HSD11B2

Summary

Gene Symbol: HSD11B2
Description: hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2
Alias: AME, AME1, HSD11K, HSD2, SDR9C3, corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2, -HSD11 type II, 11-DH2, 11-HSD type II, 11-beta-HSD type II, 11-beta-HSD2, 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 9C member 3
Species: human
Products:     HSD11B2

Top Publications

  1. Odermatt A, Arnold P, Frey F. The intracellular localization of the mineralocorticoid receptor is regulated by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:28484-92 pubmed
    ..To investigate the functional protection of the MR by 11beta-HSD2, we coexpressed epitope-tagged MR and 11beta-HSD2 in HEK-293 cells lacking 11beta-HSD2 activity and analyzed their ..
  2. Pacha J, Lisa V, Miksik I. Effect of cellular differentiation on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the intestine. Steroids. 2002;67:119-26 pubmed
  3. Kajantie E, Dunkel L, Turpeinen U, Stenman U, Wood P, Nuutila M, et al. Placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 and fetal cortisol/cortisone shuttle in small preterm infants. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:493-500 pubmed
    ..is highly variable and mainly regulated by the placental enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11 beta-HSD2), which converts excess cortisol (F) to inactive cortisone (E)...
  4. Chen B, Lin H, Hu G, Su Y, Zhou H, Lian Q, et al. The (+)- and (-)-gossypols potently inhibit human and rat 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;113:177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The potency of gossypol to inhibit 11betaHSD1 was far less; the IC(50) was > or =100 microM for racemic gossypol. The gossypol-induced hypokalemia is likely associated with its potent inhibition of kidney 11betaHSD2. ..
  5. Marsit C, Maccani M, Padbury J, Lester B. Placental 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase methylation is associated with newborn growth and a measure of neurobehavioral outcome. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33794 pubmed publisher
    ..In the placenta, the HSD11B2 gene encoding the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, which is responsible for the inactivation of ..
  6. Nawrocki A, Goldring C, Kostadinova R, Frey F, Frey B. In vivo footprinting of the human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 promoter: evidence for cell-specific regulation by Sp1 and Sp3. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:14647-56 pubmed
    ..The present investigation aimed to elucidate the mechanisms accounting for the rigorous control of the HSD11B2 gene in humans...
  7. Alikhani Koopaei R, Fouladkou F, Frey F, Frey B. Epigenetic regulation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:1146-57 pubmed
    The enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta HSD2) is selectively expressed in aldosterone target tissues, where it confers aldosterone selectivity for the mineralocorticoid receptor by inactivating 11 beta-..
  8. Dy J, Guan H, Sampath Kumar R, Richardson B, Yang K. Placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 is reduced in pregnancies complicated with idiopathic intrauterine growth Restriction: evidence that this is associated with an attenuated ratio of cortisone to cortisol in the umbilical artery. Placenta. 2008;29:193-200 pubmed
    The placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) serves as a functional barrier to protect the fetus from excessive exposure to high levels of maternal cortisol...
  9. Friso S, Pizzolo F, CHOI S, Guarini P, Castagna A, Ravagnani V, et al. Epigenetic control of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 gene promoter is related to human hypertension. Atherosclerosis. 2008;199:323-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and animal studies suggest a role for promoter methylation, a major epigenetic feature of DNA, in regulation of HSD11B2 expression...

More Information

Publications124 found, 100 shown here

  1. O Donnell K, Bugge Jensen A, Freeman L, Khalife N, O CONNOR T, Glover V. Maternal prenatal anxiety and downregulation of placental 11?-HSD2. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:818-26 pubmed publisher
    ..prenatal anxiety was associated with a downregulation of placental 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2), the enzyme which metabolises cortisol...
  2. He P, Chen Z, Sun Q, Li Y, Gu H, Ni X. Reduced expression of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in preeclamptic placentas is associated with decreased PPAR? but increased PPAR? expression. Endocrinology. 2014;155:299-309 pubmed publisher
    Placental 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2) is reduced in pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia (PE)...
  3. Makino T, Ohtake N, Watanabe A, Tsuchiya N, Imamura S, Iizuka S, et al. Down-regulation of a hepatic transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 is involved in alteration of pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhizin and its metabolites in a rat model of chronic liver injury. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:1438-43 pubmed publisher
    ..It is thought to induce pseudoaldosteronism via inhibition of type 2 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2) by glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a major metabolite of GL...
  4. St Pierre J, Fraser M, Vaillancourt C. Inhibition of placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 by lead. Reprod Toxicol. 2016;65:133-138 pubmed publisher
    ..maternal cortisol transfer to the fetus by the activity of the type 2 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD2), which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone...
  5. Webster S, Binnie M, McConnell K, Sooy K, Ward P, Greaney M, et al. Modulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity by 1,5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:3265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds are selective for 11beta-HSD1 over 11beta-HSD2 and possess good cellular potency in human and murine 11beta-HSD1 assays...
  6. Fenton R, Chou C, Ageloff S, Brandt W, Stokes J, Knepper M. Increased collecting duct urea transporter expression in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;285:F143-51 pubmed
    ..measured both plasma corticosterone levels and inner medullary 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) abundances...
  7. Tsachaki M, Meyer A, Weger B, Kratschmar D, Tokarz J, Adamski J, et al. Absence of 11-keto reduction of cortisone and 11-ketotestosterone in the model organism zebrafish. J Endocrinol. 2017;232:323-335 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals, two 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11?-HSD1 and 11?-HSD2) interconvert active and inactive glucocorticoids, allowing tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid action...
  8. Travers S, Martinerie L, Boileau P, Xue Q, Lombes M, Pussard E. Comparative profiling of adrenal steroids in maternal and umbilical cord blood. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018;178:127-134 pubmed publisher
    ..in umbilical cord blood reflecting the strong placental 11-β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) activity...
  9. Terao M, Katayama I. Local cortisol/corticosterone activation in skin physiology and pathology. J Dermatol Sci. 2016;84:11-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The 11?-HSD2 isoform, which catalyzes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+-dependent inactivation of cortisol/..
  10. Hernandez M, Watkins J, Vu J, Hayward L. DOCA/salt hypertension alters Period1 and orexin-related gene expression in the medulla and hypothalamus of male rats: Diurnal influences. Auton Neurosci. 2018;210:34-43 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of multiple genes, including the clock gene Period 1 (Per1), 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11-HSD2), and ?-ENAC, the epithelial sodium channel subunit...
  11. Patterson S, Zee J, Wiseman S, Hecker M. Effects of chronic exposure to dietary selenomethionine on the physiological stress response in juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). Aquat Toxicol. 2017;186:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Corticosteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2) abundance was lower in WS fed 22.4 and 104.4?g Se/g dm, indicating less conversion of cortisol to cortisone...
  12. Zhu Q, Ge F, Dong Y, Sun W, Wang Z, Shan Y, et al. Comparison of flavonoids and isoflavonoids to inhibit rat and human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2. Steroids. 2018;132:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..of flavonoids (apigenin and quercetin) and isoflavonoids [genistein and (±) equol] on rat and human HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 were analyzed...
  13. Deuchar G, McLean D, Hadoke P, Brownstein D, Webb D, Mullins J, et al. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 deficiency accelerates atherogenesis and causes proinflammatory changes in the endothelium in apoe-/- mice. Endocrinology. 2011;152:236-246 pubmed publisher
    ..The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) prevents inappropriate activation of the MR by inactivating glucocorticoids in mineralocorticoid-target tissues...
  14. Lian S, Guo J, Wang L, Li W, Wang J, Ji H, et al. Impact of prenatal cold stress on placental physiology, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in rats. Oncotarget. 2017;8:115304-115314 pubmed publisher
    ..I?B?, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11?-HSD2), interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), Caspase-3 proteins and altered the ratio of B-cell lymphoma-extra ..
  15. Sztechman D, Czarzasta K, Cudnoch Jedrzejewska A, Szczepanska Sadowska E, Zera T. Aldosterone and mineralocorticoid receptors in regulation of the cardiovascular system and pathological remodelling of the heart and arteries. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018;69: pubmed publisher
    ..by availability of tissue specific 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of type 1 (11β-HSD1) or type 2 (11β-HSD2)...
  16. Zhang Y, Hattori R, Sarida M, García E, Strüssmann C, Yamamoto Y. Expression profiles of amhy and major sex-related genes during gonadal sex differentiation and their relation with genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;265:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..of AMH receptor type II (amhrII), gonadal aromatase (cyp19a1a), and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2)...
  17. Liu X, Xie B, Wang Z, Jin L, Zhang Y. The secretion, synthesis, and metabolism of cortisol and its downstream genes in the H-P-I axis of rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) are disrupted by acute waterborne cadmium exposure. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;185-186:112-121 pubmed publisher
    ..The level of 11?-HSD2, which is required for the conversion of cortisol to cortisone, was increased in the kidney, intestine, brain, and ..
  18. Tsuji H, Wang W, Sunil J, Shimizu N, Yoshimura K, Uemura H, et al. Involvement of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in calcium oxalate crystal induced activation of NADPH oxidase and renal cell injury. World J Urol. 2016;34:89-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Relative expression of genes encoding for AGT, angiotensin receptors 1b and 2, Renin 1, Cyp11b, HSD11B2, Nr3c2, NOx4 and Rac1 was upregulated in the kidneys of rats with hyperoxaluria...
  19. Beck K, Kanagaratnam S, Kratschmar D, Birk J, Yamaguchi H, Sailer A, et al. Enzymatic interconversion of the oxysterols 7β,25-dihydroxycholesterol and 7-keto,25-hydroxycholesterol by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and 2. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019;190:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..of 7β,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7β25OHC) from 7-keto,25-hydroxycholesterol (7k25OHC) and tested whether 11β-HSD2 is able to catalyze the reverse reaction...
  20. Dumeige L, Storey C, Decourtye L, Nehlich M, Lhadj C, Viengchareun S, et al. Sex-Specificity of Mineralocorticoid Target Gene Expression during Renal Development, and Long-Term Consequences. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..kinase 1 (Sgk1) and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein (Gilz), together with Hsd11b2, Finally, the implication of sex hormones in this sex-specific expression profile was demonstrated in vitro, ..
  21. Tang W, Hu Y, He X. [Acupuncture Stimulation of Acupoints of Multiple Meridians for Patients with Diminished Ovarian Reserve of Both Yin and Yang Deficiency]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2015;40:479-83, 488 pubmed
    ..moderate=4 and severe=6 points) of menstrual cycle, menstrual duration, amount, color, quality [blood blot or ame- nia, symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)] were assessed according to "Guiding Principles for Clinical ..
  22. Tan X, Ji C, Zheng L, Zhang J, Yuan H, Gong S, et al. Corticotrophin-releasing hormone and corticosterone impair development of preimplantation embryos by inducing oviductal cell apoptosis via activating the Fas system: an in vitro study. Hum Reprod. 2017;32:1583-1597 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse 4-cell embryos and blastocysts expressed HSD2 but not HSD1...
  23. Liang Y, Huang G, Lin Z, Li J, Yang J, Zhong L, et al. Reproductive effects of synthetic progestin norgestrel in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2018;190:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..up-regulation of hydroxysteroid 20-beta dehydrogenase (hsd20b) and hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2 (hsd11b2) genes and down-regulation of 11-beta-hydroxylase (cyp11b) gene in the ovaries of females...
  24. Tuchscherer M, Puppe B, Tuchscherer A, Kanitz E. Psychosocial stress sensitizes neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses to Escherichia coli challenge in domestic piglets. Brain Behav Immun. 2018;68:274-287 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2), TNF-α and IL-6 in the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and spleen of 7-, 21- and 35-day-old piglets...
  25. Glover V. Prenatal stress and its effects on the fetus and the child: possible underlying biological mechanisms. Adv Neurobiol. 2015;10:269-83 pubmed publisher
    ..There is some evidence in both rat models and in humans that prenatal stress can reduce placental 11?-HSD2, the enzyme which metabolises cortisol to inactive cortisone...
  26. Mune T, Rogerson F, Nikkila H, Agarwal A, White P. Human hypertension caused by mutations in the kidney isozyme of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Nat Genet. 1995;10:394-9 pubmed
    The syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is an inherited form of human hypertension thought to result from a deficiency of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta HSD)...
  27. Zheng X, Ke Y, Feng A, Yuan P, Zhou J, Yu Y, et al. The Mechanism by Which Amentoflavone Improves Insulin Resistance in HepG2 Cells. Molecules. 2016;21: pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism by which amentoflavone (AME) improves insulin resistance in a human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2)...
  28. Christakoudi S, Runglall M, Mobillo P, Rebollo Mesa I, Tsui T, Nova Lamperti E, et al. Steroid regulation: An overlooked aspect of tolerance and chronic rejection in kidney transplantation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018;473:205-216 pubmed publisher
    Steroid conversion (HSD11B1, HSD11B2, H6PD) and receptor genes (NR3C1, NR3C2) were examined in kidney-transplant recipients with "operational tolerance" and chronic rejection (CR), independently and within the context of 88 tolerance-..
  29. Bierer L, Bader H, Daskalakis N, Lehrner A, Makotkine I, Seckl J, et al. Elevation of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity in Holocaust survivor offspring: evidence for an intergenerational effect of maternal trauma exposure. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;48:1-10 pubmed publisher
  30. Luo L, Deng J, Wang D, He J, Deng W. Regulation of epithelial sodium channel expression by oestradiol and progestogen in alveolar epithelial cells. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2015;216:52-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, E and/or P treatment inhibited 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 2 (11β-HSD2) activity, increased corticosterone expression and decreased the serum adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) levels...
  31. Moritz A, Wiedenhoefer J, Profit A, Jagirdar J. Breast adenomyoepithelioma and adenomyoepithelioma with carcinoma (malignant adenomyoepithelioma) with associated breast malignancies: A case series emphasizing histologic, radiologic, and clinical correlation. Breast. 2016;29:132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..When one of the components is histologically malignant, it is termed AME with carcinoma. Due to the rarity, the literature correlating imaging, histology, and clinical outcome is limited...
  32. Boudon S, Vuorinen A, Geotti Bianchini P, Wandeler E, Kratschmar D, Heidl M, et al. Novel 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors reduce cortisol levels in keratinocytes and improve dermal collagen content in human ex vivo skin after exposure to cortisone and UV. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171079 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 2b, 3e, 7b and 12e were shown to selectively inhibit 11β-HSD1 over 11β-HSD2, 17β-HSD1 and 17β-HSD2...
  33. Ambrico M, Ambrico P, Ligonzo T, Cardone A, Bridelli M, Casamassima G, et al. Hydration-controlled anisotropic and giant permittivity in TEG-functionalized eumelanin. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2017;19:9432-9443 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, similar experiments on a commercial synthetic eumelanin (AMe) used as a reference were suggestive of a bulk macroporous scaffold binding or hosting liquid water...
  34. Temkin S, Nacharaju V, Hellman M, Lee Y, Abulafia O. Type 2 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human ovarian cancer. Steroids. 2006;71:1019-23 pubmed
    ..Decreased cortisol levels due type 2 1beta-HSD activity may play a role neoplastic transformation as well as tumor proliferation in ovarian cancer by eliminating anti-inflammatory action of cortisol. ..
  35. Morelli V, Polledri E, Mercadante R, Zhukouskaya V, Palmieri S, Beck Peccoz P, et al. The activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme and cortisol secretion in patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Endocrine. 2016;53:809-15 pubmed publisher
    ..AI) patients, beside the cortisol secretion, a different 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD11B2) activity, measurable by 24-h urinary cortisol/cortisone ratio (R-UFF/UFE) (the higher R-UFF/UFE the lower ..
  36. Senyuk V, Sinha K, Chakraborty S, Buonamici S, Nucifora G. P/CAF and GCN5 acetylate the AML1/MDS1/EVI1 fusion oncoprotein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;307:980-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that AML1/MDS1/EVI1 (AME), a repressor produced by the t(3;21) associated with human leukemia, physically interacts with the ..
  37. Liu J, Duan Y, Hu Y, Sun L, Wang S, Fu W, et al. Exogenous administration of chronic corticosterone affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens showing long or short tonic immobility. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2016;191:53-58 pubmed publisher
    ..CORT treatment significantly increased the level of SREBP2 (p=0.00), LDLR (p<0.05), GR (p<0.05) and 11β-HSD2 (p<0.05) protein abundance in liver...
  38. Sheikhalizadeh V, Hasani A, Ahangarzadeh Rezaee M, Rahmati Yamchi M, Hasani A, Ghotaslou R, et al. Comprehensive study to investigate the role of various aminoglycoside resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. J Infect Chemother. 2017;23:74-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The bacteria were subjected to genetic basis assessment for the presence of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AME), 16S rRNA methylase encoding genes and relative expression of AdeABC and AbeM efflux pumps in relation to their ..
  39. Osteresch B, Viegas S, Cramer B, Humpf H. Multi-mycotoxin analysis using dried blood spots and dried serum spots. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017;409:3369-3382 pubmed publisher
    ..DH-CIT), zearalenone and zearalanone (ZEN, ZAN), altenuene (ALT), alternariols (AOH; alternariol monomethyl ether, AME), enniatins (EnA, EnA1, EnB, EnB1) and beauvericin (Bea) was validated for two matrices, ..
  40. Agarwal A, Rogerson F, Mune T, White P. Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the human HSD11K gene encoding the kidney (type 2) isozyme of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Genomics. 1995;29:195-9 pubmed
    ..We have now characterized the human gene encoding kidney 11 beta HSD (HSD11K)...
  41. Hu W, Wang H, Huang H. Analysis of gene expression and preliminary study of methylation about 11β-HSD2 gene in placentas of Chinese pre-eclampsia patients of Han ethnicity. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2015;41:343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..was to determine the promoter methylation status of type 2 isoform of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD2) and its regulatory correlation with 11β-HSD2 gene expression in placentas of pre-eclampsia (PE) patients of ..
  42. Mazzocchi G, Malendowicz L, Aragona F, Tortorella C, Gottardo L, Nussdorfer G. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 are up- and downregulated in cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. J Investig Med. 2002;50:288-92 pubmed
    ..Hence, 11betaHSD isoenzymes could act as amplifiers of the secretagogue effect of agonists and could contribute to the elevated hormonal secretion of CSAs. ..
  43. Pieniazek J, Smith K, Williams M, Manangi M, Vazquez Anon M, Solbak A, et al. Evaluation of increasing levels of a microbial phytase in phosphorus deficient broiler diets via live broiler performance, tibia bone ash, apparent metabolizable energy, and amino acid digestibility. Poult Sci. 2017;96:370-382 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate increasing concentrations of an evolved microbial phytase on male broiler performance, tibia bone ash, AME, and amino acid digestibility when fed diets deficient in available phosphorus (aP)...
  44. Wilson R, Dave Sharma S, Wei J, Obeyesekere V, Li K, Ferrari P, et al. A genetic defect resulting in mild low-renin hypertension. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10200-5 pubmed
    ..In 1995, it was shown that mutations in the gene (HSD11B2) encoding the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme (11beta-HSD2) cause AME...
  45. Mongia A, Vecker R, George M, Pandey A, Tawadrous H, Schoeneman M, et al. Role of 11?HSD type 2 enzyme activity in essential hypertension and children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:3622-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Urinary 5?-THF, 5?-THF, and THE analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry should be a part of routine work-up of CKD and hypertensive patients. ..
  46. Kitanaka S, Katsumata N, Tanae A, Hibi I, Takeyama K, Fuse H, et al. A new compound heterozygous mutation in the 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene in a case of apparent mineralocorticoid excess. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:4054-8 pubmed
    ..Two isoforms of human 11 beta HSD are known, and the type 2 isoform (11 beta HSD2) has been recently shown to be responsible for AME...
  47. Suzuki S, Tsubochi H, Ishibashi H, Suzuki T, Kondo T, Sasano H. Increased expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Pathol Int. 2003;53:751-6 pubmed
    We examined the immunohistochemical distribution of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of bioactive glucocorticoids to their receptor-inactive forms, in lung tissue ..
  48. Solano M, Holmes M, Mittelstadt P, Chapman K, Tolosa E. Antenatal endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids and their impact on immune ontogeny and long-term immunity. Semin Immunopathol. 2016;38:739-763 pubmed
    ..endogenous glucocorticoids by placental and fetal expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2)...
  49. Deng X, Tang L, Liu S, Li X, He Y, Xu H. A Proposal to Stratify the Intermediate-Risk Thyroid Nodules According to the AACE/ACE/AME Guidelines with Ultrasound Features. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17901 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi Medical (AACE/ACE/AME) Guideline with ultrasound (US) features...
  50. Estiarte N, Crespo Sempere A, Marin S, Ramos A, Worobo R. Stability of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether during food processing of tomato products. Food Chem. 2018;245:951-957 pubmed publisher
    The stability of two Alternaria mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), has been investigated during the food processing of tomato products simulating commercial processing conditions...
  51. Jun Y, Park S, Hwang J, Kim T, Jung K, Jung J, et al. Differential expression of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and 2 in mild and moderate/severe persistent allergic nasal mucosa and regulation of their expression by Th2 cytokines: asthma and rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014;44:197-211 pubmed publisher
    ..We analysed the expression and distribution patterns of 11?-HSD1, 11?-HSD2, and steroidogenic enzymes in normal and allergic nasal mucosa, and cytokine-driven regulation of their expression...
  52. Wong M, Holloway A, Hardy D. Nicotine Directly Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Rat Placental Trophoblast Giant Cells. Toxicol Sci. 2016;151:23-34 pubmed publisher
    ..and BiP/GRP78) and TG cell differentiation and function (eg, Pl-1, placental growth factor [Pgf], Hsd11b1, and Hsd11b2) were quantified via Western blot or real-time polymerase chain reaction...
  53. Zuo R, Liu X, Wang W, Li W, Ying H, Sun K. A repressive role of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in the human placenta. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:7578-7587 pubmed publisher
    The expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which acts as a placental glucocorticoid barrier, is silenced in cytotrophoblasts but substantially up-regulated during syncytialization...
  54. Brown R, Chapman K, Kotelevtsev Y, Yau J, Lindsay R, Brett L, et al. Cloning and production of antisera to human placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Biochem J. 1996;313 ( Pt 3):1007-17 pubmed
    ..potent glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol and corticosterone), 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2) plays an important role in the placenta by controlling fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, and in ..
  55. Lepenies J, Stewart P, Quinkler M. The hypertensiogenetic steroid 19-nor-progesterone does not influence cortisol inactivation by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2009;31:376-9 pubmed
    ..states of pregnancy hypertension, 19-nor-P may inhibit renal 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2), thus allowing cortisol to bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)...
  56. Sai S, Nakagawa Y, Yamaguchi R, Suzuki M, Sakaguchi K, Okada S, et al. Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 contributes to glucocorticoid resistance in lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Leuk Res. 2011;35:1644-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show the association between GC sensitivity and 11β-HSD2 expression in human T-cell leukemic cell lines...
  57. Lazo de la Vega Monroy M, Solís Martínez M, Romero Gutiérrez G, Aguirre Arzola V, Wrobel K, Wrobel K, et al. 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 promoter methylation is associated with placental protein expression in small for gestational age newborns. Steroids. 2017;124:60-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The placental enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2, HSD11B2 gene) acts as a barrier protecting the fetus from maternal corticosteroid deleterious effects...
  58. Poch E, Gonzalez D, Giner V, Bragulat E, Coca A, de la Sierra A. Molecular basis of salt sensitivity in human hypertension. Evaluation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms. Hypertension. 2001;38:1204-9 pubmed
    ..The BP response to high salt intake was different among genotypes of ACE I/D and 11betaHSD G534A, suggesting that these polymorphisms may be potentially useful genetic markers of salt sensitivity. ..
  59. Rogers S, Hughes B, Jones C, Freedman L, Smart K, Taylor N, et al. Diminished 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity is associated with decreased weight and weight gain across the first year of life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:E821-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This not only highlights the central role of GCs and their metabolism, but also emphasizes the need for detailed longitudinal analyses. ..
  60. Yang G, Dou J, Zhang X, Gu W, Lv Z, Du J, et al. Increased 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 and 17α-hydroxylase activities in a virilized adolescent female with adrenal adenoma: A case report. Exp Ther Med. 2016;11:530-534 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the activities of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (HSD2), cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (HSD3) enzymes were measured ..
  61. Yau M, Azkawi H, Haider S, Khattab A, Badi M, Abdullah W, et al. A novel mutation in HSD11B2 causes apparent mineralocorticoid excess in an Omani kindred. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016;1376:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..in childhood due to a deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2), which is encoded by HSD11B2. Without treatment, chronic hypertension leads to early development of end-organ damage...
  62. Guo J, Deng H, Li H, Zhu Q, Zhao B, Chen B, et al. Effects of methoxychlor and its metabolite 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane on 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in vitro. Toxicol Lett. 2013;218:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..HPTE) on two isoforms of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD1 and 11?-HSD2) in vitro...
  63. Zhao Y, Gong X, Chen L, Li L, Liang Y, Chen S, et al. Site-specific methylation of placental HSD11B2 gene promoter is related to intrauterine growth restriction. Eur J Hum Genet. 2014;22:734-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Placental 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD11B2) is a key gene involved in glucocorticoid metabolism, which in turn seems to be related to fetal growth ..
  64. Alfaidy N, Gupta S, DeMarco C, Caniggia I, Challis J. Oxygen regulation of placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2: physiological and pathological implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:4797-805 pubmed
    ..Two types of 11 beta-HSD exist in the placenta, 11 beta-HSD1 and 11 beta-HSD2. 11 beta-HSD2 is thought to protect the fetus from cortisol excess...
  65. Deltshev C, Wang C. A new Agraecina spider species from the Balkan Peninsula (FYR Macedonia) (Araneae: Liocranidae). Zootaxa. 2016;4117:135-40 pubmed publisher
    ..All measurements were taken in mm. Abbreviations used in text include: AME, anterior median eyes; ALE, anterior lateral eyes; EM, embolus; MA, median apophysis; CD, copulatory duct; ST, ..
  66. Thompson G, Chang D, Wittenberg R, Mchardy I, Semrad A. In Vivo 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Inhibition in Posaconazole-Induced Hypertension and Hypokalemia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61: pubmed publisher
    We describe a case of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) secondary to posaconazole therapy and suggest the biochemical mechanism...
  67. Stegk J, Ebert B, Martin H, Maser E. Expression profiles of human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 1 and type 2 in inflammatory bowel diseases. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;301:104-8 pubmed publisher
    ..is mediated by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) which increases cortisol, and 11beta-HSD2 which decreases cortisol concentrations...
  68. Börzsönyi B, Demendi C, Pajor A, Rigo J, Marosi K, Agota A, et al. Gene expression patterns of the 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 enzyme in human placenta from intrauterine growth restriction: the role of impaired feto-maternal glucocorticoid metabolism. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;161:12-7 pubmed publisher
    To assess 11-?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11?-HSD2) gene expression patterns in human placental samples from intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) pregnancies using normal pregnancy as control...
  69. Hu W, Weng X, Dong M, Liu Y, Li W, Huang H. Alteration in methylation level at 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene promoter in infants born to preeclamptic women. BMC Genet. 2014;15:96 pubmed publisher
    Preeclampsia reduces placental expression and activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD11B2), leading to an increase in fetal glucocordicoids...
  70. Conradt E, Hawes K, Guerin D, Armstrong D, Marsit C, Tronick E, et al. The Contributions of Maternal Sensitivity and Maternal Depressive Symptoms to Epigenetic Processes and Neuroendocrine Functioning. Child Dev. 2016;87:73-85 pubmed publisher
    ..may buffer the child to the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on DNA methylation of NR3C1, 11β-HSD2, and neuroendocrine functioning...
  71. Okano M, Sato M, Kageyama S. Determination of higenamine and coclaurine levels in human urine after the administration of a throat lozenge containing Nandina domestica fruit. Drug Test Anal. 2017;9:1788-1793 pubmed publisher
    ..of Nandina domestica (which contains this component) is available as an ingredient in the so-called Nanten-nodo-ame throat lozenge found on the Japanese market, which is an over-the-counter pharmaceutical and is easy to purchase ..
  72. Quinkler M, Stewart P. Hypertension and the cortisol-cortisone shuttle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:2384-92 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the gene encoding 11 beta-HSD2 (HSD11B2) account for an inherited form of hypertension, the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess, in which ..
  73. Demendi C, Börzsönyi B, Pajor A, Rigo J, Nagy Z, Szentpéteri I, et al. Abnormal fetomaternal glucocorticoid metabolism in the background of premature delivery: placental expression patterns of the 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 gene. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012;165:210-4 pubmed publisher
    During pregnancy, 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11?-HSD2) is involved in the development of the placental barrier, and its main function is to protect the fetus from the effects of the physiological increase of maternal ..
  74. Appleton A, Armstrong D, Lesseur C, Lee J, Padbury J, Lester B, et al. Patterning in placental 11-B hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase methylation according to prenatal socioeconomic adversity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74691 pubmed publisher
    ..In the placenta, the HSD11B2 gene encodes the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, which is responsible for the inactivation of ..
  75. Green B, Armstrong D, Lesseur C, Paquette A, Guerin D, Kwan L, et al. The Role of Placental 11-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 and Type 2 Methylation on Gene Expression and Infant Birth Weight. Biol Reprod. 2015;92:149 pubmed publisher
    ..correlations between methylation and gene expression, including sex-specific transcriptional regulation of HSD11B2. Our work is one of the first comprehensive views of DNA methylation and expression in the placenta for both ..
  76. Paquette A, Lester B, Lesseur C, Armstrong D, Guerin D, Appleton A, et al. Placental epigenetic patterning of glucocorticoid response genes is associated with infant neurodevelopment. Epigenomics. 2015;7:767-79 pubmed publisher
    To determine associations between methylation of NR3C1, HSD11B2, FKBP5 and ADCYAP1R1 and newborn neurobehavioral outcomes. In 537 newborns, placental methylation was quantified using bisulfite pyrosequencing...
  77. Razzaghy Azar M, Yau M, Khattab A, New M. Apparent mineralocorticoid excess and the long term treatment of genetic hypertension. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;165:145-150 pubmed publisher
    ..and hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism owing to deficient 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (11βHSD2) enzyme activity...
  78. Cai J, Zhao Y, Liu P, Xia B, Zhu Q, Wang X, et al. Exposure to particulate air pollution during early pregnancy is associated with placental DNA methylation. Sci Total Environ. 2017;607-608:1103-1108 pubmed publisher
    ..this study, we examined the associations between prenatal PM10 exposure and DNA methylation of LINE1, HSD11B2 and NR3C1 in human placenta...
  79. Li C, Zhang Z, Liu X, Shen K, Gu P, Kang X. Simultaneous quantification of cortisol and cortisone in urines from infants with packed-fiber solid-phase extraction coupled to HPLC-MS/MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1061-1062:163-168 pubmed publisher
    ..body, their interconversion is controlled by two isotypes of 11?-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD1 and 11?-HSD2). The ratio of urinary cortisol to cortisone can be used to assess the activity of 11?-HSDs...
  80. Dahlgren D, Roos C, Lundqvist A, Tannergren C, Langguth P, Sjöblom M, et al. Preclinical Effect of Absorption Modifying Excipients on Rat Intestinal Transport of Model Compounds and the Mucosal Barrier Marker 51Cr-EDTA. Mol Pharm. 2017;14:4243-4251 pubmed publisher
    ..One approach to circumvent this problem is the use of absorption modifying excipient(s) (AME)...
  81. Julan L, Guan H, van Beek J, Yang K. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta suppresses 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene expression in human placental trophoblast cells. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1482-90 pubmed
    ..cPGI2-induced down-regulation of 11beta-HSD2 mRNA did not require de novo protein synthesis; 4) cPGI2 suppressed HSD11B2 promoter activity, but did not alter the half-life of 11beta-HSD2 mRNA; and 5) the inhibitory effect of cPGI2 on ..
  82. Garbrecht M, Klein J, McCarthy T, Schmidt T, Krozowski Z, Snyder J. 11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human adult and fetal lung and its regulation by sex steroids. Pediatr Res. 2007;62:26-31 pubmed
    11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) oxidizes the biologically active glucocorticoid (GC), cortisol, to inactive cortisone...
  83. Lee M, Fried S, Mundt S, Wang Y, Sullivan S, Stefanni A, et al. Depot-specific regulation of the conversion of cortisone to cortisol in human adipose tissue. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no depot difference in HSD1 expression or reductase activity, while cortisol inactivation and HSD2 mRNA expression (expressed in stromal cells) were higher in Om suggesting higher cortisol turnover in this depot...
  84. Mune T, Suwa T, Morita H, Isomura Y, Takada N, Yamamoto Y, et al. Longer HSD11B2 CA-repeat in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Endocr J. 2013;60:671-8 pubmed
    Type 2 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase encoded by the HSD11B2 gene converts cortisol to inactive cortisone, and alteration in this enzymatic activity might affect glucose homeostasis by affecting circulating levels or tissue ..
  85. Valdivia C, Carvajal C, Campino C, Allende F, Martinez Aguayo A, Baudrand R, et al. Citosine-Adenine-Repeat Microsatellite of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 Gene in Hypertensive Children. Am J Hypertens. 2016;29:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytosine-adenine repeat (CA repeat) microsatellite has been associated with low HSD11B2 gene expression...
  86. Debost J, Petersen L, Grove J, Hedemand A, Khashan A, Henriksen T, et al. Investigating interactions between early life stress and two single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSD11B2 on the risk of schizophrenia. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015;60:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..sequence variation, specifically two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs5479 and rs56303414) from the gene HSD11B2. This gene encodes the enzyme 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 which converts active cortisol into ..
  87. van Andel L, Zhang Z, Lu S, Kansra V, Agarwal S, Hughes L, et al. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of niraparib and its metabolite M1 in human plasma and urine. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1040:14-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of a new drug includes the characterisation of absorption, metabolism and excretion (AME) of the compound...
  88. Salvante K, Milano K, Kliman H, Nepomnaschy P. Placental 11 ?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2) expression very early during human pregnancy. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2017;8:149-154 pubmed publisher
    ..is partially protected from elevated cortisol exposure by placental 11 ?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2), which oxidizes bioactive cortisol into bio-inactive cortisone...
  89. Grimaldi F, Fazio N, Attanasio R, Frasoldati A, Papini E, Cremonini N, et al. Assessment of Response to Treatment and Follow-Up in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..This document by the Italian Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AME) on the criteria for the follow-up of GEP-NEN patients is aimed at providing comprehensive recommendations for ..
  90. Senyuk V, Chakraborty S, Mikhail F, Zhao R, Chi Y, Nucifora G. The leukemia-associated transcription repressor AML1/MDS1/EVI1 requires CtBP to induce abnormal growth and differentiation of murine hematopoietic cells. Oncogene. 2002;21:3232-40 pubmed
    The leukemia-associated fusion gene AML1/MDS1/EVI1 (AME) encodes a chimeric transcription factor that results from the (3;21)(q26;q22) translocation...
  91. Kamide K, Kokubo Y, Hanada H, Nagura J, Yang J, Takiuchi S, et al. Genetic variations of HSD11B2 in hypertensive patients and in the general population, six rare missense/frameshift mutations. Hypertens Res. 2006;29:243-52 pubmed
    Mutations in the gene encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, HSD11B2, cause a rare monogenic juvenile hypertensive syndrome called apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME)...
  92. Campino C, Martinez Aguayo A, Baudrand R, Carvajal C, Aglony M, Garcia H, et al. Age-related changes in 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity in normotensive subjects. Am J Hypertens. 2013;26:481-7 pubmed publisher
    Impairment in 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD2) activity results in inefficient inactivation of cortisol to cortisone, and it can trigger hypertension through activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor...