hyaluronan synthase 2


Gene Symbol: hyaluronan synthase 2
Description: hyaluronan synthase 2
Alias: hyaluronan synthase 2, HA synthase 2, hyaluronate synthase 2, hyaluronic acid synthase 2
Species: human
Products:     hyaluronan synthase 2

Top Publications

  1. Kramer M, Escudero D, Lokeshwar S, Golshani R, Ekwenna O, Acosta K, et al. Association of hyaluronic acid family members (HAS1, HAS2, and HYAL-1) with bladder cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Cancer. 2011;117:1197-209 pubmed publisher
    ..004; RR = 6.7). HYAL-1 and HAS1 expression predicted BCa metastasis, and HYAL-1 expression also predicted disease-specific survival. Furthermore, the combined HAS2-HYAL-1 biomarker detected BCa and significantly predicted its recurrence. ..
  2. Watanabe K, Yamaguchi Y. Molecular identification of a putative human hyaluronan synthase. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:22945-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the Has2 protein is a crucial component of the human hyaluronan synthase system. ..
  3. Spicer A, Seldin M, Olsen A, Brown N, Wells D, Doggett N, et al. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes. Genomics. 1997;41:493-7 pubmed
    ..HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. ..
  4. Nykopp T, Rilla K, Sironen R, Tammi M, Tammi R, Hamalainen K, et al. Expression of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3) and hyaluronidases (HYAL1-2) in serous ovarian carcinomas: inverse correlation between HYAL1 and hyaluronan content. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:143 pubmed publisher
    ..4; P = 0.025). The results indicate that in serous epithelial ovarian malignancies HAS expression is not consistently elevated but HYAL1 expression is significantly reduced and correlates with the accumulation of hyaluronan. (233 words). ..
  5. Karousou E, Kamiryo M, Skandalis S, Ruusala A, Asteriou T, Passi A, et al. The activity of hyaluronan synthase 2 is regulated by dimerization and ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23647-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, K190R-mutated HAS2 formed dimers with wt HAS2 and quenched the activity of wt HAS2, thus demonstrating a functional role of the dimeric configuration. ..
  6. Vigetti D, Clerici M, Deleonibus S, Karousou E, Viola M, Moretto P, et al. Hyaluronan synthesis is inhibited by adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase through the regulation of HAS2 activity in human aortic smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:7917-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, such effects were not recovered by treatment with exogenous HA, suggesting that AMPK can block the pro-atherosclerotic signals driven by HA by interaction with its receptors. ..
  7. Bernert B, Porsch H, Heldin P. Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) promotes breast cancer cell invasion by suppression of tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..capacity compared with MDA-MB-231 cells predominately due to an increased expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2)...
  8. Pasonen Seppänen S, Takabe P, Edward M, Rauhala L, Rilla K, Tammi M, et al. Melanoma cell-derived factors stimulate hyaluronan synthesis in dermal fibroblasts by upregulating HAS2 through PDGFR-PI3K-AKT and p38 signaling. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;138:895-911 pubmed publisher
    ..PDGF secreted by melanoma cells thus mediated fibroblasts activation, with HAS2 upregulation as a major factor in the fibroblast response. This effect on stromal matrix is suggested to favor tumor growth. ..
  9. Saavalainen K, Pasonen Seppänen S, Dunlop T, Tammi R, Tammi M, Carlberg C. The human hyaluronan synthase 2 gene is a primary retinoic acid and epidermal growth factor responding gene. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14636-44 pubmed
    ..We found that in REK cells EGF and all-trans-RA up-regulated hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2) gene expression within 2 h 4-fold each and in HaCaT human immortal keratinocytes 8- and 33-fold, ..

More Information

Publications123 found, 100 shown here

  1. Niringiyumukiza J, Cai H, Xiang W. Prostaglandin E2 involvement in mammalian female fertility: ovulation, fertilization, embryo development and early implantation. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018;16:43 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, assessments of PGE2 protein and receptor expression levels should be taken into consideration. ..
  2. Wang N, Zhao F, Lin P, Zhang G, Tang K, Wang A, et al. Knockdown of XBP1 by RNAi in Mouse Granulosa Cells Promotes Apoptosis, Inhibits Cell Cycle, and Decreases Estradiol Synthesis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data reveal a novel critical role of XBP1 in folliculogenesis by regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis, and steroid synthesis of mouse granulosa cells. ..
  3. Blaha M, Nemcova L, Kepková K, Vodicka P, Prochazka R. Gene expression analysis of pig cumulus-oocyte complexes stimulated in vitro with follicle stimulating hormone or epidermal growth factor-like peptides. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015;13:113 pubmed publisher
  4. Shepel E, Grushka N, Makogon N, Sribna V, Pavlovych S, Yanchii R. Changes in DNA integrity and gene expression in ovarian follicular cells of lipopolysaccharide-treated female mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2018;70:1146-1149 pubmed publisher
    ..The endotoxemia resulted in significantly reduced mRNA expression levels for hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and Gremlin-1 (GREM1) genes compared with control...
  5. Akin D, Newman J, McIntyre L, Sugrue S. RNA-seq analysis of impact of PNN on gene expression and alternative splicing in corneal epithelial cells. Mol Vis. 2016;22:40-60 pubmed
    ..This window into the complexity of RNA splicing in the corneal epithelium implies that PNN exerts broad influence over the regulation and maintenance of the epithelial cell phenotype. ..
  6. Zhao F, Wang N, Yi Y, Lin P, Tang K, Wang A, et al. Knockdown of CREB3/Luman by shRNA in Mouse Granulosa Cells Results in Decreased Estradiol and Progesterone Synthesis and Promotes Cell Proliferation. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0168246 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that Luman regulates mouse GCs modulation of steroid synthesis, cell cycle activity and other regulators of folliculogenesis. ..
  7. Ghatak S, Markwald R, Hascall V, Dowling W, Lottes R, Baatz J, et al. Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1) regulates CD44V6 expression and activity through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-induced EGR1 in pulmonary fibrogenic fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:10465-10489 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a novel positive-feedback loop that links the myofibroblast phenotype to TGF?1-stimulated CD44V6/ERK/EGR1 signaling. ..
  8. Jang Y, Park J, Moon W, Dam P, Cho M, Chun S. Cumulus cell-expressed type I interferons induce cumulus expansion in mice. Biol Reprod. 2015;92:20 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that the type I IFN system is operating in mouse cumulus cells and plays a role in the induction of cumulus expansion during the ovulatory process in mice. ..
  9. Zhang P, Wang J, Lang H, Wang W, Liu X, Liu H, et al. Knockdown of CREB1 promotes apoptosis and decreases estradiol synthesis in mouse granulosa cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;105:1141-1146 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggested that CREB1 might be a key regulator of mGCs through regulating steroid synthesis, cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and other regulators of folliculogenesis. ..
  10. Spainhour J, Qiu P. Identification of gene-drug interactions that impact patient survival in TCGA. BMC Bioinformatics. 2016;17:409 pubmed
    ..Both Irinotecan/HAS2 (Hyaluronan synthase 2) and Bevacizumab/PGAM1 (Phosphoglycerate mutase 1) are interactions found in this study with independent ..
  11. Zhao X, Du F, Liu X, Ruan Q, Wu Z, Lei C, et al. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ovarian follicles and promotes oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. Theriogenology. 2019;130:79-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, BDNF treatment could improve the efficiency of buffalo oocyte maturation through regulating genes expression in cumulus cells and then promote early embryo development. ..
  12. McGovern S, Purfield D, Ring S, Carthy T, Graham D, Berry D. Candidate genes associated with the heritable humoral response to Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in dairy cows have factors in common with gastrointestinal diseases in humans. J Dairy Sci. 2019;102:4249-4263 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel molecular similarities identified between bovine paratuberculosis and human inflammatory bowel disease suggest potential for human therapeutic interventions to be translated to veterinary medicine and vice versa. ..
  13. Yoon J, Hwang S, Kim E, Jin M, Kim S, Hyun S. GDF8 activates p38 MAPK signaling during porcine oocyte maturation in vitro. Theriogenology. 2017;101:123-134 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, for the first time, our results demonstrate that GDF8 can act as a paracrine factor to modulate oocyte maturation by regulating p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular ROS level during porcine IVM. ..
  14. Castillejo Becerra C, Mattson A, Molstad D, Lorang I, Westendorf J, Bradley E. DNA methylation and FoxO3a regulate PHLPP1 expression in chondrocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2018;119:7470-7478 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that CpG methylation and FoxO3a regulate PHLPP1 expression. ..
  15. Ohtake J, Sakurai M, Hoshino Y, Tanemura K, Sato E. Expression of focal adhesion kinase in mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes, and effect of phosphorylation at Tyr397 on cumulus expansion. Mol Reprod Dev. 2015;82:218-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Reverse-transcriptase PCR showed that the mRNA expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), a marker of cumulus expansion, was significantly induced in cumulus cells...
  16. LaPorta E, Welsh J. Modeling vitamin D actions in triple negative/basal-like breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014;144 Pt A:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. ..
  17. Nagyova E, Nemcova L, Bujnakova Mlynarcikova A, Blaha M, Prochazka R, Scsukova S. Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-15 on gonadotropin-stimulated synthesis of hyaluronan and progesterone in porcine ovarian follicle. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2017;68:683-691 pubmed
    ..The present results indicate that the addition of BMP-15 to the gonadotropin-stimulated OCC cultured in serum-supplemented medium might improve oocyte-cumulus maturation. ..
  18. Stoppoloni D, Politi L, Leopizzi M, Gaetani S, Guazzo R, Basciani S, et al. Effect of glucosamine and its peptidyl-derivative on the production of extracellular matrix components by human primary chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015;23:103-13 pubmed publisher
  19. da Rosa P, de Cesaro M, Pereira Dau A, Duggavathi R, Bordignon V, Gonçalves P. Reversible meiotic arrest of bovine oocytes by EGFR inhibition and follicular hemisections. Theriogenology. 2017;99:53-62 pubmed publisher
    ..of early growth response protein 1 (EGR1), tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) and hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) genes, and phosphorylated extracellular regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) protein were lower in COCs ..
  20. Vollmann E, Cao L, Amatucci A, Reynolds T, Hamann S, Dalkilic Liddle I, et al. Identification of Novel Fibrosis Modifiers by In Vivo siRNA Silencing. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2017;7:314-323 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results provide a major advance over the existing knowledge of fibrogenic pathways. Our study is the first example of a targeted siRNA assay to identify novel fibrosis modifiers in vivo. ..
  21. Tamura R, Yokoyama Y, Yoshida H, Imaizumi T, Mizunuma H. 4-Methylumbelliferone inhibits ovarian cancer growth by suppressing thymidine phosphorylase expression. J Ovarian Res. 2014;7:94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that 4-MU exerts its antitumor effect on ovarian cancer through suppressing TP expression. ..
  22. Kim D, Lee H, Kim M, Lee J, Jin S, Lee H. The effect of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation inhibition on the porcine cumulus-oocyte complex during in vitro maturation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;483:752-758 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results showed that PARylation regulates cumulus expansion through the regulation of gene expression and affects developmental competence and quality in parthenogenetic embryos. ..
  23. Zhang R, Pang B, Xu S, Wan P, Guo S, Ji H, et al. The CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling promotes oocyte maturation by regulating cumulus expansion in sheep. Theriogenology. 2018;107:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, granulosa cell migration was impaired and expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and hyaluronan binding protein tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) were ..
  24. Gesteira T, Sun M, Coulson Thomas Y, Yamaguchi Y, Yeh L, Hascall V, et al. Hyaluronan Rich Microenvironment in the Limbal Stem Cell Niche Regulates Limbal Stem Cell Differentiation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4407-4421 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our findings suggest that HA has a major role in maintaining the LSC phenotype. ..
  25. Saxon J, Baer D, Barton J, Hawkins T, Wu B, Trusk T, et al. BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage is required for AV endocardial cushion maturation and remodeling. Dev Biol. 2017;430:113-128 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence that BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage is essential for the distal outgrowth, maturation and remodeling of AV endocardial cushions into the normal membranous VS and the stratified AV valves. ..
  26. Viola M, Brüggemann K, Karousou E, Caon I, Caravà E, Vigetti D, et al. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell viability, motility and matrix adhesion are regulated by a complex interplay of heparan sulfate, chondroitin-/dermatan sulfate and hyaluronan biosynthesis. Glycoconj J. 2017;34:411-420 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have important implications for the development of glycosaminoglycan-targeted therapeutic approaches for malignant diseases. ..
  27. Saito N, Adachi H, Tanaka H, Nakata S, Kawada N, Oofusa K, et al. Interstitial fluid flow-induced growth potential and hyaluronan synthesis of fibroblasts in a fibroblast-populated stretched collagen gel culture. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:2261-2273 pubmed publisher
    ..MF robustly enhanced hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and matrix metalloprotease 1 (MMP1) gene expressions but not of the other genes (MMP2, HYAL1, HYAL2,..
  28. Ma B, Liao T, Wen D, Dong C, Zhou L, Yang S, et al. Long intergenic non-coding RNA 271 is predictive of a poorer prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer. Sci Rep. 2016;6:36973 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, LINC00271 was identified as a possible suppressor gene in PTC in our study, and it may serve as a potential predictor of poor prognoses in PTC. ..
  29. Cheng A, Yin H, Chen A, Liu Y, Chuang M, He H, et al. Celecoxib and Pioglitazone as Potential Therapeutics for Regulating TGF-?-Induced Hyaluronan in Dysthyroid Myopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:1951-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor and PPAR-? agonist in this study are potential treatments for GO due to their ability to suppress TNF-?-induced TGF-?, HAS, and HA upregulation. ..
  30. McRae N, Forgan L, McNeill B, Addinsall A, McCulloch D, van der Poel C, et al. Glucocorticoids Improve Myogenic Differentiation In Vitro by Suppressing the Synthesis of Versican, a Transitional Matrix Protein Overexpressed in Dystrophic Skeletal Muscles. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that versican is a novel and relevant target gene in DMD, given its suppression by glucocorticoids and that in excess it impairs myoblast fusion, a process key for muscle regeneration. ..
  31. Lai F, Ma J, Liu J, Wang J, Cheng S, Sun X, et al. The influence of N-acetyl-l-cysteine on damage of porcine oocyte exposed to zearalenone in vitro. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2015;289:341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that ZEA affects both oocyte nucleus and cytoplasmic maturation during in vitro maturation, and NAC can reverse these damages to some extent. ..
  32. Gerber P, Buhren B, Schrumpf H, Hevezi P, Bölke E, Sohn D, et al. Mechanisms of skin aging induced by EGFR inhibitors. Support Care Cancer. 2016;24:4241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..EGFR inhibition results in molecular alterations in keratinocytes that may contribute to the observed skin aging of patients treated with respective targeted agents. ..
  33. Yamashita Y, Kawashima I, Yanai Y, Nishibori M, Richards J, Shimada M. Hormone-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme/A disintegrin and metalloprotease-17 impacts porcine cumulus cell oocyte complex expansion and meiotic maturation via ligand activation of the epidermal growth factor recepto. Endocrinology. 2007;148:6164-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, TACE/ADAM17 is induced and the activity is involved in porcine COC expansion as well as oocyte meiotic maturation through the activation of EGF receptor in cumulus cells. ..
  34. Ballantyne M, Pinel K, Dakin R, Vesey A, Diver L, Mackenzie R, et al. Smooth Muscle Enriched Long Noncoding RNA (SMILR) Regulates Cell Proliferation. Circulation. 2016;133:2050-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify SMILR as a driver of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and suggest that modulation of SMILR may be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce vascular pathologies. ..
  35. Yang G, Jiang B, Cai W, Liu S, Zhao S. Hyaluronan and hyaluronan synthases expression and localization in embryonic mouse molars. J Mol Histol. 2016;47:413-20 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to E18.5. These results suggested that HA synthesized by different HASs is involved in embryonic mouse molar morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. ..
  36. Grskovic B, Pollaschek C, Mueller M, Stuhlmeier K. Expression of hyaluronan synthase genes in umbilical cord blood stem/progenitor cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:890-5 pubmed
    ..HAS2 is expressed only in freshly isolated CD133+ cells and quickly diminishes during differentiation. Because of this, HAS2 gene expression might be suitable as a new marker for CD133+ UCB-derived stem cells. ..
  37. Fowke T, Karunasinghe R, Bai J, Jordan S, Gunn A, Dean J. Hyaluronan synthesis by developing cortical neurons in vitro. Sci Rep. 2017;7:44135 pubmed publisher
    ..The specific structural localisation of hyaluronan suggests potential roles in neuronal development and function. ..
  38. Kong Y, Liang Q, Chen Y, Yang P, Liu X, Li Y, et al. Hyaluronan negatively regulates vascular calcification involving BMP2 signaling. Lab Invest. 2018;98:1320-1332 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of HA synthase 2 (HAS2), a major HA synthase in VSMCs, also inhibited calcification of VSMCs, whereas CRISPR/Cas9-mediated HAS2 ..
  39. Vigetti D, Deleonibus S, Moretto P, Karousou E, Viola M, Bartolini B, et al. Role of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and O-GlcNAcylation of hyaluronan synthase 2 in the control of chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronan synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:35544-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings could explain the elevated matrix HA observed in diabetic vessels that, in turn, could mediate cell dedifferentiation processes critical in vascular pathologies. ..
  40. López Navarro E, Ortega F, Francisco Busquets E, Sabater Masdeu M, Álvarez Castaño E, Ricart W, et al. Thyroid Hormone Receptors Are Differentially Expressed in Granulosa and Cervical Cells of Infertile Women. Thyroid. 2016;26:466-73 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (ADRβ2) mRNA levels and the expression of genes linked to fertility such as gremlin-1 (GREM1), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) were also evaluated...
  41. Li Y, Liang J, Yang T, Monterrosa Mena J, Huan C, Xie T, et al. Hyaluronan synthase 2 regulates fibroblast senescence in pulmonary fibrosis. Matrix Biol. 2016;55:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..that a critical step in resolving fibrosis is the induction of senescence in fibrotic fibroblasts and hyaluronan synthase 2 may regulate this process...
  42. Poukka M, Bykachev A, Siiskonen H, Tyynelä Korhonen K, Auvinen P, Pasonen Seppänen S, et al. Decreased expression of hyaluronan synthase 1 and 2 associates with poor prognosis in cutaneous melanoma. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:313 pubmed publisher
    ..013 and p?=?0.001, respectively). This study indicates that reduced expression of HAS1 and HAS2 is associated with melanoma progression and suggests that HAS1 and HAS2 have a prognostic significance in cutaneous melanoma. ..
  43. Heldin P, Basu K, Kozlova I, Porsch H. HAS2 and CD44 in breast tumorigenesis. Adv Cancer Res. 2014;123:211-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor-stroma interactions in breast cancer including the regulation of HAS2 and CD44 expression may contribute to the development of better strategies to treat breast cancer patients. ..
  44. Kawada C, Kimura M, Masuda Y, Nomura Y. Oral administration of hyaluronan prevents skin dryness and epidermal thickening in ultraviolet irradiated hairless mice. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2015;153:215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, it was considered that the increase in the skin moisture content by orally administered hyaluronan, with a molecular weight of less than 10k, was related to the effect on skin cells. ..
  45. Koistinen V, Jokela T, Oikari S, Kärnä R, Tammi M, Rilla K. Hyaluronan-positive plasma membrane protrusions exist on mesothelial cells in vivo. Histochem Cell Biol. 2016;145:531-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism is potentially crucial for the normal function and maintenance of tissues and body fluids and may be utilized in many therapeutic applications. ..
  46. Kim D, Lim J, Kwon S. Development of Vibrational Culture Model Mimicking Vocal Fold Tissues. Ann Biomed Eng. 2016;44:3136-3143 pubmed publisher
    ..culture device mimicking normal phonatory frequencies, cell proliferation increased and expression of hyaluronic acid synthase 2 was downregulated in response to vibrational stresses...
  47. Son Y, Lee S, Hyun H, Shin M, Park Y, Jeong S, et al. Fibroblast growth factor 10 markedly improves in vitro maturation of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2017;84:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that FGF10 markedly improves cumulus cell expansion, oocyte maturation, and subsequent embryo development. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 67-75, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  48. Pan B, Toms D, Li J. MicroRNA-574 suppresses oocyte maturation via targeting hyaluronan synthase 2 in porcine cumulus cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2018;314:C268-C277 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found that miR-574 directly targets the transcript for hyaluronan synthase 2 protein (HAS2), a key enzyme in the production of extracellular matrix by the surrounding cumulus cells...
  49. Dunn K, Lee P, Wilson C, Iida J, Wasiluk K, Hugger M, et al. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthases decreases matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) expression and activity. Surgery. 2009;145:322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that HAS and HA may mediate cellular invasion via changes in MMP-7 expression. ..
  50. Lu C, Liu M, Clinton M, Culshaw G, Argyle D, Corcoran B. Developmental pathways and endothelial to mesenchymal transition in canine myxomatous mitral valve disease. Vet J. 2015;206:377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These research findings strongly suggest involvement of developmental signalling pathways and mechanisms, including EndoMT, in the pathogenesis of canine MMVD. ..
  51. Oikari S, Makkonen K, Deen A, Tyni I, Kärnä R, Tammi R, et al. Hexosamine biosynthesis in keratinocytes: roles of GFAT and GNPDA enzymes in the maintenance of UDP-GlcNAc content and hyaluronan synthesis. Glycobiology. 2016;26:710-22 pubmed publisher
    ..standard culture conditions, GNPDA2 siRNA increased GFAT1, and GFAT1 siRNA increased the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2). Silencing of GFAT1 stimulated GNPDA1 and GDPDA2, and inhibited cell migration...
  52. Saito M, Tanaka M, Misawa E, Yao R, Nabeshima K, Yamauchi K, et al. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel powder prevents UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity via suppression of overexpression of MMPs in hairless mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2016;80:1416-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that AVGP has the ability to prevent the skin photoaging. ..
  53. Morerio C, Rapella A, Rosanda C, Tassano E, Gambini C, Romagnoli G, et al. PLAG1-HAS2 fusion in lipoblastoma with masked 8q intrachromosomal rearrangement. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2005;156:183-4 pubmed
  54. Chang M, Tanino Y, Vidová V, Kinsella M, Chan C, Johnson P, et al. A rapid increase in macrophage-derived versican and hyaluronan in infectious lung disease. Matrix Biol. 2014;34:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that versican and hyaluronan synthesis may play an important role in the innate immune response to gram-negative lung infection. ..
  55. Masarwah A, Tammi M, Sudah M, Sutela A, Oikari S, Kosma V, et al. The reciprocal association between mammographic breast density, hyaluronan synthesis and patient outcome. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015;153:625-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, HA around cancer cells may inhibit chemotherapy agents and antibody treatments from reaching cancer cells. ..
  56. Kiene L, Homann S, Suvorava T, Rabausch B, Müller J, Kojda G, et al. Deletion of Hyaluronan Synthase 3 Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia in Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:e9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..HAS3-mediated HA synthesis after vessel injury supports seminal signaling pathways in activation of VSMC, increases platelet-derived growth factor BB-mediated migration, and in turn enhances neointimal hyperplasia in vivo. ..
  57. Mohey Elsaeed O, Marei W, Fouladi Nashta A, El Saba A. Histochemical structure and immunolocalisation of the hyaluronan system in the dromedary oviduct. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2016;28:936-947 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in HAS2 and HAS3 expression suggest regional differences in the molecular size of HA secreted in oviductal fluid that may influence oviduct-gamete interaction in the camel. ..
  58. Bhardwaj R, Ansari M, Pandey S, Parmar M, Chandra V, Kumar G, et al. GREM1, EGFR, and HAS2; the oocyte competence markers for improved buffalo embryo production in vitro. Theriogenology. 2016;86:2004-11 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded from the study that GREM1, EGFR, and HAS2 could be used as molecular markers of oocyte competence for an improved buffalo embryo production in vitro. ..
  59. Azari M, Kafi M, Ebrahimi B, Fatehi R, Jamalzadeh M. Oocyte maturation, embryo development and gene expression following two different methods of bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes vitrification. Vet Res Commun. 2017;41:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Using EG alone for vitrification of bovine immature COCs, resulted in higher expression of GDF9, BMP15 and production of more in vitro matured and cleaved oocytes. ..
  60. Guan D, Tian H. Integrated network analysis to explore the key genes regulated by parathyroid hormone receptor 1 in osteosarcoma. World J Surg Oncol. 2017;15:177 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, LEF1, NR4A2, HAS2, and RHOC had higher degrees in the integrated network. ZFPM2, LEF1, NR4A2, HAS2, and RHOC might be potential targets of PTHR1 in OS. ..
  61. Schulten H, Bangash M, Karim S, Dallol A, Hussein D, Merdad A, et al. Comprehensive molecular biomarker identification in breast cancer brain metastases. J Transl Med. 2017;15:269 pubmed publisher
    ..Among new findings with the capacity to gain clinical relevance is the detection of overexpressed snoRNAs known to regulate some critical cellular functions as ribosome biogenesis. ..
  62. Simpson M, Wilson C, Furcht L, Spicer A, Oegema T, McCarthy J. Manipulation of hyaluronan synthase expression in prostate adenocarcinoma cells alters pericellular matrix retention and adhesion to bone marrow endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:10050-7 pubmed
    ..The results of this study are consistent with a model in which HA matrix formation, BMEC adhesion, and metastatic potential are mediated by HAS expression. ..
  63. Knudson W, Ishizuka S, Terabe K, Askew E, Knudson C. The pericellular hyaluronan of articular chondrocytes. Matrix Biol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Signaling events driven by changes in hyaluronan-chondrocyte interactions may involve a chaperone function of CD44 with other receptors/cofactors as well as the changes in hyaluronan production functioning as a metabolic rheostat. ..
  64. Sussmann M, Sarbia M, Meyer Kirchrath J, Nüsing R, Schror K, Fischer J. Induction of hyaluronic acid synthase 2 (HAS2) in human vascular smooth muscle cells by vasodilatory prostaglandins. Circ Res. 2004;94:592-600 pubmed
    ..7+/-1.6-fold). Expression of HA synthase 2 (HAS2) was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR and found to be strongly upregulated at concentrations of ..
  65. Meran S, Thomas D, Stephens P, Martin J, Bowen T, Phillips A, et al. Involvement of hyaluronan in regulation of fibroblast phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25687-97 pubmed
    ..Moreover, HA pericellular coat assembly, rather than HAS isoform expression, appears to be associated with phenotypic differentiation. ..
  66. Dziuba N, Ferguson M, O Brien W, Sanchez A, Prussia A, McDonald N, et al. Identification of cellular proteins required for replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28:1329-39 pubmed
    ..However, the genes presented in this study did not share identity with those found previously. Novel antiviral targets identified in this study should open new avenues for mechanistic investigation. ..
  67. Rilla K, Oikari S, Jokela T, Hyttinen J, Kärnä R, Tammi R, et al. Hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) requires higher cellular UDP-GlcNAc concentration than HAS2 and HAS3. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:5973-83 pubmed publisher
  68. Jokela T, Kärnä R, Rauhala L, Bart G, Pasonen Seppänen S, Oikari S, et al. Human Keratinocytes Respond to Extracellular UTP by Induction of Hyaluronan Synthase 2 Expression and Increased Hyaluronan Synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:4861-4872 pubmed publisher
  69. Saavalainen K, Tammi M, Bowen T, Schmitz M, Carlberg C. Integration of the activation of the human hyaluronan synthase 2 gene promoter by common cofactors of the transcription factors retinoic acid receptor and nuclear factor kappaB. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11530-9 pubmed
    ..These findings partially explain the induction of HAS2 mRNA by all-trans-RA and TNF-alpha and provide an example how the action of different transcription factor families can use the same cofactors. ..
  70. Li Y, Li L, Brown T, Heldin P. Silencing of hyaluronan synthase 2 suppresses the malignant phenotype of invasive breast cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:2557-67 pubmed
    ..These results imply that alterations in HAS2 expression and endogenously synthesized hyaluronan affect the malignant phenotype of Hs578T breast cancer cells. ..
  71. Karousou E, Stachtea X, Moretto P, Viola M, Vigetti D, D Angelo M, et al. New insights into the pathobiology of Down syndrome--hyaluronan synthase-2 overexpression is regulated by collagen VI ?2 chain. FEBS J. 2013;280:2418-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These data may explain the DS phenotypes and their effects in organ tissue maturation. ..
  72. Vanneste M, Hanoux V, Bouakka M, Bonnamy P. Hyaluronate synthase-2 overexpression alters estrogen dependence and induces histone deacetylase inhibitor-like effects on ER-driven genes in MCF7 breast tumor cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;444:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that stable hyaluronate synthase 2 (HAS2) overexpression in estrogen receptor ? (ER?) -positive MCF7 cells oppositely altered estrogen ..
  73. Zhu G, Wang S, Chen J, Wang Z, Liang X, Wang X, et al. Long noncoding RNA HAS2-AS1 mediates hypoxia-induced invasiveness of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Mol Carcinog. 2017;56:2210-2222 pubmed publisher
    ..01 in both microarray data were validated by qRT-PCR. Among the top 10 lncRNAs, hyaluronan synthase 2 antisense 1 (HAS2-AS1) was the only one that has a hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) on its promoter region ..
  74. Ducale A, Ward S, Dechert T, Yager D. Regulation of hyaluronan synthase-2 expression in human intestinal mesenchymal cells: mechanisms of interleukin-1beta-mediated induction. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;289:G462-70 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IL-1beta induction of HAS2 expression involves multiple signaling pathways that act in concert, thus leading to an increase in expression of hyaluronan by jejunum-derived mesenchymal cells. ..
  75. Monslow J, Williams J, Fraser D, Michael D, Foka P, Kift Morgan A, et al. Sp1 and Sp3 mediate constitutive transcription of the human hyaluronan synthase 2 gene. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18043-50 pubmed
  76. Okuda H, Kobayashi A, Xia B, Watabe M, Pai S, Hirota S, et al. Hyaluronan synthase HAS2 promotes tumor progression in bone by stimulating the interaction of breast cancer stem-like cells with macrophages and stromal cells. Cancer Res. 2012;72:537-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that upregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) occurs in highly metastatic breast cancer stem-like cells (CSC) defined by CD44(+)/CD24(-)/ESA(+) ..
  77. Sano K, Gotoh M, Dodo K, Tajima N, Shimizu Y, Murakami Murofushi K. Age-related changes in cyclic phosphatidic acid-induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts. Hum Cell. 2018;31:72-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, cPA represents a suitable candidate for the health maintenance and improvement of the skin by increasing the level of hyaluronic acid in the dermis. ..
  78. Li T, Zhou X, Li B, Jiang B. Effect of MT3 on Retinal and Choroidal TGF-?2 and HAS2 Expressions in Form Deprivation Myopia of Guinea Pig. J Ophthalmol. 2017;2017:5028019 pubmed publisher
    ..To confirm its dose-dependent effect on form deprivation myopia and evaluate the effect of MT3 at different tissue concentrations on changes in mRNA and protein expression for TGF-?2 and HAS2...
  79. Stridh S, Palm F, Takahashi T, Ikegami Kawai M, Friederich Persson M, Hansell P. Hyaluronan Production by Renomedullary Interstitial Cells: Influence of Endothelin, Angiotensin II and Vasopressin. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..No change occurred in the mRNA expressions of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) or hyaluronidases (Hyals), while Hyal activity in the supernatant increased by 67% and CD44 ..
  80. Makkonen K, Pasonen Seppänen S, Törrönen K, Tammi M, Carlberg C. Regulation of the hyaluronan synthase 2 gene by convergence in cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and retinoid acid receptor signaling. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18270-81 pubmed publisher
    The human hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) gene encodes for an enzyme making hyaluronan, altered concentrations of which are associated with many pathological situations including wounding, several inflammatory conditions, and malignant ..
  81. Vigetti D, Genasetti A, Karousou E, Viola M, Moretto P, Clerici M, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines induce hyaluronan synthesis and monocyte adhesion in human endothelial cells through hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:24639-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This signaling pathway mediated hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNA expression without altering other glycosaminoglycan metabolism...
  82. Akgul Y, Holt R, Mummert M, Word A, Mahendroo M. Dynamic changes in cervical glycosaminoglycan composition during normal pregnancy and preterm birth. Endocrinology. 2012;153:3493-503 pubmed publisher
  83. Stein J, Iwuchukwu C, Maier K, Gahtan V. Thrombospondin-1-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation are functionally dependent on microRNA-21. Surgery. 2014;155:228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for TSP-1, hyaluronic acid synthase 2 (HAS2), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF?2) was performed...
  84. Röck K, Tigges J, Sass S, Schütze A, Florea A, Fender A, et al. miR-23a-3p causes cellular senescence by targeting hyaluronan synthase 2: possible implication for skin aging. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:369-377 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, miR-23a-3p was shown to target hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2)...
  85. Midgley A, Bowen T. Analysis of human hyaluronan synthase gene transcriptional regulation and downstream hyaluronan cell surface receptor mobility in myofibroblast differentiation. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1229:605-18 pubmed publisher
  86. Chao H, Spicer A. Natural antisense mRNAs to hyaluronan synthase 2 inhibit hyaluronan biosynthesis and cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27513-22 pubmed
    We report the identification of a natural antisense mRNA of hyaluronan synthase 2 that we have chosen to designate as HASNT (for HA synthase 2 antisense) in human and mouse...
  87. Maroski J, Vorderwülbecke B, Fiedorowicz K, Da Silva Azevedo L, Siegel G, Marki A, et al. Shear stress increases endothelial hyaluronan synthase 2 and hyaluronan synthesis especially in regard to an atheroprotective flow profile. Exp Physiol. 2011;96:977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was undertaken to reveal whether endothelial hyaluronan synthesis via hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) can be changed by different shear stress conditions in vitro, especially in regard to an ..
  88. Silva A, Bezerra F, Glanzner W, Dos Santos J, Dau A, Rovani M, et al. mRNA expression profile of the TNF-? system in LH-induced bovine preovulatory follicles and effects of TNF-? on gene expression, ultrastructure and expansion of cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured in vitro. Theriogenology. 2017;90:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, TNF-? system members are present in bovine antral follicles and expression of TNF-? is influenced by gonadotropins in vivo and in vitro. In vitro, TNF-? maintained cumulus cells ultrastructure during COC culture. ..
  89. Kairkhanova Y, Saimova A, Uzbekov D, Chaizhunusova N, Fujimoto N. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO RADIOACTIVE 56MnO2 POWDER ON HYALURONAN SYNTHASE 2 IN THE LUNGS OF RATS. Georgian Med News. 2017;:120-124 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we focused on its effects on hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2) gene expression that may related to pathological changes in the lung...
  90. NGUYEN N, Kumar A, Chacko S, Ouellette R, Ghosh A. Human hyaluronic acid synthase-1 promotes malignant transformation via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, micronucleation and centrosome abnormalities. Cell Commun Signal. 2017;15:48 pubmed publisher
    ..The intracellular HA produced by HAS1 can aggravate genomic instability and intratumor heterogeneity, pointing to a fundamental role of intracellular HA in cancer initiation and progression. ..
  91. Filpa V, Bistoletti M, Caon I, Moro E, Grimaldi A, Moretto P, et al. Changes in hyaluronan deposition in the rat myenteric plexus after experimentally-induced colitis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17644 pubmed publisher
    ..Prominent hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) staining was found in myenteric neuron cytoplasm, suggesting that myenteric neurons produce HA...
  92. Marzani B, Pinto D, Minervini F, Calasso M, di Cagno R, Giuliani G, et al. The antimicrobial peptide pheromone Plantaricin A increases antioxidant defenses of human keratinocytes and modulates the expression of filaggrin, involucrin, ?-defensin 2 and tumor necrosis factor-? genes. Exp Dermatol. 2012;21:665-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the PlnA was positively sensed by human keratinocytes, promoting antioxidant defenses, barrier functions and antimicrobial activity of the skin. ..