T, Gradhand E, Schmitt W, et al. Frequent aberrant methylation of the imprinted IGF2/H19 locus and LINE1 hypomethylation in ovarian carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:171-9 pubmed
    ..We analyzed the aberrant methylation of a differentially methylated region (DMR0) and a CTCF binding site of the IGF2-H19 locus and methylation of LINE1 and Satellite 2 in 22 primary ovarian carcinomas (OC) and controls by a ..
  71. Watanabe N, Haruta M, Soejima H, Fukushi D, Yokomori K, Nakadate H, et al. Duplication of the paternal IGF2 allele in trisomy 11 and elevated expression levels of IGF2 mRNA in congenital mesoblastic nephroma of the cellular or mixed type. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2007;46:929-35 pubmed
    ..All seven tumors with trisomy 11 showed duplication of the paternal IGF2 allele, and six cellular or classical type tumors with disomy 11 showed one paternal and one maternal allele of ..
  72. Fu V, Dobosy J, Desotelle J, Almassi N, Ewald J, Srinivasan R, et al. Aging and cancer-related loss of insulin-like growth factor 2 imprinting in the mouse and human prostate. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6797-802 pubmed publisher
    ..A LOI for Igf2, a paracrine growth factor, is important in cancer progression...
  73. Xu W, Fan H, He X, Zhang J, Xie W. LOI of IGF2 is associated with esophageal cancer and linked to methylation status of IGF2 DMR. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2006;25:543-7 pubmed
    In the present study, IGF2 mRNA expression was examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in 46 esophageal cancer cases...
  74. Nativio R, Sparago A, Ito Y, Weksberg R, Riccio A, Murrell A. Disruption of genomic neighbourhood at the imprinted IGF2-H19 locus in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Silver-Russell syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:1363-74 pubmed publisher
    Hyper- and hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control region (ICR) result in reciprocal changes in IGF2-H19 expression and the two contrasting growth disorders, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS)...
  75. Smerieri A, Petraroli M, Ziveri M, Volta C, Bernasconi S, Street M. Effects of cord serum insulin, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, IL-6 and cortisol concentrations on human birth weight and length: pilot study. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29562 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin, cortisol, and IL-6 cord serum concentrations had no significant effect on birth size. ..
  76. Ogawa T, Ogawa K, Shiga K, Furukawa T, Nagase H, Hashimoto S, et al. Upregulation of IGF2 is associated with an acquired resistance for cis-diamminedichloroplatinum in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267:1599-606 pubmed publisher
    ..b>IGF2 was found to be one of the candidates for acquired CDDP-resistance...
  77. Kreiling J, Byrd J, MacDonald R. Domain interactions of the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:21067-77 pubmed
    ..We conclude that there is no finite M6P/IGF2R dimerization domain, but rather that interactions between dimer partners occur all along the extracytoplasmic region of the receptor. ..
  78. Zhang H, Niu B, Hu J, Ge S, Wang H, Li T, et al. Interruption of intrachromosomal looping by CCCTC binding factor decoy proteins abrogates genomic imprinting of human insulin-like growth factor II. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:475-87 pubmed publisher
    Monoallelic expression of IGF2 is regulated by CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) binding to the imprinting control region (ICR) on the maternal allele, with subsequent formation of an intrachromosomal loop to the promoter region...
  79. Rodriguez S, Gaunt T, O Dell S, Chen X, Gu D, Hawe E, et al. Haplotypic analyses of the IGF2-INS-TH gene cluster in relation to cardiovascular risk traits. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:715-25 pubmed
    The IGF2-INS-TH genomic region has been implicated in various common disorders including the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  80. Zatkova A, Rouillard J, Hartmann W, Lamb B, Kuick R, Eckart M, et al. Amplification and overexpression of the IGF2 regulator PLAG1 in hepatoblastoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004;39:126-37 pubmed
    ..PLAG1 has been shown be a transcriptional activator of IGF2 in other tumor types...
  81. Heijmans B, Tobi E, Stein A, Putter H, Blauw G, Susser E, et al. Persistent epigenetic differences associated with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17046-9 pubmed publisher
    ..to famine during the Dutch Hunger Winter in 1944-45 had, 6 decades later, less DNA methylation of the imprinted IGF2 gene compared with their unexposed, same-sex siblings...
  82. Bhusari S, Yang B, Kueck J, Huang W, Jarrard D. Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) loss of imprinting marks a field defect within human prostates containing cancer. Prostate. 2011;71:1621-30 pubmed publisher
    ..A LOI for IGF2, a paracrine growth factor, has been implicated in the development of prostate and other cancers...