Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: HNRNPH1
Description: heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1
Alias: HNRPH, HNRPH1, hnRNPH, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (H)
- Dai Y, Chiu L, Sui Y, Dai Q, Penumutchu S, Jain N, et al. Nanoparticle based simple electrochemical biosensor platform for profiling of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Talanta. 2019;195:46-54 pubmed publisher..Our study provides insights into a potentially universal platform for in vitro biomolecule interaction analysis using a nanoparticle based electrochemical biosensor approach. ..
- Ohki K, Kiyokawa N, Saito Y, Hirabayashi S, Nakabayashi K, Ichikawa H, et al. Clinical and molecular characteristics of MEF2D fusion-positive B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood, including a novel translocation resulting in MEF2D-HNRNPH1 gene fusion. Haematologica. 2019;104:128-137 pubmed publisher..i>MEF2D fusions, including MEF2D-BCL9 (n=10), MEF2D-HNRNPUL1 (n=6), and one novel MEF2D-HNRNPH1 fusion. The incidence of MEF2D fusions overall was 2...
- Miyaso H, Nakamura N, Naito M, Hirai S, Matsuno Y, Itoh M, et al. Early postnatal exposure to a low dose of decabromodiphenyl ether affects expression of androgen and thyroid hormone receptor-alpha and its splicing variants in mouse Sertoli cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e114487 pubmed publisher..levels of transcripts of the Ar, Thra and its splicing variants, and Thra splicing factors (Hnrnpa1, Srsf1, and Hnrnph1) with qPCR in isolated mouse Sertoli cells exposed postnatally to decaBDE (0.025, 0.25, and 2.5 mg/kg)...
- Ruan Q, Yazdani N, Beierle J, Hixson K, Hokenson K, Apicco D, et al. Changes in neuronal immunofluorescence in the C- versus N-terminal domains of hnRNP H following D1 dopamine receptor activation. Neurosci Lett. 2018;684:109-114 pubmed publisher..We recently mapped and validated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (Hnrnph1) as a quantitative trait gene underlying differential behavioral sensitivity to methamphetamine...
- Braun S, Enculescu M, Setty S, Cortés Lopéz M, de Almeida B, Sutandy F, et al. Decoding a cancer-relevant splicing decision in the RON proto-oncogene using high-throughput mutagenesis. Nat Commun. 2018;9:3315 pubmed publisher..Moreover, we highlight heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (HNRNPH) as a key regulator of RON splicing in healthy tissues and cancer...
- Nishida Y, Aida K, Kihara M, Kobayashi T. Antibody-validated proteins in inflamed islets of fulminant type 1 diabetes profiled by laser-capture microdissection followed by mass spectrometry. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e107664 pubmed publisher..cell proliferation, including probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DEAD box helicase 5 (DDX5) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (HNRNPH1), were identified...
- Xu J, Lu Z, Xu M, Pan L, Deng Y, Xie X, et al. A heroin addiction severity-associated intronic single nucleotide polymorphism modulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing of the Î¼ opioid receptor gene OPRM1 via hnRNPH interactions. J Neurosci. 2014;34:11048-66 pubmed publisher..shift assay, minigene, siRNA, and antisense morpholino oligonucleotide studies have identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (hnRNPH) as the major binding partner for the G-containing SNP site...
- Stepto A, Gallo J, Shaw C, Hirth F. Modelling C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. Acta Neuropathol. 2014;127:377-89 pubmed publisher..RNA foci formation is accompanied by sequestration of specific RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), including Pur-alpha, hnRNPH and ADARB2, suggesting that G4C2-mediated sequestration and functional depletion of RBPs are cytotoxic and thus ..
- Grohar P, Kim S, Rangel Rivera G, Sen N, Haddock S, Harlow M, et al. Functional Genomic Screening Reveals Splicing of the EWS-FLI1 Fusion Transcript as a Vulnerability in Ewing Sarcoma. Cell Rep. 2016;14:598-610 pubmed publisher..Ewing sarcoma cells harboring a genomic breakpoint that retains exon 8 of EWSR1 require the RNA-binding protein HNRNPH1 to express in-frame EWS-FLI1...
- Li Y, Bakke J, Finkelstein D, Zeng H, Wu J, Chen T. HNRNPH1 is required for rhabdomyosarcoma cell growth and survival. Oncogenesis. 2018;7:9 pubmed publisher..Heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (HNRNPH1) is an RNA-binding protein that is highly expressed in many cancers, including RMS...
- Grammatikakis I, Zhang P, Panda A, Kim J, Maudsley S, Abdelmohsen K, et al. Alternative Splicing of Neuronal Differentiation Factor TRF2 Regulated by HNRNPH1/H2. Cell Rep. 2016;15:926-934 pubmed publisher..Here, using affinity pull-down analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H1 and H2(HNRNPH) as RBPs specifically capable of interacting with the spliced RNA segment (exon 7) of Trf2 pre-mRNA...
- Lu J, Lu D, Chen Y, Dong Y, Zhang J, Li T, et al. Proteomic analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells treated with platycodin D. Chin J Nat Med. 2015;13:673-9 pubmed publisher..to be up-regulated in PD-treated HepG2 cells, including ATP5H, OXCT1, KRT9, CCDC40, ERP29, RCN1, ZNF175, HNRNPH1, HSP27, PA2G4, PHB, BANF1, TPM3, ECH1, LGALS1, and MYL6. Three proteins (i.e...
- Qi H, Chen L, Ning L, Ma H, Jiang Z, Fu Y, et al. Proteomic analysis of Î²-asarone induced cytotoxicity in human glioblastoma U251 cells. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2015;115:292-9 pubmed publisher..Four potential protein targets were proposed, which will enable a better understanding of the anti-tumor activity of Î²-asarone. ..
- Selvarajah G, Bonestroo F, Timmermans Sprang E, Kirpensteijn J, Mol J. Reference gene validation for gene expression normalization in canine osteosarcoma: a geNorm algorithm approach. BMC Vet Res. 2017;13:354 pubmed publisher..RPS5 and HNRNPH were highly stable among OS cell lines, while RPS5 and RPS19 were the best combination for primary tumors...
- Yazdani N, PARKER C, Shen Y, Reed E, Guido M, Kole L, et al. Hnrnph1 Is A Quantitative Trait Gene for Methamphetamine Sensitivity. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005713 pubmed publisher..This chromosomal region contained only two protein coding genes-heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, H1 (Hnrnph1) and RUN and FYVE domain-containing 1 (Rufy1)...
- Aiello F, Guszczynski T, Li W, Hixon J, Jiang Q, Hodge D, et al. IL-7-induced phosphorylation of the adaptor Crk-like and other targets. Cell Signal. 2018;47:131-141 pubmed publisher..IL-7 stimulation induced the phosphorylation of the proteins STI1, ATIC and hnRNPH, involved in pathways related to survival, proliferation and gene expression, respectively, and increased the ..
- Sagawa F, Ibrahim H, Morrison A, Wilusz C, Wilusz J. Nucleophosmin deposition during mRNA 3' end processing influences poly(A) tail length. EMBO J. 2011;30:3994-4005 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these data suggest that NPM1 has an important role in poly(A) tail length determination and may help network 3' end processing with other aspects of nuclear mRNA maturation. ..
- Widera M, Hillebrand F, Erkelenz S, Vasudevan A, MÃ¼nk C, Schaal H. A functional conserved intronic G run in HIV-1 intron 3 is critical to counteract APOBEC3G-mediated host restriction. Retrovirology. 2014;11:72 pubmed publisher..The competition between these exons determines the ability to evade APOBEC3G-mediated antiviral effects due to optimal vif expression. ..
- Paul S, Dansithong W, Jog S, Holt I, Mittal S, Brook J, et al. Expanded CUG repeats Dysregulate RNA splicing by altering the stoichiometry of the muscleblind 1 complex. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38427-38 pubmed publisher..Thus expression of expanded CUG repeats alters the stoichiometry of MBNL1(CUG) complexes to allow both the reinforcement and expansion of RNA processing defects. ..
- LeFave C, Squatrito M, Vorlova S, Rocco G, Brennan C, Holland E, et al. Splicing factor hnRNPH drives an oncogenic splicing switch in gliomas. EMBO J. 2011;30:4084-97 pubmed publisher..Splicing factor hnRNPH, which is upregulated in gliomas, controls this splicing event and similarly mediates switching to a ligand-..
- Rauch J, O Neill E, Mack B, Matthias C, Munz M, Kolch W, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H blocks MST2-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells by regulating A-Raf transcription. Cancer Res. 2010;70:1679-88 pubmed publisher..Here, we show that A-Raf prevents cancer cell apoptosis contingent on the expression of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (hnRNP H) splice factor, which is required for the correct transcription and expression of a-raf...
- Zhu P, Zhou W, Wang J, Puc J, Ohgi K, Erdjument Bromage H, et al. A histone H2A deubiquitinase complex coordinating histone acetylation and H1 dissociation in transcriptional regulation. Mol Cell. 2007;27:609-21 pubmed
- Nazim M, Masuda A, Rahman M, Nasrin F, Takeda J, Ohe K, et al. Competitive regulation of alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation by hnRNP H and CstF64 determines acetylcholinesterase isoforms. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:1455-1468 pubmed publisher..We propose that hnRNP H is an essential factor that competitively regulates alternative splicing and alternative polyadenylation. ..
- Honore B, Rasmussen H, Vorum H, Dejgaard K, Liu X, Gromov P, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H, H', and F are members of a ubiquitously expressed subfamily of related but distinct proteins encoded by genes mapping to different chromosomes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:28780-9 pubmed..The genes coding for hnRNPs H, H', and F were chromosome-mapped to 5q35.3 (HNRPH1), 6q25.3-q26, and/or Xq22 (HNRPH2) and 10q11.21-q11.22 (HNRPF), respectively.
- Conlon E, Lu L, Sharma A, Yamazaki T, Tang T, Shneider N, et al. The C9ORF72 GGGGCC expansion forms RNA G-quadruplex inclusions and sequesters hnRNP H to disrupt splicing in ALS brains. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher..Together, our data implicate C9 expansion-mediated sequestration of hnRNP H as a significant contributor to neurodegeneration in C9 ALS/FTD. ..
- Hope N, Murray G. The expression profile of RNA-binding proteins in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer: relationship of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins with prognosis. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:393-402 pubmed publisher..001), and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (P = .001). Nuclear heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (?(2) = 72.1; P < .001), cytoplasmic heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein I (?(2) = 28...
- Brandimarte L, Pierini V, Di Giacomo D, Borga C, Nozza F, Gorello P, et al. New MLLT10 gene recombinations in pediatric T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2013;121:5064-7 pubmed publisher..In pediatric T-ALL, we have identified 2 RNA processing genes, that is, HNRNPH1/5q35 and DDX3X/Xp11.3 as new MLLT10 fusion partners...
- Gautrey H, Jackson C, Dittrich A, Browell D, Lennard T, Tyson Capper A. SRSF3 and hnRNP H1 regulate a splicing hotspot of HER2 in breast cancer cells. RNA Biol. 2015;12:1139-51 pubmed publisher..SRSF3 and hnRNP H1 are the first splicing factors identified which regulate the production of these functionally distinct HER2 splice variants and therefore maybe important for the regulation of HER2 signaling. ..
- Sun Y, Liu F, Liu F, Zhao X. Protein and gene expression characteristics of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22:7322-31 pubmed publisherTo investigate the expression characteristics of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (HNRNPH1) mRNA and protein in cell lines and tissues of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)...
- Paul S, Dansithong W, Kim D, Rossi J, Webster N, Comai L, et al. Interaction of muscleblind, CUG-BP1 and hnRNP H proteins in DM1-associated aberrant IR splicing. EMBO J. 2006;25:4271-83 pubmed..These data demonstrate that coordinated physical and functional interactions between hnRNP H, CUG-BP1 and MBNL1 dictate IR splicing in normal and DM1 myoblasts. ..
- Honoré B, Baandrup U, Vorum H. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins F and H/H' show differential expression in normal and selected cancer tissues. Exp Cell Res. 2004;294:199-209 pubmed..hnRNP F is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and up-regulated in gastric carcinoma. The present study indicates the important potential role of this subset of hnRNPs on the gene expression in many tissues. ..
- De Planell Saguer M, Schroeder D, Rodicio M, Cox G, Mourelatos Z. Biochemical and genetic evidence for a role of IGHMBP2 in the translational machinery. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:2115-26 pubmed publisher..Our findings strongly suggest that IGHMBP2 is a component of the translational machinery and that these components can be manipulated genetically to suppress motor neuron degeneration. ..
- Yang Y, Jia D, Kim H, Abd Elmageed Z, Datta A, Davis R, et al. Dysregulation of miR-212 Promotes Castration Resistance through hnRNPH1-Mediated Regulation of AR and AR-V7: Implications for Racial Disparity of Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:1744-56 pubmed publisher..Validation analysis was performed in independent cohorts and tissue microarrays. The underlying mechanisms of hnRNPH1 regulation and its impact on androgen receptor (AR) expression and tumor progression were explored...
- Costessi A, Mahrour N, Sharma V, Stunnenberg R, Stoel M, Tijchon E, et al. The human EKC/KEOPS complex is recruited to Cullin2 ubiquitin ligases by the human tumour antigen PRAME. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42822 pubmed publisher..Moreover, EKC subunits associate with PRAME target sites on chromatin. Our data reveal a novel link between the oncoprotein PRAME and the conserved EKC complex and support a role for both complexes in the same pathways. ..
- Shao W, Zumer K, Fujinaga K, Peterlin B. FBXO3 Protein Promotes Ubiquitylation and Transcriptional Activity of AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator). J Biol Chem. 2016;291:17953-63 pubmed publisher..Because P-TEFb is required for the transition from initiation to elongation of transcription, this interaction ensures proper expression of AIRE-responsive tissue-specific antigens in the thymus. ..
- Mishra K, Shweta -, Diwaker D, Ganju L. Dengue virus infection induces upregulation of hn RNP-H and PDIA3 for its multiplication in the host cell. Virus Res. 2012;163:573-9 pubmed publisher..This study provides evidence that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (hnRNP-H) and protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3) helps in DENV multiplication by suppressing ..
- Lee J, Liao P, Young K, Chang C, Chen S, Chang T, et al. Identification of hnRNPH1, NF45, and C14orf166 as novel host interacting partners of the mature hepatitis C virus core protein. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:4522-34 pubmed publisher..By pull-down and confocal imaging techniques, we confirmed that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1 (hnRNPH1), nuclear factor 45 (NF45), and C14orf166 are novel HCVc174-interacting host proteins, known to participate in ..
- Evans A, Brice G, Sotirova V, Mortimer P, Beninson J, Burnand K, et al. Mapping of primary congenital lymphedema to the 5q35.3 region. Am J Hum Genet. 1999;64:547-55 pubmed..84 for this condition. A few of the positionally mapped genes in the 5q35 region that may potentially be involved in the etiology of this condition are CANX, FGFR4, HK3, and hnRPH1.
- Ortuño Pineda C, Galindo Rosales J, Calderón Salinas J, Villegas Sepúlveda N, Saucedo Cardenas O, De Nova Ocampo M, et al. Binding of hnRNP H and U2AF65 to respective G-codes and a poly-uridine tract collaborate in the N50-5'ss selection of the REST N exon in H69 cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40315 pubmed publisher..Our results evidenced novel hnRNP H and U2AF65 functions: respectively, U2AF65-recruiting to a 5'ss in humans and the hnRNP H-displacing function from two juxtaposed GGGG codes. ..
- Jia H, Liu C, Ge F, Xiao C, Lu C, Wang T, et al. Identification of ubiquitinated proteins from human multiple myeloma U266 cells by proteomics. Biomed Environ Sci. 2011;24:422-30 pubmed publisher..This suggested the involvement of many endogenous proteins in the ubiquitination in MM. ..
- Van Dusen C, Yee L, McNally L, McNally M. A glycine-rich domain of hnRNP H/F promotes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and nuclear import through an interaction with transportin 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2552-62 pubmed publisher..Collectively, the results suggest that hnRNP H and F are GYR domain-dependent shuttling proteins whose posttranslational modifications may alter nuclear localization and hence function. ..
- Gamberi C, Izaurralde E, Beisel C, Mattaj I. Interaction between the human nuclear cap-binding protein complex and hnRNP F. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2587-97 pubmed..Thus, hnRNP F is required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing in vitro and may participate in the effect of CBC on pre-mRNA splicing. ..
- Li T, Evdokimov E, Shen R, Chao C, Tekle E, Wang T, et al. Sumoylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, zinc finger proteins, and nuclear pore complex proteins: a proteomic analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8551-6 pubmed..In view of the facts that hnRNPs have been implicated in RNA splicing, transport, stability, and translation, our findings suggest that sumoylation could play an important role in regulating mRNA metabolism. ..
- Russo A, Catillo M, Esposito D, Briata P, Pietropaolo C, Russo G. Autoregulatory circuit of human rpL3 expression requires hnRNP H1, NPM and KHSRP. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:7576-85 pubmed publisher..Moreover, our data provide an insight on the crucial role of hnRNP H1 in the regulation of the alternative splicing of the rpL3 gene. ..
- Honore B, Vorum H, Baandrup U. hnRNPs H, H' and F behave differently with respect to posttranslational cleavage and subcellular localization. FEBS Lett. 1999;456:274-80 pubmed..The presence of significant quantities of hnRNP F in the cytoplasm of many cells indicates that it also may have a functional role here. ..
- Angenstein F, Evans A, Settlage R, Moran S, Ling S, Klintsova A, et al. A receptor for activated C kinase is part of messenger ribonucleoprotein complexes associated with polyA-mRNAs in neurons. J Neurosci. 2002;22:8827-37 pubmed
- Miyasaka T, Morita M, Ito K, Suzuki T, Fukuda H, Takeda S, et al. Interaction of antiproliferative protein Tob with the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:755-61 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that the antiproliferative activity of Tob is shown post-transcriptionally by controlling the stability of the target mRNAs in addition to its involvement in transcriptional regulation, reported previously. ..
- Shiohama A, Sasaki T, Noda S, Minoshima S, Shimizu N. Nucleolar localization of DGCR8 and identification of eleven DGCR8-associated proteins. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:4196-207 pubmed..Thus, our studies provided additional new evidence for the involvement of various protein complexes in the molecular mechanisms of apparently complex innate RNA interference machinery. ..
- Datta A, Kim H, Lal M, McGee L, Johnson A, Moustafa A, et al. Manumycin A suppresses exosome biogenesis and secretion via targeted inhibition of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling and hnRNP H1 in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2017;408:73-81 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest that MA is a potential drug candidate to suppress exosome biogenesis and secretion by CRPC cells. ..
- Matunis M, Xing J, Dreyfuss G. The hnRNP F protein: unique primary structure, nucleic acid-binding properties, and subcellular localization. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:1059-67 pubmed
- Li X, Qian X, Peng L, Jiang Y, Hawke D, Zheng Y, et al. A splicing switch from ketohexokinase-C to ketohexokinase-A drives hepatocellular carcinoma formation. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:561-71 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, c-Myc, hnRNPH1/2 and KHK-A expression levels and PRPS1 Thr225 phosphorylation levels correlate with each other in HCC specimens ..
- Cammas A, Lacroix Triki M, Pierredon S, Le Bras M, Iacovoni J, Teulade Fichou M, et al. hnRNP A1-mediated translational regulation of the G quadruplex-containing RON receptor tyrosine kinase mRNA linked to tumor progression. Oncotarget. 2016;7:16793-805 pubmed publisher..Analysis by immunohistochemistry of the expression of hnRNP A1, hnRNPH, RBM9/FOX2, SRSF1/ASF/SF2, SRSF2/SC35, SRSF3/SRp20, SRSF7/9G8 in breast tumors shows that the expression of hnRNP ..
- Rahman M, Azuma Y, Nasrin F, Takeda J, Nazim M, Bin Ahsan K, et al. SRSF1 and hnRNP H antagonistically regulate splicing of COLQ exon 16 in a congenital myasthenic syndrome. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13208 pubmed publisher..Global splicing analysis with RNA-seq revealed that exons carrying the hnRNP H-binding GGGGG motif are predisposed to be skipped compared to those carrying the SRSF1-binding GGAGG motif in both human and mouse brains. ..
- Stark M, Bram E, Akerman M, Mandel Gutfreund Y, Assaraf Y. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H1/H2-dependent unsplicing of thymidine phosphorylase results in anticancer drug resistance. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3741-54 pubmed publisher..Thus, this is the first study identifying altered function of hnRNP H1/H2 in tumor cells as a novel determinant of aberrant TP splicing thereby resulting in acquired chemoresistance to TP-activated fluoropyrimidine anticancer drugs. ..
- Ohe K, Watanabe T, Harada S, Munesue S, Yamamoto Y, Yonekura H, et al. Regulation of alternative splicing of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) through G-rich cis-elements and heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H. J Biochem. 2010;147:651-9 pubmed publisher..The findings should provide a molecular basis for the development of medicines for RAGE-related disorders that could modulate esRAGE/mRAGE ratio. ..
- Krasnov G, Oparina N, Khankin S, Mashkova T, Ershov A, Zatsepina O, et al. [Colorectal cancer 2D-proteomics: identification of altered protein expression]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2009;43:348-56 pubmed..In summary, we describe the discovery overexpression of GPD1 and RRBP1 proteins and lack of expression for HNRNPH1 and SERPINB6 proteins which are new candidate biomarkers of colon cancer.
- Venables J, Bourgeois C, Dalgliesh C, Kister L, Stevenin J, Elliott D. Up-regulation of the ubiquitous alternative splicing factor Tra2beta causes inclusion of a germ cell-specific exon. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2289-303 pubmed..Therefore, our data imply an evolutionarily conserved role for Tra2 proteins in spermatogenesis and suggest that an elevated concentration of Tra2beta may convert it into a tissue-specific splicing factor. ..