IFIH1

Summary

Gene Symbol: IFIH1
Description: interferon induced with helicase C domain 1
Alias: AGS7, Hlcd, IDDM19, MDA-5, MDA5, RLR-2, SGMRT1, interferon-induced helicase C domain-containing protein 1, CADM-140 autoantigen, DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide, RIG-I-like receptor 2, RNA helicase-DEAD box protein 116, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis autoantigen 140 kDa, helicard, helicase with 2 CARD domains, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5, murabutide down-regulated protein
Species: human
Products:     IFIH1

Top Publications

  1. Fumagalli M, Cagliani R, Riva S, Pozzoli U, Biasin M, Piacentini L, et al. Population genetics of IFIH1: ancient population structure, local selection, and implications for susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:2555-66 pubmed publisher
    The human interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) gene encodes a sensor of double-strand RNA involved in innate immunity against viruses, indicating that this gene is a likely target of virus-driven selective pressure...
  2. Kang D, Gopalkrishnan R, Wu Q, Jankowsky E, Pyle A, Fisher P. mda-5: An interferon-inducible putative RNA helicase with double-stranded RNA-dependent ATPase activity and melanoma growth-suppressive properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:637-42 pubmed
    ..MDA-5 is a double-stranded RNA-dependent ATPase that contains both a caspase recruitment domain and RNA helicase motifs, with a confirmed association with growth and differentiation in human melanoma cells. ..
  3. Pichlmair A, Schulz O, Tan C, Rehwinkel J, Kato H, Takeuchi O, et al. Activation of MDA5 requires higher-order RNA structures generated during virus infection. J Virol. 2009;83:10761-9 pubmed publisher
    Recognition of virus presence via RIG-I (retinoic acid inducible gene I) and/or MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5) initiates a signaling cascade that culminates in transcription of innate response genes such as those ..
  4. Deddouche S, Goubau D, Rehwinkel J, Chakravarty P, Begum S, Maillard P, et al. Identification of an LGP2-associated MDA5 agonist in picornavirus-infected cells. elife. 2014;3:e01535 pubmed publisher
    The RIG-I-like receptors RIG-I, LGP2, and MDA5 initiate an antiviral response that includes production of type I interferons (IFNs). The nature of the RNAs that trigger MDA5 activation in infected cells remains unclear...
  5. Hall J, Casciola Rosen L, Samedy L, Werner J, Owoyemi K, Danoff S, et al. Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5-associated dermatomyositis: expanding the clinical spectrum. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2013;65:1307-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the widening spectrum of clinical findings, we evaluated the clinical features of anti-MDA-5-positive patients seen at a US myositis referral center...
  6. Gateva V, Sandling J, Hom G, Taylor K, Chung S, Sun X, et al. A large-scale replication study identifies TNIP1, PRDM1, JAZF1, UHRF1BP1 and IL10 as risk loci for systemic lupus erythematosus. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with other autoimmune diseases suggested five loci (P < 1 x 10(-3)) that may contribute to SLE: IFIH1, CFB, CLEC16A, IL12B and SH2B3...
  7. Lin L, Su Z, Lebedeva I, Gupta P, Boukerche H, Rai T, et al. Activation of Ras/Raf protects cells from melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5-induced apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1982-93 pubmed
  8. Sutherland A, Davies J, Owen C, Vaikkakara S, Walker C, Cheetham T, et al. Genomic polymorphism at the interferon-induced helicase (IFIH1) locus contributes to Graves' disease susceptibility. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3338-41 pubmed
    ..strong evidence that an alanine to threonine amino acid change at codon 946 of the interferon-induced helicase (IFIH1) gene (SNP ID rs1990760) was associated with type 1 diabetes...
  9. Zhao Z, Cui B, Chen H, Wang S, Li I, Gu X, et al. The A946T polymorphism in the interferon induced helicase gene does not confer susceptibility to Graves' disease in Chinese population. Endocrine. 2007;32:143-7 pubmed
    ..A recent study revealed that the A946T polymorphism (rs1990760) in interferon induced helicase (IFIH1) gene was a susceptible locus for GD...

More Information

Publications63

  1. Martinez A, Santiago J, Cénit M, De las Heras V, de la Calle H, Fernandez Arquero M, et al. IFIH1-GCA-KCNH7 locus: influence on multiple sclerosis risk. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008;16:861-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, genes included in this locus - IFIH1 interferon induced helicase, GCA grancalcin or the potassium channel KCNH7 - are potential candidates implicated ..
  2. Parisien J, Bamming D, Komuro A, Ramachandran A, Rodriguez J, Barber G, et al. A shared interface mediates paramyxovirus interference with antiviral RNA helicases MDA5 and LGP2. J Virol. 2009;83:7252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The V protein mediates interference with the interferon regulatory RNA helicase MDA5 to avoid cellular antiviral responses...
  3. Ferreira R, Pan Hammarstrom Q, Graham R, Gateva V, Fontan G, Lee A, et al. Association of IFIH1 and other autoimmunity risk alleles with selective IgA deficiency. Nat Genet. 2010;42:777-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the known association of HLA with IgAD, we identified association with a nonsynonymous variant in IFIH1 (rs1990760G>A, P = 7...
  4. Besch R, Poeck H, Hohenauer T, Senft D, Hacker G, Berking C, et al. Proapoptotic signaling induced by RIG-I and MDA-5 results in type I interferon-independent apoptosis in human melanoma cells. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2399-411 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to their immunostimulatory and proapoptotic activity, RIG-I and MDA-5 ligands have therapeutic potential due to their ability to overcome the characteristic resistance of melanoma cells to apoptosis. ..
  5. Bamming D, Horvath C. Regulation of signal transduction by enzymatically inactive antiviral RNA helicase proteins MDA5, RIG-I, and LGP2. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9700-12 pubmed publisher
    Intracellular pattern recognition receptors MDA5, RIG-I, and LGP2 are essential components of the cellular response to virus infection and are homologous to the DEXH box subfamily of RNA helicases...
  6. Nejentsev S, Walker N, Riches D, Egholm M, Todd J. Rare variants of IFIH1, a gene implicated in antiviral responses, protect against type 1 diabetes. Science. 2009;324:387-9 pubmed publisher
    ..51 to 0.74; P = 1.3 x 10(-3) to 2.1 x 10(-16)) in IFIH1 (interferon induced with helicase C domain 1), a gene located in a region previously associated with T1D by GWASs...
  7. Zouk H, Marchand L, Polychronakos C. Study of transcriptional effects in Cis at the IFIH1 locus. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11564 pubmed publisher
    The Thr allele at the non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) Thr946Ala in the IFIH1 gene confers risk for Type 1 diabetes (T1D)...
  8. Kawai T, Takahashi K, Sato S, Coban C, Kumar H, Kato H, et al. IPS-1, an adaptor triggering RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated type I interferon induction. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:981-8 pubmed
    ..IPS-1 contained an N-terminal CARD-like structure that mediated interaction with the CARD of RIG-I and Mda5, which are cytoplasmic RNA helicases that sense viral infection...
  9. Qu H, Marchand L, Grabs R, Polychronakos C. The association between the IFIH1 locus and type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008;51:473-5 pubmed
    We set out to validate a recently reported type 1 diabetes association from the IFIH1 gene variation in an independent cohort from a population of mixed European descent...
  10. Klinker M, Schiller J, Magnuson V, Wang T, Basken J, Veth K, et al. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the IL2RA gene are associated with age at diagnosis in late-onset Finnish type 1 diabetes subjects. Immunogenetics. 2010;62:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using logistic regression, we found that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the INS, PTPN22, and IFIH1 loci were associated with late-onset disease (OR (95%CI) = 0.57(0.47-0.69), p = 2.77 x 10(-9); OR (95%CI) = 1...
  11. Ikegame S, Takeda M, Ohno S, Nakatsu Y, Nakanishi Y, Yanagi Y. Both RIG-I and MDA5 RNA helicases contribute to the induction of alpha/beta interferon in measles virus-infected human cells. J Virol. 2010;84:372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The RNA helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are differentially involved in the detection of cytoplasmic viral RNAs and induction of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-..
  12. Meylan E, Curran J, Hofmann K, Moradpour D, Binder M, Bartenschlager R, et al. Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus. Nature. 2005;437:1167-72 pubmed
    ..gene I, also known as Ddx58) and Mda5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, also known as Ifih1 or Helicard)...
  13. Berke I, Yu X, Modis Y, Egelman E. MDA5 assembles into a polar helical filament on dsRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18437-41 pubmed publisher
    Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) detects viral dsRNA in the cytoplasm...
  14. Yoneyama M, Kikuchi M, Matsumoto K, Imaizumi T, Miyagishi M, Taira K, et al. Shared and unique functions of the DExD/H-box helicases RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 in antiviral innate immunity. J Immunol. 2005;175:2851-8 pubmed
    ..There are three genes encoding RIG-I-related proteins in human and mouse genomes. Melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5), which consists of CARD and a helicase domain, functions as a positive regulator, ..
  15. Chaisson N, Paik J, Orbai A, Casciola Rosen L, Fiorentino D, Danoff S, et al. A novel dermato-pulmonary syndrome associated with MDA-5 antibodies: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2012;91:220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We present 2 cases of MDA-5-associated dermato-pulmonary syndrome and provide a comprehensive review of available literature. ..
  16. Sato S, Hoshino K, Satoh T, Fujita T, Kawakami Y, Fujita T, et al. RNA helicase encoded by melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 is a major autoantigen in patients with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis: Association with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:2193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our ELISA using recombinant MDA-5 protein makes detection of the anti-CADM-140 antibody routinely available. ..
  17. Wu B, Peisley A, Richards C, Yao H, Zeng X, Lin C, et al. Structural basis for dsRNA recognition, filament formation, and antiviral signal activation by MDA5. Cell. 2013;152:276-89 pubmed publisher
    b>MDA5, a viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) receptor, shares sequence similarity and signaling pathways with RIG-I yet plays essential functions in antiviral immunity through distinct specificity for viral RNA...
  18. Peng S, Geng J, Sun R, Tian Z, Wei H. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid liposome induces human hepatoma cells apoptosis which correlates to the up-regulation of RIG-I like receptors. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:529-36 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptor 3 and RIG-I like receptors (RLRs; MDA5, RIG-I) are involved in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis...
  19. Motz C, Schuhmann K, Kirchhofer A, Moldt M, Witte G, Conzelmann K, et al. Paramyxovirus V proteins disrupt the fold of the RNA sensor MDA5 to inhibit antiviral signaling. Science. 2013;339:690-3 pubmed publisher
    The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR) melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) senses cytoplasmic viral RNA and activates antiviral innate immunity...
  20. Cen H, Wang W, Leng R, Wang T, Pan H, Fan Y, et al. Association of IFIH1 rs1990760 polymorphism with susceptibility to autoimmune diseases: a meta-analysis. Autoimmunity. 2013;46:455-62 pubmed publisher
    Published data on the association between the IFIH1 rs1990760 polymorphism and multiple autoimmune diseases are controversial and inconclusive...
  21. Winkler C, Lauber C, Adler K, Grallert H, Illig T, Ziegler A, et al. An interferon-induced helicase (IFIH1) gene polymorphism associates with different rates of progression from autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2011;60:685-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotyping for single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the PTPN22, ERBB3, PTPN2, KIAA0350, CD25, and IFIH1 genes was performed using the MassARRAY system with iPLEX chemistry...
  22. Takahasi K, Kumeta H, Tsuduki N, Narita R, Shigemoto T, Hirai R, et al. Solution structures of cytosolic RNA sensor MDA5 and LGP2 C-terminal domains: identification of the RNA recognition loop in RIG-I-like receptors. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:17465-74 pubmed publisher
    The RIG-I like receptor (RLR) comprises three homologues: RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I), MDA5 (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5), and LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2)...
  23. Marinou I, Montgomery D, Dickson M, Binks M, Moore D, Bax D, et al. The interferon induced with helicase domain 1 A946T polymorphism is not associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2007;9:R40 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the interferon induced with helicase domain 1 (IFIH1) A946T (rs1990760 A>G) variant in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as this was recently associated with ..
  24. Triantafilou K, Vakakis E, Kar S, Richer E, Evans G, Triantafilou M. Visualisation of direct interaction of MDA5 and the dsRNA replicative intermediate form of positive strand RNA viruses. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:4761-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The proteins retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5) function as cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors that are involved in the ..
  25. Enevold C, Oturai A, Sørensen P, Ryder L, Koch Henriksen N, Bendtzen K. Multiple sclerosis and polymorphisms of innate pattern recognition receptors TLR1-10, NOD1-2, DDX58, and IFIH1. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;212:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..capable of analyzing 42 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genes encoding TLR1-10, NOD1-2, DDX58, and IFIH1. Using these assays, we genotyped 963 MS patients and 960 controls, and analyzed for possible associations to MS ..
  26. Shigemoto T, Kageyama M, Hirai R, Zheng J, Yoneyama M, Fujita T. Identification of loss of function mutations in human genes encoding RIG-I and MDA5: implications for resistance to type I diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13348-54 pubmed publisher
    Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are essential for detecting viral RNA and triggering antiviral responses, including production of type I interferon...
  27. Cui J, Zhu L, Xia X, Wang H, Legras X, Hong J, et al. NLRC5 negatively regulates the NF-kappaB and type I interferon signaling pathways. Cell. 2010;141:483-96 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that NLRC5, a member of the highly conserved NOD-like protein family, can inhibit the IKK complex and RIG-I/MDA5 function...
  28. Robinson T, Kariuki S, Franek B, Kumabe M, Kumar A, Badaracco M, et al. Autoimmune disease risk variant of IFIH1 is associated with increased sensitivity to IFN-? and serologic autoimmunity in lupus patients. J Immunol. 2011;187:1298-303 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) is a cytoplasmic dsRNA sensor that activates IFN-? pathway signaling...
  29. Li Y, Liao W, Cargill M, Chang M, Matsunami N, Feng B, et al. Carriers of rare missense variants in IFIH1 are protected from psoriasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2768-72 pubmed publisher
    ..for the association of psoriasis risk with missense SNPs in the interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 gene (IFIH1)...
  30. Jermendy A, Szatmari I, Laine A, Lukacs K, Horváth K, Korner A, et al. The interferon-induced helicase IFIH1 Ala946Thr polymorphism is associated with type 1 diabetes in both the high-incidence Finnish and the medium-incidence Hungarian populations. Diabetologia. 2010;53:98-102 pubmed publisher
    The rs1990760 polymorphism (Ala946Thr) of interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) has been proposed to associate with type 1 diabetes...
  31. Todd J, Walker N, Cooper J, Smyth D, Downes K, Plagnol V, et al. Robust associations of four new chromosome regions from genome-wide analyses of type 1 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2007;39:857-64 pubmed
    ..Several regions, including 18q22 and 18p11, showed association with autoimmune thyroid disease. This study increases the number of T1D loci with compelling evidence from six to at least ten. ..
  32. Jiang X, Kinch L, Brautigam C, Chen X, Du F, Grishin N, et al. Ubiquitin-induced oligomerization of the RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5 activates antiviral innate immune response. Immunity. 2012;36:959-73 pubmed publisher
    RIG-I and MDA5 detect viral RNA in the cytoplasm and activate signaling cascades leading to the production of type-I interferons...
  33. Kang D, Gopalkrishnan R, Lin L, Randolph A, Valerie K, Pestka S, et al. Expression analysis and genomic characterization of human melanoma differentiation associated gene-5, mda-5: a novel type I interferon-responsive apoptosis-inducing gene. Oncogene. 2004;23:1789-800 pubmed
    ..The conserved genomic and protein structure of mda-5 in human and mouse will permit analysis of the evolution and developmental aspects of this gene. ..
  34. Li X, Lu C, Stewart M, Xu H, Strong R, Igumenova T, et al. Structural basis of double-stranded RNA recognition by the RIG-I like receptor MDA5. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;488:23-33 pubmed publisher
    RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2 are cytosolic pattern recognition receptors detecting single-stranded or double-stranded RNA in virally infected cells...
  35. Chistiakov D, Voronova N, Savost anov K, Turakulov R. Loss-of-function mutations E6 27X and I923V of IFIH1 are associated with lower poly(I:C)-induced interferon-? production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of type 1 diabetes patients. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:1128-34 pubmed publisher
    Melanoma differentiation-associated 5 (MDA5), a product of the IFIH1 gene, is responsible for sensing double-stranded viral double-stranded RNA (RNA)...
  36. Wang Q, Nagarkar D, Bowman E, Schneider D, Gosangi B, Lei J, et al. Role of double-stranded RNA pattern recognition receptors in rhinovirus-induced airway epithelial cell responses. J Immunol. 2009;183:6989-97 pubmed publisher
    ..The separate requirements of RIG-I, MDA5, and IFN response factor (IRF)-3 were determined using their respective small interfering RNAs (siRNA)...
  37. Nayak R, Kearns M, Spielman R, Cheung V. Coexpression network based on natural variation in human gene expression reveals gene interactions and functions. Genome Res. 2009;19:1953-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that IFIH1, a susceptibility gene of type 1 diabetes, interacts with YES1, which plays a role in glucose transport...
  38. Cunninghame Graham D, Morris D, Bhangale T, Criswell L, Syvanen A, Rönnblom L, et al. Association of NCF2, IKZF1, IRF8, IFIH1, and TYK2 with systemic lupus erythematosus. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002341 pubmed publisher
    ..87×10(-11)), IKZF1 (P(comb) = 2.33×10(-9)), IRF8 (P(comb) = 1.24×10(-8)), IFIH1 (P(comb) = 1.63×10(-8)), and TYK2 (P(comb) = 3.88×10(-8))...
  39. Yang H, Wang Z, Xu K, Gu R, Chen H, Yu D, et al. IFIH1 gene polymorphisms in type 1 diabetes: genetic association analysis and genotype-phenotype correlation in Chinese Han population. Autoimmunity. 2012;45:226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..type 1 diabetes and two polymorphisms (rs3747517, rs1990760) from interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1). Here, 464 Type 1 diabetes patients and 465 control subjects were genotyped for these 2 polymorphisms...
  40. Rice G, del Toro Duany Y, Jenkinson E, Forte G, Anderson B, Ariaudo G, et al. Gain-of-function mutations in IFIH1 cause a spectrum of human disease phenotypes associated with upregulated type I interferon signaling. Nat Genet. 2014;46:503-509 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that heterozygous mutations in the cytosolic double-stranded RNA receptor gene IFIH1 (also called MDA5) cause a spectrum of neuroimmunological features consistently associated with an enhanced ..
  41. Liu S, Wang H, Jin Y, Podolsky R, Reddy M, Pedersen J, et al. IFIH1 polymorphisms are significantly associated with type 1 diabetes and IFIH1 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:358-65 pubmed publisher
    ..on chromosome 19), we provide strong evidence for association between T1D and multiple SNPs in the IFIH1 linkage disequilibrium (LD) block on chromosome 2q...
  42. Bogefors J, Kvarnhammar A, Latif L, Petterson T, Uddman R, Cardell L. Retinoic acid-inducible gene 1-like receptors in the upper respiratory tract. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2011;25:e262-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No alteration in RLR expression in tonsils was seen on infection. This study shows the presence and functional activity of RLRs in the human upper airways. It also suggests a role for RLRs in nasal polyposis. ..
  43. Aminkeng F, van Autreve J, Weets I, Quartier E, Van Schravendijk C, Gorus F, et al. IFIH1 gene polymorphisms in type 1 diabetes: genetic association analysis and genotype-phenotype correlation in the Belgian population. Hum Immunol. 2009;70:706-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of one of these loci, IFIH1. T1D patients (n=1981), control subjects (n=2092) and 430 families were genotyped for HLA-DQ and IFIH1 nsSNP ..
  44. Smyth D, Cooper J, Bailey R, Field S, Burren O, Smink L, et al. A genome-wide association study of nonsynonymous SNPs identifies a type 1 diabetes locus in the interferon-induced helicase (IFIH1) region. Nat Genet. 2006;38:617-9 pubmed
    ..type 1 diabetes (T1D) locus in the innate immunity viral RNA receptor gene region IFIH1 (also known as mda-5 or Helicard) on chromosome 2q24.3...
  45. Childs K, Randall R, Goodbourn S. LGP2 plays a critical role in sensitizing mda-5 to activation by double-stranded RNA. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64202 pubmed publisher
  46. Smyth D, Plagnol V, Walker N, Cooper J, Downes K, Yang J, et al. Shared and distinct genetic variants in type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:2767-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that common biologic mechanisms, such as autoimmunity-related tissue damage and intolerance to dietary antigens, may be etiologic features of both diseases. ..
  47. Petterson T, Mansson A, Riesbeck K, Cardell L. Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptors and retinoic acid inducible gene-like receptors in human tonsillar T lymphocytes. Immunology. 2011;133:84-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, these results suggest that these receptors have a role in T-cell activation. ..
  48. Loo Y, Gale M. Immune signaling by RIG-I-like receptors. Immunity. 2011;34:680-92 pubmed publisher
    The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 play a major role in pathogen sensing of RNA virus infection to initiate and modulate antiviral immunity...
  49. Pretorius A, Faber F, Van Kleef M. Immune gene expression profiling of PBMC isolated from horses vaccinated with attenuated African horsesickness virus serotype 4. Immunobiology. 2016;221:236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..was up-regulated after both inoculations and was characterised by type-1 interferon activation via the RIG-1/MDA5 pathway and the up-regulation of complement cascade components...
  50. Zhang H, Ye H, Liu S, Deng C, Li X, Shi P, et al. West Nile Virus NS1 Antagonizes Interferon Beta Production by Targeting RIG-I and MDA5. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, WNV NS1 targets RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) by interacting with them and subsequently causing their degradation by the proteasome...