Gene Symbol: HMGB2
Description: high mobility group box 2
Alias: HMG2, high mobility group protein B2, HMG-2, high mobility group protein 2, high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein 2
Species: human
Products:     HMGB2

Top Publications

  1. Stros M, Ozaki T, Bacikova A, Kageyama H, Nakagawara A. HMGB1 and HMGB2 cell-specifically down-regulate the p53- and p73-dependent sequence-specific transactivation from the human Bax gene promoter. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:7157-64 pubmed
    ..Previous reports have shown that architectural DNA-bending/looping chromosomal proteins HMGB1 and HMGB2 (formerly known as HMG1 and HMG2), which function in a number of biological processes including transcription and ..
  2. McCauley M, Hardwidge P, Maher L, Williams M. Dual binding modes for an HMG domain from human HMGB2 on DNA. Biophys J. 2005;89:353-64 pubmed
    ..In the presence of nanomolar concentrations of isolated HMG box A from HMGB2, DNA shows a decrease in its persistence length, where the protein induces an average DNA bend angle of 114 +/- 21 ..
  3. McCauley M, Zimmerman J, Maher L, Williams M. HMGB binding to DNA: single and double box motifs. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:993-1004 pubmed
    ..used to extend double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the absence as well as presence of a single box derivative of human HMGB2 [HMGB2(box A)] and a double box derivative of rat HMGB1 [HMGB1(box A+box B)]...
  4. Sebastian N, Bystry E, Becker N, Maher L. Enhancement of DNA flexibility in vitro and in vivo by HMGB box A proteins carrying box B residues. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2125-34 pubmed publisher vitro and Escherichia coli DNA looping assays in vivo that an isolated HMG box A domain derived from human HMGB2 folds poorly and does not enhance apparent DNA flexibility...
  5. Paull T, Haykinson M, Johnson R. The nonspecific DNA-binding and -bending proteins HMG1 and HMG2 promote the assembly of complex nucleoprotein structures. Genes Dev. 1993;7:1521-34 pubmed
    The mammalian high mobility group proteins HMG1 and HMG2 are abundant, chromatin-associated proteins whose cellular function is not known...
  6. Hasan M, Kitamura M, Kawai M, Ohira M, Mori K, Shoju S, et al. Transcriptional profiling of lactic acid treated reconstructed human epidermis reveals pathways underlying stinging and itch. Toxicol In Vitro. 2019;57:164-173 pubmed publisher
    ..LA treatment induced damage-associated genes HSPA1A, DDIT3, IL1A, and HMGB2. Neurotrophic factors including BDNF, ARTN, PGE2, and chemokines were also upregulated...
  7. Hou P, Liu D, Xing M. Genome-wide alterations in gene methylation by the BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid cancer cells. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011;18:687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated that the HMGB2 gene played a role in PTC cell proliferation and the FDG1 gene in cell invasion...
  8. Xu C, Xiao L, Liu Y, Chen L, Zheng S, Zeng E, et al. The lncRNA HOXA11-AS promotes glioma cell growth and metastasis by targeting miR-130a-5p/HMGB2. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2019;23:241-252 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of high-mobility group protein B2 (HMGB2) was determined using Western blot analysis in vitro and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in vivo...
  9. Zglejc Waszak K, Waszkiewicz E, Franczak A. Periconceptional undernutrition affects the levels of DNA methylation in the peri-implantation pig endometrium and in embryos. Theriogenology. 2019;123:185-193 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, 5 acid phosphatase tartrate resistant (ACP5), high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2), and DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) were altered in both the endometrium and in embryos...

More Information


  1. Franklin S, Chen H, Mitchell Jordan S, Ren S, Wang Y, Vondriska T. Quantitative analysis of the chromatin proteome in disease reveals remodeling principles and identifies high mobility group protein B2 as a regulator of hypertrophic growth. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:M111.014258 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-mediated loss-of-function in isolated cells, we demonstrate that the non-histone chromatin structural protein HMGB2 (but not HMGB1) suppresses pathologic cell growth in vivo and controls a gene expression program responsible for ..
  2. Chua N, Brown A. Mallostery: Filling a niche between quality and metabolic control. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:14951-14952 pubmed publisher
    ..of JBC, Wangeline and Hampton shed new light on this existential question by studying the classic case of HMGCR (Hmg2 in yeast), the rate-limiting step in sterol synthesis, and find a metabolic cue that causes "allosteric misfolding" ..
  3. Cui G, Cai F, Ding Z, Gao L. HMGB2 promotes the malignancy of human gastric cancer and indicates poor survival outcome. Hum Pathol. 2019;84:133-141 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGB2 is an important protein in carcinogenesis. However, little is known about the specific role of HMGB2 in gastric cancer...
  4. Wang G, Wang J, Yue B, Du X, Du H, Zhang M, et al. High mobility group box 2 of black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii: Gene cloning, immunoregulatory properties and antibacterial effect. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019;84:719-725 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) is a non-histone chromosomal protein that involved diverse functions such as transcriptional regulation and innate immune responses in mammalian...
  5. Han Q, Xu L, Lin W, Yao X, Jiang M, Zhou R, et al. Long noncoding RNA CRCMSL suppresses tumor invasive and metastasis in colorectal carcinoma through nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB2. Oncogene. 2019;38:3019-3032 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA-pulldown assay identifies high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) as a downstream protein of lnc-CRCMSL...
  6. Zhou G, Lu Y, Xie J, Gao Z, Wu X, Yao W, et al. Overexpression of miR-758 inhibited proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoted apoptosis of non-small cell lung cancer cells by negatively regulating HMGB. Biosci Rep. 2019;39: pubmed publisher
    ..results supported that the overexpression of miR-758 inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion, and promotes apoptosis of NSCLC cells by negative regulating HMGB2. The present study may provide a novel target for NSCLC treatment.
  7. Wangeline M, Hampton R. "Mallostery"-ligand-dependent protein misfolding enables physiological regulation by ERAD. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:14937-14950 pubmed publisher
    ..In yeast, the stability of the HMGR isozyme Hmg2 is controlled by the 20-carbon isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP)...
  8. Zhang W, Zhang Y, Ding K, Zhang H, Zhao Q, Liu Z, et al. Involvement of JNK1/2-NF-κBp65 in the regulation of HMGB2 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-induced apoptosis in human AC16 cardiomyocytes. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;106:1063-1071 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the function and possible mechanism of HMGB2 in I/R-induced cell injury, human AC16 cardiomyocytes transfected with pLVX-Puro-HMGB2 were treated with SP600125 (..
  9. Zirkel A, Nikolic M, Sofiadis K, Mallm J, Brackley C, Gothe H, et al. HMGB2 Loss upon Senescence Entry Disrupts Genomic Organization and Induces CTCF Clustering across Cell Types. Mol Cell. 2018;70:730-744.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that nuclear depletion of the abundant HMGB2 protein occurs early on the path to senescence and coincides with the dramatic spatial clustering of CTCF...
  10. Franczak A, Zglejc Waszak K, Martyniak M, Waszkiewicz E, Kotwica G. Peri-conceptional nutritional restriction alters transcriptomic profile in the peri-implantation pig embryos. Anim Reprod Sci. 2018;197:305-316 pubmed publisher
    ..e., 5 acid phosphatase, tartrate resistant (ACP5), high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (ALOX12), adiponectin receptor 2 (..
  11. An Y, Zhang Z, Shang Y, Jiang X, Dong J, Yu P, et al. miR-23b-3p regulates the chemoresistance of gastric cancer cells by targeting ATG12 and HMGB2. Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e1766 pubmed publisher
    ..Reporter gene assay and western blot analysis showed that ATG12 and HMGB2 were the direct targets of miR-23b-3p...
  12. Smith N, Adle D, Zhao M, Qin X, Kim H, Lee J. Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation of Pca1p, a Polytopic Protein, via Interaction with the Proteasome at the Membrane. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:15082-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that extraction and degradation of polytopic membrane proteins at the ER is a coupled event. This mechanism would relieve the cost of exposed hydrophobic domains in the cytosol during ERAD. ..
  13. Lee D, Taniguchi N, Sato K, Choijookhuu N, Hishikawa Y, Kataoka H, et al. HMGB2 is a novel adipogenic factor that regulates ectopic fat infiltration in skeletal muscles. Sci Rep. 2018;8:9601 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2), which is a nuclear protein commonly associated with mesenchymal differentiation, is involved in the early ..
  14. Yang X, Xiong Y, Duan H, Gong R. Identification of genes associated with methotrexate resistance in methotrexate-resistant osteosarcoma cell lines. J Orthop Surg Res. 2015;10:136 pubmed publisher
    ..Totally, 13 TFs (including HMGB2), 13 oncogenes (including CCNA2 and AURKA), and 19 tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) (including CDKN2C) were ..
  15. Briquet S, Lawson Hogban N, Boisson B, Soares M, Péronet R, Smith L, et al. Disruption of Parasite hmgb2 Gene Attenuates Plasmodium berghei ANKA Pathogenicity. Infect Immun. 2015;83:2771-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the Plasmodium genome encodes two genuine HMGB factors, Plasmodium HMGB1 and HMGB2, that encompass, like their human counterparts, a proinflammatory domain...
  16. Lawrence I, Bene M, Nacarelli T, Azar A, Cohen J, Torres C, et al. Correlations between age, functional status, and the senescence-associated proteins HMGB2 and p16INK4a. GeroScience. 2018;40:193-199 pubmed publisher
    ..examined the correlation with age of two key proteins involved in the senescence program, p16INK4a and HMGB2. These proteins are involved in cell cycle arrest and chromatin remodeling during senescence...
  17. Lee S, Nam Y, Koo J, Lim D, Park J, Ock J, et al. A small molecule binding HMGB1 and HMGB2 inhibits microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Nat Chem Biol. 2014;10:1055-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals that ICM suppresses microglia-mediated inflammation and exerts a neuroprotective effect, demonstrating the therapeutic potential of ICM in neuroinflammatory diseases. ..
  18. Liu Z, Dai D, Ding F, Pan W, Fang Y, Zhang Q, et al. Association of serum HMGB2 level with MACE at 1 mo of myocardial infarction: Aggravation of myocardial ischemic injury in rats by HMGB2 via ROS. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017;312:H422-H436 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box (HMGB) family is related to inflammatory diseases. We investigated whether serum HMGB2 levels are related to myocardial infarction (MI) severity and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during MI...
  19. Kim H, Kang M, Kim M, Shin Y, Chi S, Jeong J. Transcriptional Repression of High-Mobility Group Box 2 by p21 in Radiation-Induced Senescence. Mol Cells. 2018;41:362-372 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) is an abundant, chromatin-associated, non-histone protein involved in transcription, chromatin remodeling, and recombination...
  20. Shin Y, Kim M, Kim M, Lee J, Kang M, Jeong J. High-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) modulates radioresponse and is downregulated by p53 in colorectal cancer cell. Cancer Biol Ther. 2013;14:213-21 pubmed publisher
    Overexpression of high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) is recently reported in several malignant cancers and was correlated with poor response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy of colorectal cancer patients...
  21. Han S, Kwong S, Ge R, Kolatkar P, Woods A, Blanchet G, et al. Regulation of expression of venom toxins: silencing of prothrombin activator trocarin D by AG-rich motifs. FASEB J. 2016;30:2411-25 pubmed publisher
    ..All except the 5th motif are important for silencing function. YY1, Sp3 and HMGB2 were identified to bind these AG-rich motifs and silence gene expression in mammalian cells...
  22. Monte E, Rosa Garrido M, Karbassi E, Chen H, Lopez R, Rau C, et al. Reciprocal Regulation of the Cardiac Epigenome by Chromatin Structural Proteins Hmgb and Ctcf: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:15428-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the roles of two chromatin structural proteins, Ctcf (CCCTC-binding factor) and Hmgb2 (high mobility group protein B2), in regulating pathologic transcription and chromatin remodeling...
  23. Fu D, Li J, Wei J, Zhang Z, Luo Y, Tan H, et al. HMGB2 is associated with malignancy and regulates Warburg effect by targeting LDHB and FBP1 in breast cancer. Cell Commun Signal. 2018;16:8 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) is implicated in tumorigenesis in various cancers. However, the clinical significance of HMGB2 signaling in human breast cancer progression remains unknown...
  24. Guerrero A, Gil J. HMGB2 holds the key to the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. J Cell Biol. 2016;215:297-299 pubmed
    ..In this issue, Aird et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. describe how chromatin-bound HMGB2 fine tunes SASP expression by avoiding heterochromatin spreading.
  25. Davies J, Apta B, Harper M. Cross-reactivity of anti-HMGB1 antibodies for HMGB2. J Immunol Methods. 2018;456:72-76 pubmed publisher
    HMGB1 and HMGB2 are DNA-interacting proteins but can also have extracellular actions during inflammation...
  26. Kosova A, Khodyreva S, Lavrik O. Role of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in DNA Repair. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2017;82:643-654 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, GAPDH can interact with proteins participating in DNA repair, such as APE1, PARP1, HMGB1, and HMGB2. In this review, the functions of GAPDH associated with DNA repair are discussed in detail.
  27. Hung C, Yen C, Tsai H, Su Y, Yen C. Upregulation of MicroRNA-19b predicts good prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with vascular invasion or multifocal disease. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:665 pubmed publisher
    ..cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM), hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1A), high-mobility group protein B2 (HMGB2), and mitogen activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14) were upregulated when miR-19b was knocked down in Hep3B...
  28. Zhang S, Zhu D, Li H, Li H, Feng C, Zhang W. Characterization of circRNA-Associated-ceRNA Networks in a Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 Brain. Mol Ther. 2017;25:2053-2061 pubmed publisher
    ..circRNA-associated-ceRNA networks in this AD mouse model were mainly involved in the regulation of A? clearance (Hmgb2) and myelin function (Dio2)...
  29. Takeda T, Izumi H, Kitada S, Uramoto H, Tasaki T, Zhi L, et al. The combination of a nuclear HMGB1-positive and HMGB2-negative expression is potentially associated with a shortened survival in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:10555-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Both HMGB1 and HMGB2 exhibit a high expression in several human cancers and are closely associated with tumor progression and a poor ..
  30. Yumoto Y, Shirakawa H, Yoshida M, Suwa A, Watanabe F, Teraoka H. High mobility group proteins 1 and 2 can function as DNA-binding regulatory components for DNA-dependent protein kinase in vitro. J Biochem. 1998;124:519-27 pubmed
    ..The HMG2-domains (A+B) polypeptide devoid of the C-terminal acidic region was more effective for DNA-PKcs stimulation than ..
  31. Lehming N, Le Saux A, Schuller J, Ptashne M. Chromatin components as part of a putative transcriptional repressing complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:7322-6 pubmed
    ..Each of these proteins represses transcription when tethered to DNA in mammalian cells. These results suggest how heterochromatin proteins might be recruited to specific sites on DNA with resultant specific effects on gene expression. ..
  32. Pallier C, Scaffidi P, Chopineau Proust S, Agresti A, Nordmann P, Bianchi M, et al. Association of chromatin proteins high mobility group box (HMGB) 1 and HMGB2 with mitotic chromosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:3414-26 pubmed
    ..e., free and associated with the condensed chromatin, which rapidly exchange. A detailed analysis of HMGB2 interaction with mitotic chromosomes indicated that two sites encompassing HMG-box A and B are responsible for ..
  33. Shirakawa H, Yoshida M. Structure of a gene coding for human HMG2 protein. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:6641-5 pubmed
    A human genomic library was screened with the pig thymus cDNA coding for chromosomal protein HMG2. A 4341-base pair fragment containing the entire gene encoding this protein was isolated and characterized...
  34. Taniguchi N, Kawakami Y, Maruyama I, Lotz M. HMGB proteins and arthritis. Hum Cell. 2018;31:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, Hmgb2 -/- mice represent a relevant model of aging-related osteoarthritis (OA), which is associated with the ..
  35. Aidinis V, Bonaldi T, Beltrame M, Santagata S, Bianchi M, Spanopoulou E. The RAG1 homeodomain recruits HMG1 and HMG2 to facilitate recombination signal sequence binding and to enhance the intrinsic DNA-bending activity of RAG1-RAG2. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:6532-42 pubmed
    ..recombination reaction can be reconstituted in vitro with only RAG1/2 plus the high-mobility-group protein HMG1 or HMG2. Here we show that the RAG1 homeodomain directly interacts with both HMG boxes of HMG1 and HMG2 (HMG1,2)...
  36. Zhao T, Zhang H, Guo Y, Zhang Q, Hua G, Lu H, et al. Granzyme K cleaves the nucleosome assembly protein SET to induce single-stranded DNA nicks of target cells. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:489-99 pubmed
    ..After GzmK loading, SET and DNase NM23H1 rapidly translocate into the nucleus and SET is cleaved, where the nuclease activity of NM23H1 is activated to nick chromosomal DNA. ..
  37. Fan Z, Beresford P, Zhang D, Lieberman J. HMG2 interacts with the nucleosome assembly protein SET and is a target of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protease granzyme A. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2810-20 pubmed
    ..find that the SET complex contains DNA binding and bending activities mediated by the chromatin-associated protein HMG2. HMG2 facilitates assembly of nucleoprotein higher-order structures by bending and looping DNA or by stabilizing ..
  38. Bagherpoor A, Dolezalova D, Bárta T, Kučírek M, Sani S, EÅ¡ner M, et al. Properties of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Their Differentiated Derivatives Depend on Nonhistone DNA-Binding HMGB1 and HMGB2 Proteins. Stem Cells Dev. 2017;26:328-340 pubmed publisher
    HMGB1 and HMGB2 proteins have been implicated in numerous cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and tumor growth...
  39. Hoek M, Myers M, Stillman B. An analysis of CAF-1-interacting proteins reveals dynamic and direct interactions with the KU complex and 14-3-3 proteins. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10876-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight that CAF-1 has prominent interactions with the DNA repair machinery but that the N terminus is dispensable for the role of CAF-1 in DNA replication- and repair-coupled chromatin assembly. ..
  40. Nagaki S, Yamamoto M, Yumoto Y, Shirakawa H, Yoshida M, Teraoka H. Non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and 2 enhance ligation reaction of DNA double-strand breaks. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;246:137-41 pubmed
    ..Recombinant HMG2-domain A, B, and (A + B) polypeptides were similarly, but non-identically, effective for the stimulation of DSB ..
  41. Majumdar A, Brown D, Kerby S, Rudzinski I, Polte T, Randhawa Z, et al. Sequence of human HMG2 cDNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:6643 pubmed
  42. Butteroni C, De Felici M, Scholer H, Pesce M. Phage display screening reveals an association between germline-specific transcription factor Oct-4 and multiple cellular proteins. J Mol Biol. 2000;304:529-40 pubmed
    ..In addition, HMG-1 was found to cooperate with Oct-4 in P19 EC cells. These results provide the first evidence of a non-viral factor that enhances Oct-4 distance-dependent transactivation in stem cells. ..
  43. Le X, Lammayot A, Gold D, Lu Y, Mao W, Chang T, et al. Genes affecting the cell cycle, growth, maintenance, and drug sensitivity are preferentially regulated by anti-HER2 antibody through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:2092-104 pubmed
    ..Transcriptional regulation by anti-HER2 antibody through PI3K-AKT pathway may potentiate the growth inhibitory activity of docetaxel by affecting cell cycle progression. ..
  44. Chiou W, Niazi S. Pharmaceutical applications of solid dispersion systems: dissolution of griseofulvin-succinic acid eutectic mixture. J Pharm Sci. 1976;65:1212-4 pubmed
    ..Contrary to the original proposal of Sekiguchi and coworkers, dissolution rates of driseofulvin from solid dispersions were found to be markedly affected by the particle size of solid dispersions. ..
  45. Melvin V, Harrell C, Adelman J, Kraus W, Churchill M, Edwards D. The role of the C-terminal extension (CTE) of the estrogen receptor alpha and beta DNA binding domain in DNA binding and interaction with HMGB. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14763-71 pubmed
    ..The CTE of both ER subtypes was also shown to be required for interaction with ERE half-sites. These studies reveal the importance of the CTE and HMGB-1/-2 for ERalpha and ERbeta interaction with their cognate target DNAs. ..
  46. He Y, Wang X, Zhang J, Liu Z, Pan W, Shen Y, et al. Association of Serum HMGB2 Levels With In-Stent Restenosis: HMGB2 Promotes Neointimal Hyperplasia in Mice With Femoral Artery Injury and Proliferation and Migration of VSMCs. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:717-729 pubmed publisher
    ..We here investigated whether serum HMGB2 levels were related to ISR in coronary artery disease patients...
  47. Zhou X, Li M, Huang H, Chen K, Yuan Z, Zhang Y, et al. HMGB2 regulates satellite-cell-mediated skeletal muscle regeneration through IGF2BP2. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:4305-4316 pubmed
    ..Here, we identified HMGB2 as an essential nuclear transcriptional co-regulator in myogenesis...
  48. Alexandre S, Li W, Lee A. A human HMG2 cDNA with a novel 3'-untranslated region. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:6413 pubmed
  49. Syed N, Chavan S, Sahasrabuddhe N, Renuse S, Sathe G, Nanjappa V, et al. Silencing of high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) modulates cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil sensitivity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Proteomics. 2015;15:383-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These included high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) protein, which was overexpressed in all three HNSCC lines studied...
  50. Sobajima J, Ozaki S, Osakada F, Uesugi H, Shirakawa H, Yoshida M, et al. Novel autoantigens of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (P-ANCA) in ulcerative colitis: non-histone chromosomal proteins, HMG1 and HMG2. Clin Exp Immunol. 1997;107:135-40 pubmed
    ..of these proteins are identical with those of high mobility group (HMG) non-histone chromosomal proteins HMG1 and HMG2. Immunoblotting analysis of human neutrophil lysates using rabbit anti-HMG1/2 antisera revealed a single band of 28 ..
  51. Lee M, Roy M, Ong S, Mertins P, Villani A, Li W, et al. Identification of regulators of the innate immune response to cytosolic DNA and retroviral infection by an integrative approach. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified ABCF1 as a critical protein that associates with dsDNA and the DNA-sensing components HMGB2 and IFI204...
  52. Kuzmin A, Jarvi K, Lo K, Spencer L, Chow G, Macleod G, et al. Identification of potentially damaging amino acid substitutions leading to human male infertility. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the novel mutations were in a heterozygous configuration, suggesting that they may be de novo mutations with dominant negative properties. ..
  53. Laurent B, Randrianarison Huetz V, Marechal V, Marchal V, Mayeux P, Dusanter Fourt I, et al. High-mobility group protein HMGB2 regulates human erythroid differentiation through trans-activation of GFI1B transcription. Blood. 2010;115:687-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We here identify HMGB2, a high-mobility group HMG protein, as a key regulator of GFI1B transcription...
  54. Yamanaka Y, Faghihi M, Magistri M, Alvarez Garcia O, Lotz M, Wahlestedt C. Antisense RNA controls LRP1 Sense transcript expression through interaction with a chromatin-associated protein, HMGB2. Cell Rep. 2015;11:967-976 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Lrp1-AS directly binds to high-mobility group box 2 (Hmgb2) and inhibits the activity of Hmgb2 to enhance Srebp1a-dependent transcription of Lrp1...
  55. Tecle E, Zielinski L, Kass D. Recent integrations of mammalian Hmg retropseudogenes. J Genet. 2006;85:179-85 pubmed
    ..It is apparent that retropseudogenes continue to shape mammalian genomes, and may provide insight into the process of retrotransposition, as well as offer potential use as phylogenetic markers. ..
  56. Stros M, Polanská E, Struncová S, Pospisilova S. HMGB1 and HMGB2 proteins up-regulate cellular expression of human topoisomerase IIalpha. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2070-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of HMGB1 and its close relative, HMGB2, in modulation of activity of the topo IIalpha gene is further supported by knock-down of HMGB1/2, as evidenced by ..
  57. Zhao Y, Yang Z, Wu J, Wu R, Keshipeddy S, Wright D, et al. High-mobility-group protein 2 regulated by microRNA-127 and small heterodimer partner modulates pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells and liver tumor initiating cells. Hepatol Commun. 2017;1:816-830 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility-group protein 2 (HMGB2) expression is upregulated in human liver cancer. However, little is known about its regulatory function...
  58. Xu H, Han Y, Lou J, Zhang H, Zhao Y, Gyorffy B, et al. PDGFRA, HSD17B4 and HMGB2 are potential therapeutic targets in polycystic ovarian syndrome and breast cancer. Oncotarget. 2017;8:69520-69526 pubmed publisher
    ..4/HSD17B4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide/PDGFRA and high-mobility group box 2/HMGB2. Gene-drug interaction network about the three genes were then constructed...
  59. Lee D, Kwon J, Kim E, Kim E, Choi K. HMGB2 stabilizes p53 by interfering with E6/E6AP-mediated p53 degradation in human papillomavirus-positive HeLa cells. Cancer Lett. 2010;292:125-32 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the effect of HMGB2 on the stability of p53 protein in HeLa cells...
  60. Wang Y, Li X, Yin J, Zhang Y, He H, Qian C, et al. Association of HMGB1 and HMGB2 genetic polymorphisms with lung cancer chemotherapy response. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2014;41:408-15 pubmed publisher was to investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in high mobility group box 1 and 2 (HMGB1 and HMGB2, respectively) with platinum-based chemotherapy responses in Chinese lung cancer patients...
  61. Bernues J, Espel E, Querol E. Identification of the core-histone-binding domains of HMG1 and HMG2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986;866:242-51 pubmed
    ..To gain insight into the interactions of HMG1 and HMG2 with the fundamental components of chromatin we have introduced the methodology of photochemical crosslinking...
  62. Küchler R, Schroeder B, Jaeger S, Stange E, Wehkamp J. Antimicrobial activity of high-mobility-group box 2: a new function to a well-known protein. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013;57:4782-93 pubmed publisher
    ..based on antimicrobial function, here we identified competent antibacterial activity of high-mobility-group box 2 (HMGB2) against Escherichia coli...
  63. Wu Z, Cai L, Lin S, Xiong Z, Lu J, Mao Y, et al. High-mobility group box 2 is associated with prognosis of glioblastoma by promoting cell viability, invasion, and chemotherapeutic resistance. Neuro Oncol. 2013;15:1264-75 pubmed publisher
    The expression profile of high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and its clinical signature with underlying mechanisms were not fully explored...
  64. McCauley M, Rueter E, Rouzina I, Maher L, Williams M. Single-molecule kinetics reveal microscopic mechanism by which High-Mobility Group B proteins alter DNA flexibility. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:167-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a new single-molecule method to probe non-specific DNA interactions for two HMGB homologs: the human HMGB2 box A domain and yeast Nhp6Ap, along with chimeric mutants replacing neutral N-terminal residues of the HMGB2 ..
  65. Pusterla T, De Marchis F, Palumbo R, Bianchi M. High mobility group B2 is secreted by myeloid cells and has mitogenic and chemoattractant activities similar to high mobility group B1. Autoimmunity. 2009;42:308-10 pubmed
    ..HMGB1 can be actively secreted by inflammatory cells. Here, we report that also HMGB2 can be secreted by THP-1 cells, and promotes proliferation and migration of endothelial cells...
  66. Aird K, Iwasaki O, Kossenkov A, Tanizawa H, Fatkhutdinov N, Bitler B, et al. HMGB2 orchestrates the chromatin landscape of senescence-associated secretory phenotype gene loci. J Cell Biol. 2016;215:325-334 pubmed
    ..In this study, we report that high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) orchestrates the chromatin landscape of SASP gene loci...
  67. Jourdan N, Jobart Malfait A, Dos Reis G, Quignon F, Piolot T, Klein C, et al. Live-cell imaging reveals multiple interactions between Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 and cellular chromatin during interphase and mitosis. J Virol. 2012;86:5314-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We also performed a yeast double-hybrid screening, followed by a FRET analysis, that led us to identify HMGB2 (high-mobility group box 2), a well-known chromatin component, as a new partner for EBNA-1 on chromatin during ..
  68. Cai X, Ding H, Liu Y, Pan G, Li Q, Yang Z, et al. Expression of HMGB2 indicates worse survival of patients and is required for the maintenance of Warburg effect in pancreatic cancer. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2017;49:119-127 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic values of HMGBs proteins, including HMGB1, HMGB2, and HMGB3, in pancreatic cancer from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset...
  69. Takaishi H, Kanai T, Nakazawa A, Sugata F, Nikai A, Yoshizawa S, et al. Anti-high mobility group box 1 and box 2 non-histone chromosomal proteins (HMGB1/HMGB2) antibodies and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA): accuracy in differentially diagnosing UC and CD and correlation with inflammatory bowel disease ph. J Gastroenterol. 2012;47:969-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously identified the high mobility group box 1 and box 2 non-histone chromosomal proteins (HMGB1 and HMGB2) as novel antigens of perinuclear type anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) and discovered anti-HMGB1/..
  70. Kalinowska Herok M, Widłak P. High mobility group proteins stimulate DNA cleavage by apoptotic endonuclease DFF40/CAD due to HMG-box interactions with DNA. Acta Biochim Pol. 2008;55:21-6 pubmed
    ..It has been previously demonstrated that the major HMG-box-containing chromatin proteins HMGB1 and HMGB2 stimulate naked DNA cleavage by DFF40/CAD...
  71. Pasheva E, Sarov M, Bidjekov K, Ugrinova I, Sarg B, Lindner H, et al. In vitro acetylation of HMGB-1 and -2 proteins by CBP: the role of the acidic tail. Biochemistry. 2004;43:2935-40 pubmed
    ..The alterations in the acetylation pattern of HMGB-1 and -2 upon removal of the C-terminal tail are regarded as a means by which the acidic domain modulates some properties of these proteins. ..
  72. Lawrence D, Engelsberg B, Farid R, Hughes E, Billings P. Localization of the binding region of high mobility group protein 2 to cisplatin-damaged DNA. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:23940-5 pubmed
    ..In the present study partial proteolytic digestion was used to localize the binding region of HMG2. A proteolytic fragment of approximately 20 kDa, containing the amino-terminal region of the protein, maintains the ..
  73. Wanschura S, Schoenmakers E, Huysmans C, Bartnitzke S, Van de Ven W, Bullrdiek J. Mapping of the human HMG2 gene to 4q31. Genomics. 1996;31:264-5 pubmed
  74. Boonyaratanakornkit V, Melvin V, Prendergast P, Altmann M, Ronfani L, Bianchi M, et al. High-mobility group chromatin proteins 1 and 2 functionally interact with steroid hormone receptors to enhance their DNA binding in vitro and transcriptional activity in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4471-87 pubmed
  75. Zwilling S, Konig H, Wirth T. High mobility group protein 2 functionally interacts with the POU domains of octamer transcription factors. EMBO J. 1995;14:1198-208 pubmed
    ..We have mapped the interaction domains for both proteins and have shown that HMG2 and Oct2 interact via their HMG domains and POU homeodomains, respectively...
  76. Shykind B, Kim J, Sharp P. Activation of the TFIID-TFIIA complex with HMG-2. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1354-65 pubmed
  77. Ito I, Mitsuoka N, Sobajima J, Uesugi H, Ozaki S, Ohya K, et al. Conformational difference in HMGB1 proteins of human neutrophils and lymphocytes revealed by epitope mapping of a monoclonal antibody. J Biochem. 2004;136:155-62 pubmed
    HMGB1 and HMGB2 are abundant nonhistone chromosomal proteins in eukaryotic organisms. Their respective primary sequences are highly conserved...
  78. Lv X, Xu D, Liu D, Li L, Hao D, Liang C. High-mobility group protein 2 may be involved in the locus control region regulation of the beta-globin gene cluster. Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;80:765-70 pubmed
    ..This indicates that the AT-rich region in human hypersensitive site 2 may take part in the regulation of the beta-globin gene cluster by facilitating DNA bending, which is a prerequisite for the looping mechanism in this region. ..
  79. Dubois T, Howell S, Zemlickova E, Aitken A. Identification of casein kinase Ialpha interacting protein partners. FEBS Lett. 2002;517:167-71 pubmed
    ..we identified several CKIalpha interacting proteins including RCC1, high mobility group proteins 1 and 2 (HMG1, HMG2), Erf, centaurin-alpha1, synaptotagmin IX and CPI-17 that were isolated from brain as CKIalpha co-purifying ..
  80. Taniguchi N, Caramés B, Hsu E, Cherqui S, Kawakami Y, Lotz M. Expression patterns and function of chromatin protein HMGB2 during mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41489-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of chromatin protein HMGB2 is restricted to the SZ, which contains cells expressing mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers...
  81. Redmond A, Byrne C, Bane F, Brown G, Tibbitts P, O brien K, et al. Genomic interaction between ER and HMGB2 identifies DDX18 as a novel driver of endocrine resistance in breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2015;34:3871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The chromatin protein high mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) was identified as an SRC-1 interacting protein in the endocrine-resistant setting...
  82. Krynetski E, Krynetskaia N, Bianchi M, Evans W. A nuclear protein complex containing high mobility group proteins B1 and B2, heat shock cognate protein 70, ERp60, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is involved in the cytotoxic response to DNA modified by incorporation of anticancer nucle. Cancer Res. 2003;63:100-6 pubmed
    ..complex, as identified by protein mass spectroscopy, included high mobility group proteins 1 and 2 (HMGB1, HMGB2), heat shock protein HSC70, protein disulfide isomerase ERp60, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase...
  83. Kwon J, Kim J, Park J, Hong S, Park C, Hong S, et al. Overexpression of high-mobility group box 2 is associated with tumor aggressiveness and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16:5511-21 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the expression of high-mobility group box 2 (HMGB2) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its clinical effects with underlying mechanisms...
  84. Tang C, Yang Z, Chen D, Xie Q, Peng T, Wu J, et al. Downregulation of miR-130a promotes cell growth and epithelial to mesenchymal transition by activating HMGB2 in glioma. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;93:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the oncogene HMGB2 as a downstream target of miR-130a by using luciferase and western blot assays...
  85. Fan Z, Beresford P, Zhang D, Xu Z, Novina C, Yoshida A, et al. Cleaving the oxidative repair protein Ape1 enhances cell death mediated by granzyme A. Nat Immunol. 2003;4:145-53 pubmed
    ..In so doing, GzmA may block cellular repair and force apoptosis. In support of this, cells with silenced Ape1 expression are more sensitive, whereas cells overexpressing noncleavable Ape1 are more resistant, to GzmA-mediated death. ..
  86. Taniguchi N, Caramés B, Ronfani L, Ulmer U, Komiya S, Bianchi M, et al. Aging-related loss of the chromatin protein HMGB2 in articular cartilage is linked to reduced cellularity and osteoarthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:1181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In human and murine cartilage, there is an aging-related loss of HMGB2 expression, ultimately leading to its complete absence...