Gene Symbol: HMGCR
Description: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase
Alias: LDLCQ3, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (NADPH), HMG-CoA reductase, hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase
Species: human
Products:     HMGCR

Top Publications

  1. Sever N, Song B, Yabe D, Goldstein J, Brown M, DeBose Boyd R. Insig-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of mammalian 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase stimulated by sterols and geranylgeraniol. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52479-90 pubmed
  2. van t Wout A, Swain J, Schindler M, Rao U, Pathmajeyan M, Mullins J, et al. Nef induces multiple genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected T cells. J Virol. 2005;79:10053-8 pubmed
  3. Song B, Javitt N, DeBose Boyd R. Insig-mediated degradation of HMG CoA reductase stimulated by lanosterol, an intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol. Cell Metab. 2005;1:179-89 pubmed
    Feedback control of cholesterol synthesis is mediated in part by sterol-induced binding of HMG CoA reductase to Insig proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
  4. Song B, Sever N, DeBose Boyd R. Gp78, a membrane-anchored ubiquitin ligase, associates with Insig-1 and couples sterol-regulated ubiquitination to degradation of HMG CoA reductase. Mol Cell. 2005;19:829-40 pubmed
    Sterol-regulated ubiquitination is an obligatory step in ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of HMG CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis...
  5. Pearce M, Wang Y, Kelley G, Wojcikiewicz R. SPFH2 mediates the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors and other substrates in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:20104-15 pubmed
    ..Overall, these studies identify SPFH2 as a key ERAD pathway component and suggest that it may act as a substrate recognition factor. ..
  6. Kathiresan S, Melander O, Anevski D, Guiducci C, Burtt N, Roos C, et al. Polymorphisms associated with cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The score did not improve risk discrimination but did modestly improve clinical risk reclassification for individual subjects beyond standard clinical factors. ..
  7. Leichner G, Avner R, Harats D, Roitelman J. Dislocation of HMG-CoA reductase and Insig-1, two polytopic endoplasmic reticulum proteins, en route to proteasomal degradation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3330-41 pubmed publisher
  8. Sever N, Yang T, Brown M, Goldstein J, DeBose Boyd R. Accelerated degradation of HMG CoA reductase mediated by binding of insig-1 to its sterol-sensing domain. Mol Cell. 2003;11:25-33 pubmed
    Sterols accelerate degradation of the ER enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMG CoA reductase), which catalyzes a rate-controlling step in cholesterol biosynthesis...
  9. Song B, DeBose Boyd R. Ubiquitination of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase in permeabilized cells mediated by cytosolic E1 and a putative membrane-bound ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28798-806 pubmed

More Information

Publications130 found, 100 shown here

  1. Jo Y, Sguigna P, DeBose Boyd R. Membrane-associated ubiquitin ligase complex containing gp78 mediates sterol-accelerated degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15022-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies mark the initial steps in the characterization of the mammalian gp78 ubiquitin ligase complex, the further elucidation of which may yield important insights into mechanisms underlying gp78-mediated ERAD. ..
  2. Jo Y, Lee P, Sguigna P, DeBose Boyd R. Sterol-induced degradation of HMG CoA reductase depends on interplay of two Insigs and two ubiquitin ligases, gp78 and Trc8. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Variations in the concentrations of any one of these proteins may account for differences in cell- and/or tissue-specific regulation of reductase degradation. ..
  3. Simon Y, Kessler S, Gemperlein K, Bohle R, Müller R, Haybaeck J, et al. Elevated free cholesterol in a p62 overexpression model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2014;20:17839-50 pubmed publisher
    ..the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase or HMGCR) were not significantly upregulated, potentially due to increased cholesterol biosynthesis via elevated sterol ..
  4. Lim E, Lim J, Kim E, Kim Y, Shin J, Seok P, et al. Xylobiose, an Alternative Sweetener, Ameliorates Diabetes-Related Metabolic Changes by Regulating Hepatic Lipogenesis and miR-122a/33a in db/db Mice. Nutrients. 2016;8: pubmed
    ..sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), ATP-binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and sterol 12-alpha-..
  5. Dong P, Pan L, Zhang X, Zhang W, Wang X, Jiang M, et al. Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) leave flavonoids attenuate atherosclerosis development in apoE knock-out mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;198:479-488 pubmed publisher
    ..7% (P<0.05). Hepatic hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMG-CoAR) expression was as same level as the control group while LDL receptor (LDLR) mRNA and ..
  6. Woo M, Song Y, Kang K, Noh J. Anti-Obesity Effects of Collagen Peptide Derived from Skate (Raja kenojei) Skin Through Regulation of Lipid Metabolism. Mar Drugs. 2018;16: pubmed publisher
    ..and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)) and cholesterol synthesis (SREBP-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR)) and upregulating those for β-oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) and ..
  7. Kou S, Han B, Wang Y, Huang T, He K, Han Y, et al. Synergetic cholesterol-lowering effects of main alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis in HepG2 cells and hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Life Sci. 2016;151:50-60 pubmed publisher
    ..LDL receptor, 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) and cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) that involving cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells were measured ..
  8. Sun Y, Kopp S, Strutz J, Gali C, Zandl Lang M, Fanaee Danesh E, et al. Gestational diabetes mellitus modulates cholesterol homeostasis in human fetoplacental endothelium. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2018;1863:968-979 pubmed publisher
    ..HPEC, while GDM enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis along with upregulated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) mRNA and protein levels...
  9. Hong J, Kim S, Kim H. Hepatoprotective Effects of Soybean Embryo by Enhancing Adiponectin-Mediated AMP-Activated Protein Kinase ? Pathway in High-Fat and High-Cholesterol Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. J Med Food. 2016;19:549-59 pubmed publisher
  10. Gou S, Huang H, Chen X, Liu J, He M, Ma Y, et al. Lipid-lowering, hepatoprotective, and atheroprotective effects of the mixture Hong-Qu and gypenosides in hyperlipidemia with NAFLD rats. J Chin Med Assoc. 2016;79:111-21 pubmed publisher
  11. Jiang L, Zhao D, Fan Y, Yu Q, Lai Y, Li P, et al. Transcriptome analysis to assess the cholestatic hepatotoxicity induced by Polygoni Multiflori Radix: Up-regulation of key enzymes of cholesterol and bile acid biosynthesis. J Proteomics. 2018;177:40-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein analysis by western blot suggested that expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (Hmgcr) and Cyp7a1 were increased in a dose-dependent manner...
  12. Dang Y, Hao S, Zhou W, Zhang L, Ji G. The traditional Chinese formulae Ling-gui-zhu-gan decoction alleviated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease via inhibiting PPP1R3C mediated molecules. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019;19:8 pubmed publisher
    ..ACC), sterol receptor element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), resulting in lipid synthesis decrease in the liver...
  13. Selitsky S, Dinh T, Toth C, Kurtz C, Honda M, Struck B, et al. Transcriptomic Analysis of Chronic Hepatitis B and C and Liver Cancer Reveals MicroRNA-Mediated Control of Cholesterol Synthesis Programs. MBio. 2015;6:e01500-15 pubmed publisher
    ..of the gene that codes for the rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR)...
  14. Guo Y, Luo H, Wu Y, Magdalou J, Chen L, Wang H. Influencing factors, underlying mechanism and interactions affecting hypercholesterolemia in adult offspring with caffeine exposure during pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol. 2018;79:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..the serum levels of TCH and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and the hepatic expression of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB), but decreased the high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level ..
  15. Yeh Y, Jheng H, Iwase M, Kim M, Mohri S, Kwon J, et al. The Mevalonate Pathway Is Indispensable for Adipocyte Survival. iScience. 2018;9:175-191 pubmed publisher
    ..aKO) mice were generated through knockout of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR). aKO mice showed serious lipodystrophy accompanied with glucose and lipid metabolic disorders and hepatomegaly...
  16. Liu S, Chiu C, Huang L, Chiang M. Resistant Maltodextrin Ameliorates Altered Hepatic Lipid Homeostasis via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in a High-Fat Diet-Fed Rat Model. Nutrients. 2019;11: pubmed publisher
    ..2) inhibited the activities of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR); (3) suppressed the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ; (4) increased β-..
  17. Argmann C, Edwards J, Sawyez C, O Neil C, Hegele R, Pickering J, et al. Regulation of macrophage cholesterol efflux through hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibition: a role for RhoA in ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22212-21 pubmed
    ..Finally, statin treatment inhibited cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages challenged with atherogenic hypertriglyceridemic very low density lipoproteins indicating that statins can regulate foam cell formation...
  18. Mesalam A, Kong R, Khan I, Chowdhury M, Choi B, Kim S, et al. Effect of charcoal:dextran stripped fetal bovine serum on in vitro development of bovine embryos. Reprod Biol. 2017;17:312-319 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that supplementation of medium with CDS FBS improves the in vitro developmental competence and cryo-tolerance of bovine embryos. ..
  19. Chen C, Liu T, Huang S, Ho C, Huang T. Differentiation and apoptosis induction by lovastatin and γ-tocotrienol in HL-60 cells via Ras/ERK/NF-κB and Ras/Akt/NF-κB signaling dependent down-regulation of glyoxalase 1 and HMG-CoA reductase. Cell Signal. 2015;27:2182-90 pubmed publisher
    Glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) are highly expressed in most tumor cells and little in normal cells. In this study, treatment of HL-60 cells with lovastatin induced characteristic apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
  20. Zou Z, Hu Y, Ma H, Feng M, Li X, Ye X. Epiberberine reduces serum cholesterol in diet-induced dyslipidemia Syrian golden hamsters via network pathways involving cholesterol metabolism. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;774:1-9 pubmed publisher cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, conversion and elimination such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor), 7-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and apical sodium dependent bile ..
  21. Forbes Hernández T, Giampieri F, Gasparrini M, Afrin S, Mazzoni L, Cordero M, et al. Lipid Accumulation in HepG2 Cells Is Attenuated by Strawberry Extract through AMPK Activation. Nutrients. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..inactivation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the major regulators of fatty acids and cholesterol synthesis, respectively...
  22. Chao J, Chen Y, Wu S, Tian W. Comparative transcriptome analysis of latex from rubber tree clone CATAS8-79 and PR107 reveals new cues for the regulation of latex regeneration and duration of latex flow. BMC Plant Biol. 2015;15:104 pubmed publisher
    ..These data will provide new cues for understanding the molecular mechanism for the regulation of latex regeneration and duration of latex flow in rubber tree. ..
  23. Han J, Sung J, Lee S. Inhibition of Cholesterol Synthesis in HepG2 Cells by GINST-Decreasing HMG-CoA Reductase Expression Via AMP-Activated Protein Kinase. J Food Sci. 2017;82:2700-2705 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins ? (C/EBP?), GAPDH, and ..
  24. Greenaway J, Virtanen C, Osz K, Revay T, Hardy D, Shepherd T, et al. Ovarian tumour growth is characterized by mevalonate pathway gene signature in an orthotopic, syngeneic model of epithelial ovarian cancer. Oncotarget. 2016;7:47343-47365 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with simvastatin to inhibit HMG CoA reductase, the rate limiting enzyme of this pathway, induced apoptosis in the 28-2 cell line...
  25. Aboudehen K, Kim M, Mitsche M, Garland K, Anderson N, Noureddine L, et al. Transcription Factor Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1? Regulates Renal Cholesterol Metabolism. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;27:2408-21 pubmed publisher
    ..including sterol regulatory element binding factor 2 (Srebf2) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr)...
  26. Saeedi Saravi S, Saeedi Saravi S, Arefidoust A, Dehpour A. The beneficial effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in the processes of neurodegeneration. Metab Brain Dis. 2017;32:949-965 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the voluminous literature on the clinical advantages of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Co-enzyme A reductase (HMGCR) inhibitors (statins) in cardiovascular system, the neuroprotective effects and the underlying mechanisms are ..
  27. Ghasemi S, Kumleh H, Kordrostami M. Changes in the expression of some genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in Cuminum cyminum L. under UV stress. Protoplasma. 2019;256:279-290 pubmed publisher
    ..The highest relative expression of all genes was obtained in treatment A (UV-B radiation for 1 h), while in treatment B (UV-B radiation for 2 h), no significant changes were observed in the expression of the genes. ..
  28. Dai X, Zhuang L, Wang D, Zhou T, Chang L, Gai R, et al. Nuclear translocation and activation of YAP by hypoxia contributes to the chemoresistance of SN38 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Oncotarget. 2016;7:6933-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The mevalonate-HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) pathway may modulate the YAP activation under hypoxia...
  29. Ladislau L, Arouche Delaperche L, Allenbach Y, Benveniste O. Potential Pathogenic Role of Anti-Signal Recognition Protein and Anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Antibodies in Immune-Mediated Necrotizing Myopathies. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2018;20:56 pubmed publisher
    This review provides an overview of the potential pathogenic roles of anti-SRP and anti-HMGCR in IMNM over the past 5 years...
  30. Hirota T, Ieiri I. Drug-drug interactions that interfere with statin metabolism. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2015;11:1435-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitatively analyzed information for the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering effects of statin based on electronic medical records may be useful for avoiding the adverse effect of statins. ..
  31. Butteiger D, Hibberd A, McGraw N, Napawan N, Hall Porter J, Krul E. Soy Protein Compared with Milk Protein in a Western Diet Increases Gut Microbial Diversity and Reduces Serum Lipids in Golden Syrian Hamsters. J Nutr. 2016;146:697-705 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of soy protein was associated with higher expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr), lanosterol synthase (Lss), and farnesyl-diphosphosphate farnesyl-transferase 1 (Fdft1) (1.6-2...
  32. Deo R, Reich D, Tandon A, Akylbekova E, Patterson N, Waliszewska A, et al. Genetic differences between the determinants of lipid profile phenotypes in African and European Americans: the Jackson Heart Study. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000342 pubmed publisher
  33. Li J, Xia K, Xiong M, Wang X, Yan N. Effects of sepsis on the metabolism of sphingomyelin and cholesterol in mice with liver dysfunction. Exp Ther Med. 2017;14:5635-5640 pubmed publisher
    ..thin layer chromatography, and the expression levels of SMS1 and 2, hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-B1) and ..
  34. Clarke P, Hardie D. Regulation of HMG-CoA reductase: identification of the site phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase in vitro and in intact rat liver. EMBO J. 1990;9:2439-46 pubmed
    ..We have also identified by amino acid sequencing the N-terminus of the catalytic fragment, which corresponds to residue 423 of the human enzyme. ..
  35. Licastro F, Chiappelli M, Porcellini E, Campo G, Buscema M, Grossi E, et al. Gene-gene and gene - clinical factors interaction in acute myocardial infarction: a new detailed risk chart. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:783-8 pubmed
    ..vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF) and cholesterol synthesis (hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase; HMGCR) were investigated...
  36. Larkin J, Sears S, Sadovsky Y. The influence of ligand-activated LXR on primary human trophoblasts. Placenta. 2014;35:919-24 pubmed publisher
    ..lipogenic LXR targets SREBP1c, ACC1 and FAS by T0901317, and exclusive inhibition of the SREBP2 targets LDLR and HMGCR by 25OHC...
  37. Breitling C, Gross A, Büttner P, Weise S, Schleinitz D, Kiess W, et al. Genetic Contribution of Variants near SORT1 and APOE on LDL Cholesterol Independent of Obesity in Children. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0138064 pubmed publisher
    To assess potential effects of variants in six lipid modulating genes (SORT1, HMGCR, MLXIPL, FADS2, APOE and MAFB) on early development of dyslipidemia independent of the degree of obesity in children, we investigated their association ..
  38. Yamane T, Muramatsu A, Shimura M, Kobayashi Hattori K, Oishi Y. Transforming growth factor-β1 induces cholesterol synthesis by increasing HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in keratinocytes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2016;80:1379-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that TGF-β1 induces cholesterol synthesis by increasing HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in human keratinocytes. ..
  39. Hwang S, Hartman I, Calhoun L, Garland K, Young G, Mitsche M, et al. Contribution of Accelerated Degradation to Feedback Regulation of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase and Cholesterol Metabolism in the Liver. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:13479-94 pubmed publisher
    ..endoplasmic reticulum membranes stimulates the ubiquitination of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), which catalyzes a rate-limiting step in synthesis of cholesterol...
  40. Kassardjian C, Lennon V, Alfugham N, Mahler M, Milone M. Clinical Features and Treatment Outcomes of Necrotizing Autoimmune Myopathy. JAMA Neurol. 2015;72:996-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..autoantibodies specific for signal recognition particle (SRP) or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR). Data are limited concerning differences among etiologic subgroups and treatment outcomes in NAM...
  41. Singh R, Yadav V, Kumar S, Saini N. MicroRNA-195 inhibits proliferation, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells by targeting FASN, HMGCR, ACACA and CYP27B1. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17454 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time we herein identified ACACA, FASN (the key enzymes of de novo fatty acid synthesis), HMGCR (the key enzyme of de novo cholesterol synthesis) and CYP27B1 as direct targets of hsa-miR-195...
  42. Ference B, Robinson J, Brook R, Catapano A, Chapman M, Neff D, et al. Variation in PCSK9 and HMGCR and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:2144-2153 pubmed
    ..independently inherited variants in the genes encoding PCSK9 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR; the target of statins) as instruments to randomly assign 112,772 participants from 14 studies, with 14,120 ..
  43. Benn M, Nordestgaard B, Frikke Schmidt R, Tybjærg Hansen A. Low LDL cholesterol, PCSK9 and HMGCR genetic variation, and risk of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease: Mendelian randomisation study. BMJ. 2017;357:j1648 pubmed publisher
    ..for LDL cholesterol metabolism and biosynthesis(PCSK9 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), respectively) is associated with a high risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, any dementia, and ..
  44. Murtola T, Syvälä H, Pennanen P, Bläuer M, Solakivi T, Ylikomi T, et al. The importance of LDL and cholesterol metabolism for prostate epithelial cell growth. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39445 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in mRNA and protein expression of key effectors in cholesterol metabolism (HMGCR, LDLR, SREBP2 and ABCA1) were measured with RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively...
  45. Kessler E, Gross J, Bruckmaier R, Albrecht C. Cholesterol metabolism, transport, and hepatic regulation in dairy cows during transition and early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 2014;97:5481-90 pubmed publisher
    ..gene expression patterns of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGC) synthase 1 (HMGCS1) and HMGC reductase (HMGCR), sterol regulatory element-binding factor (SREBF)-1 and -2, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), ATP-..
  46. Yin L, Ge Y, Yang H, Peng Q, Lu X, Zhang Y, et al. The clinical utility of serum IL-35 in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Clin Rheumatol. 2016;35:2715-2721 pubmed
    ..401, P < 0.001). Additionally, serum IL-35 was higher in patients who were positive for anti-HMGCR (median 292.04 pg/ml (IQR 67.9-442.86) vs. 74.66 pg/ml (IQR 57.24-131.32), P = 0...
  47. Ha N, Drogemuller C, Reimer C, Schmitz Hsu F, Bruckmaier R, Simianer H, et al. Liver transcriptome analysis reveals important factors involved in the metabolic adaptation of the transition cow. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:9311-9323 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions between significant genes and identified 9 key genes (CYP7A1, APOA1, CREM, LOC522146, CYP2C87, HMGCR, FDFT1, SGLE, and CYP26A1) through which the different processes involved in the metabolic adaptation interact...
  48. Laguna J, Cardoso M, Lima J, Reis R, Carvalho A, Saturnino H, et al. Expression of hepatic genes related to energy metabolism during the transition period of Holstein and F1 Holstein-Gir cows. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:9861-9870 pubmed publisher
    ..acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-2 (CPT2), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), glucose transporter-2 (SLC2A2), and the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPARA)..
  49. Cao L, Wang H, Tan L, Sun F, Tan M, Tan C, et al. Effect of HMGCR genetic variation on neuroimaging biomarkers in healthy, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease cohorts. Oncotarget. 2016;7:13319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) is a strong functional AD candidate gene because it encodes part of the statin-binding domain of the enzyme, ..
  50. Rom O, Korach Rechtman H, Hayek T, Danin Poleg Y, Bar H, Kashi Y, et al. Acrolein increases macrophage atherogenicity in association with gut microbiota remodeling in atherosclerotic mice: protective role for the polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice. Arch Toxicol. 2017;91:1709-1725 pubmed publisher
    ..biosynthesis: sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1)...
  51. Wong T, Tan Y, Lin S, Leung L. Apigenin and luteolin display differential hypocholesterolemic mechanisms in mice fed a high-fat diet. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;96:1000-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressions of srebf-2 mRNA, Srebp-2 protein and Hmgcr protein were decreased in the livers of apigenin-treated mice; meanwhile, AMPK was activated in this group of mice...
  52. Kellam P. Attacking pathogens through their hosts. Genome Biol. 2006;7:201 pubmed
    ..This new antimicrobial strategy has proved effective in the laboratory and in the clinic, and it has great potential for the future. ..
  53. Soufi M, Ruppert V, Kurt B, Schaefer J. The impact of severe LDL receptor mutations on SREBP-pathway regulation in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Gene. 2012;499:218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression studies revealed increased expressions of SREBP regulated genes HMGCR, LDLR, SREBP-2, SREBP-1, SR-BI, INSIG-1, but interestingly not SCAP...
  54. Ference B, Majeed F, Penumetcha R, Flack J, Brook R. Effect of naturally random allocation to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on the risk of coronary heart disease mediated by polymorphisms in NPC1L1, HMGCR, or both: a 2 × 2 factorial Mendelian randomization study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65:1552-61 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor with ezetimibe, either alone or in combination with a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor (statin), will reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  55. McCaw L, Shi Y, Wang G, Li Y, Spaner D. Low Density Lipoproteins Amplify Cytokine-signaling in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells. EBioMedicine. 2017;15:24-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Breakdown of LDLs in lysosomes was required for the amplification effect, which correlated with down-regulation of HMGCR expression and long lymphocyte doubling times (LDTs) of 53.6±10.4months...
  56. Lee K, Kwon Y, Kim S, Moon D, Kim H, Nam K. Regulatory mechanism of mineral-balanced deep sea water on hypocholesterolemic effects in HepG2 hepatic cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;86:405-413 pubmed publisher
    ..the inhibition by MB-DSW was closely related to the down-regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutatryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression and an increase in the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation, leading to decreased ..
  57. Mega J, Morrow D, Brown A, Cannon C, Sabatine M. Identification of genetic variants associated with response to statin therapy. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:1310-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphisms in triallelic G2677T/A variant in ABCB1 were associated with the degree of LDL-C lowering with pravastatin. ..
  58. Si X, Strappe P, Blanchard C, Zhou Z. Enhanced anti-obesity effects of complex of resistant starch and chitosan in high fat diet fed rats. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;157:834-841 pubmed publisher
    ..synthesis and metabolism gene SREBP-1, adipocyte differentiation gene PPAR?, cholesterol synthesis gene HMGCR, gluconeogenesis gene GAPDH, were significantly down-regulated, whilst lipid oxidation gene Acox1 and liver ..
  59. Lacher S, Bruttger J, Kalt B, Berthelet J, Rajalingam K, Wörtge S, et al. HMG-CoA reductase promotes protein prenylation and therefore is indispensible for T-cell survival. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2824 pubmed publisher
    ..cholesterol levels via the competitive inhibition of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR)...
  60. Ide K, Koshizaka M, Tokuyama H, Tokuyama T, Ishikawa T, Maezawa Y, et al. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve lipoprotein particle size and concentration in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia: a pilot study. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17:51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that n-3 PUFAs may reduce residual cardiovascular risk factors in statin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. The study was registered at UMIN-ID: UMIN000013776 . ..
  61. Houten S, Schneiders M, Wanders R, Waterham H. Regulation of isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthesis in cells from mevalonate kinase-deficient patients. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5736-43 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that MK-deficient cells maintain the flux through the isoprenoid/cholesterol biosynthesis pathway by elevating intracellular mevalonate levels. ..
  62. Nagaraja G, Kandpal R. Chromosome 13q12 encoded Rho GTPase activating protein suppresses growth of breast carcinoma cells, and yeast two-hybrid screen shows its interaction with several proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;313:654-65 pubmed
    ..These cDNAs correspond to SWI/SNF, alpha-tubulin, HMG CoA reductase, and TAX1 binding protein (TAX1BP1)...
  63. Osaki Y, Nakagawa Y, Miyahara S, Iwasaki H, Ishii A, Matsuzaka T, et al. Skeletal muscle-specific HMG-CoA reductase knockout mice exhibit rhabdomyolysis: A model for statin-induced myopathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;466:536-40 pubmed publisher
    HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid (MVA); this is the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that synthesizes cholesterol...
  64. Decara J, Pavón F, Suárez J, Romero Cuevas M, Baixeras E, Vázquez M, et al. Treatment with a novel oleic-acid-dihydroxyamphetamine conjugation ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese Zucker rats. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:1213-25 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor and a decrease in the expression of the lipogenic enzymes FAS and HMGCR primarily...
  65. Yue Y, Bai X, Zhang H, Li Y, Hu L, Liu L, et al. Gene Polymorphisms Affect the Effectiveness of Atorvastatin in Treating Ischemic Stroke Patients. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;39:630-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences of blood lipid level and their ratios were measured. Six lipid related genes, HMGCR, APOA5, LPL, CETP, LDLR and PCSK9 were selected as candidate genes...
  66. Mohassel P, Foley A, Donkervoort S, Fequiere P, Pak K, BONNEMANN C, et al. Anti-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase necrotizing myopathy masquerading as a muscular dystrophy in a child. Muscle Nerve. 2017;56:1177-1181 pubmed publisher
    ..Presence of highly specific autoantibodies against signal recognition particle (SRP) or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl- coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) can aid in recognition and confirmation of IMNMs.
  67. He M, Zhang W, Dong Y, Wang L, Fang T, Tang W, et al. Pro-inflammation NF-κB signaling triggers a positive feedback via enhancing cholesterol accumulation in liver cancer cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017;36:15 pubmed publisher
    ..cholesterol uptake, and the expression of cholesterol-related genes 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), LDL receptor (LDLR), sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 2 (SREBF2), and proprotein ..
  68. Lu J, Cheng B, Meng Z, Fang B, Li T, Sun M, et al. Alliin attenuates 1, 3-dichloro-2-propanol-induced lipogenesis in HepG2 cells through activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. Life Sci. 2018;195:19-24 pubmed publisher
    ..up-regulate the phosphorylation of AMPK and down-regulate protein and gene expressions of SREBP-1; FAS; SREBP-2;HMGCR in 1,3-DCP-induced HepG2 cells...
  69. Medina M, Gao F, Ruan W, Rotter J, Krauss R. Alternative splicing of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase is associated with plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to simvastatin. Circulation. 2008;118:355-62 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGCR(3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase), the direct target of statin inhibition, undergoes alternative splicing of exon 13, which encodes part of the statin-binding domain of the enzyme...
  70. Mangravite L, Medina M, Cui J, Pressman S, Smith J, Rieder M, et al. Combined influence of LDLR and HMGCR sequence variation on lipid-lowering response to simvastatin. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1485-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the extent to which combined effects of common alleles of LDLR and HMGCR can contribute to this variability...
  71. Leduc V, Théroux L, Dea D, Dufour R, Poirier J. Effects of rs3846662 Variants on HMGCR mRNA and Protein Levels and on Markers of Alzheimer's Disease Pathology. J Mol Neurosci. 2016;58:109-19 pubmed publisher
    3-Hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) is a cholesterol-regulating gene with statin relevance...
  72. Ajufo E, Cuchel M. Recent Developments in Gene Therapy for Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2016;18:22 pubmed publisher
    ..We include a summary of key gene therapy approaches for HoFH in pre-clinical development, including RNA silencing of the gene encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and induced pluripotent stem cell transplant therapy.
  73. Nguyen L, Salen G, Shefer S, Bullock J, Chen T, Tint G, et al. Deficient ileal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in sitosterolemia: sitosterol is not a feedback inhibitor of intestinal cholesterol biosynthesis. Metabolism. 1994;43:855-9 pubmed
  74. Pallottini V, Guantario B, Martini C, Totta P, Filippi I, Carraro F, et al. Regulation of HMG-CoA reductase expression by hypoxia. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104:701-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The raised transcription of the reductase could be related to an induction by HIF-1alpha even if a parallel action of SREBP-2 actively translocated to nucleus by the increased level of SCAP cannot be excluded. ..
  75. Butt S, Butt T, Jirstrom K, Hartman L, Amini R, Zhou W, et al. The target for statins, HMG-CoA reductase, is expressed in ductal carcinoma-in situ and may predict patient response to radiotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21:2911-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The target for cholesterol-lowering statins is HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway...
  76. Norman K, Chen T, ZEINER G, Sarnow P. Precursor microRNA-122 inhibits synthesis of Insig1 isoform mRNA by modulating polyadenylation site usage. RNA. 2017;23:1886-1893 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway by retaining transcription factor SREBP in the endoplasmic reticulum, and by causing the degradation of HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis...
  77. Idriss A, Hu Y, Hou Z, Hu Y, Sun Q, Omer N, et al. Dietary betaine supplementation in hens modulates hypothalamic expression of cholesterol metabolic genes in F1 cockerels through modification of DNA methylation. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2018;217:14-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Concordantly, hypothalamic gene expression of SREBP2, HMGCR, and LDLR was significantly up regulated (P<0.05)...
  78. Viedt C, Shen W, Fei J, Kamimura M, Hänsch G, Katus H, et al. HMG-CoA reductase inhibition reduces the proinflammatory activation of human vascular smooth muscle cells by the terminal complement factor C5b-9. Basic Res Cardiol. 2003;98:353-61 pubmed
    ..This may be an important mechanism contributing to the beneficial effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors beyond lowering of plasma cholesterol. ..
  79. Nickerson M, Bosley A, Weiss J, Kostiha B, Hirota Y, Brandt W, et al. The UBIAD1 prenyltransferase links menaquinone-4 [corrected] synthesis to cholesterol metabolic enzymes. Hum Mutat. 2013;34:317-29 pubmed publisher
    ..G177-mutant UBIAD1 disrupted transmembrane helices and active site residues. We show UBIAD1 interacts with HMGCR and SOAT1, enzymes catalyzing cholesterol synthesis and storage, respectively, using yeast two-hybrid screening ..
  80. Hwang S, Nguyen A, Jo Y, Engelking L, Brugarolas J, DeBose Boyd R. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? activates insulin-induced gene 2 (Insig-2) transcription for degradation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase in the liver. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9382-9393 pubmed publisher
    ..endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway, HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR)...
  81. Orho Melander M, Hindy G, Borgquist S, Schulz C, Manjer J, Melander O, et al. Blood lipid genetic scores, the HMGCR gene and cancer risk: a Mendelian randomization study. Int J Epidemiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Under certain assumptions, Mendelian randomization analysis of a genetic marker for an exposure eliminates reverse causation and confounding...
  82. Hodge V, Gould S, Subramani S, Moser H, Krisans S. Normal cholesterol synthesis in human cells requires functional peroxisomes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;181:537-41 pubmed
    ..The range of cholesterol synthesis in these cells was 2% to 84% of normal values. These data strongly suggest that peroxisomes are essential for normal cholesterol synthesis in human fibroblasts. ..
  83. Rasmussen L, Hansen P, Nabipour M, Olesen P, Kristiansen M, Ledet T. Diverse effects of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase on the expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin in endothelial cells. Biochem J. 2001;360:363-70 pubmed
    ..These diverse effects are associated with changes in the transcriptional regulation of the two adhesion molecule genes and modulation of the surface removal of E-selectin. ..
  84. Kurup R, Kurup P. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and Alzheimer's disease. Int J Neurosci. 2003;113:361-81 pubmed
    ..There was elevation in plasma HMG CoA reductase activity, serum digoxin, and dolichol levels, and a reduction in serum magnesium, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ..
  85. Bhanushali A, Contractor A, Das B. Evaluation of the promoter polymorphism -911C>A in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase gene with coronary artery disease risk and cholesterol levels in a population from Western India. Transl Res. 2012;160:445-6 pubmed publisher
  86. Zhou L, He M, Mo Z, Wu C, Yang H, Yu D, et al. A genome wide association study identifies common variants associated with lipid levels in the Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82420 pubmed publisher
    ..The loci genome wide significantly associated with TC were near DOCK7, HMGCR and ABO; those genome wide significantly associated with TG were near APOA1/C3/A4/A5 and LPL; those genome wide ..
  87. Sun C, Huang F, Liu X, Xiao X, Yang M, Hu G, et al. miR-21 regulates triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by targeting HMGCR. Int J Mol Med. 2015;35:847-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-co-enzyme A reductase (HMGCR) expression was increased in the serum of patients with NAFLD both at the mRNA and protein level...
  88. Humphries S, Tata F, Henry I, Barichard F, Holm M, Junien C, et al. The isolation, characterisation, and chromosomal assignment of the gene for human 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, (HMG-CoA reductase). Hum Genet. 1985;71:254-8 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridisation of a 2.6 kb unique fragment of the gene to human metaphase chromosomes localised the human HMGCoA reductase gene to human chromosome 5q12. ..
  89. Rudling M, Angelin B, Stahle L, Reihner E, Sahlin S, Olivecrona H, et al. Regulation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNAs in human liver. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:4307-13 pubmed
    ..In contrast, following changes in bile acid flux through the liver, CYP7A1 gene expression becomes a strong modulator of hepatic cholesterol metabolism. ..
  90. Keller L, Murphy C, Wang H, Fratiglioni L, Olin M, Gafvels M, et al. A functional polymorphism in the HMGCR promoter affects transcriptional activity but not the risk for Alzheimer disease in Swedish populations. Brain Res. 2010;1344:185-91 pubmed publisher
    ..the influence of the -911C>A polymorphism (rs3761740) in the hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR) gene promoter on basal and regulated transcription, plasma cholesterol levels and the association with AD...
  91. Bengtsson E, Nerjovaj P, Wangefjord S, Nodin B, Eberhard J, Uhlen M, et al. HMG-CoA reductase expression in primary colorectal cancer correlates with favourable clinicopathological characteristics and an improved clinical outcome. Diagn Pathol. 2014;9:78 pubmed publisher
    An association between tumor-specific HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) expression and good prognosis has previously been demonstrated in breast and ovarian cancer...
  92. Guo N, Zhang N, Yan L, Cao X, Lv F, Wang J, et al. Down-regulation of single-stranded DNA-binding protein 1 expression induced by HCMV infection promotes lipid accumulation in cells. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017;50:e6389 pubmed publisher
    ..and RT-PCR, we found a differential expression of lipid metabolism-related genes including LDLR, SCARB, CETP, HMGCR, ApoB and LPL induced by HCMV infection...