HMGB1

Summary

Gene Symbol: HMGB1
Description: high mobility group box 1
Alias: HMG-1, HMG1, HMG3, SBP-1, high mobility group protein B1, Amphoterin, Sulfoglucuronyl carbohydrate binding protein, high-mobility group (nonhistone chromosomal) protein 1
Species: human
Products:     HMGB1

Top Publications

  1. Yang L, Yu Y, Kang R, Yang M, Xie M, Wang Z, et al. Up-regulated autophagy by endogenous high mobility group box-1 promotes chemoresistance in leukemia cells. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012;53:315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas its activities are known primarily to be under regulation of the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) gene, the expression of HMGB1 and its function in leukemia cells still remain unclear...
  2. Yang H, Lundbäck P, Ottosson L, Erlandsson Harris H, Venereau E, Bianchi M, et al. Redox modification of cysteine residues regulates the cytokine activity of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Mol Med. 2012;18:250-9 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein with extracellular inflammatory cytokine activity. It is released passively during cell injury and necrosis, and secreted actively by immune cells...
  3. Prasad R, Liu Y, Deterding L, Poltoratsky V, Kedar P, Horton J, et al. HMGB1 is a cofactor in mammalian base excision repair. Mol Cell. 2007;27:829-41 pubmed
    ..Mass spectrometry identified the high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) as specifically interacting with the BER intermediate...
  4. Liu Y, Prasad R, Wilson S. HMGB1: roles in base excision repair and related function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1799:119-30 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nonhistone architectural protein that is involved in many biological processes including chromatin remodeling, transcription, cell signaling of inflammation, DNA damage repair and others...
  5. Romero R, Chaiworapongsa T, Alpay Savasan Z, Xu Y, Hussein Y, Dong Z, et al. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in preterm labor with intact membranes and preterm PROM: a study of the alarmin HMGB1. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011;24:1444-55 pubmed publisher
    ..A prototypic alarmin is high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, capable of inducing inflammation and tissue repair when it reaches the extracellular environment...
  6. Bruchfeld A, Wendt M, Bratt J, Qureshi A, Chavan S, Tracey K, et al. High-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) is increased in antineutrophilic cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis with renal manifestations. Mol Med. 2011;17:29-35 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear and cytosolic protein that is increasingly recognized as an important proinflammatory mediator actively secreted from monocytes and macrophages and passively released from necrotic cells...
  7. Hou C, Zhao H, Liu L, Li W, Zhou X, Lv Y, et al. High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in Asthma: comparison of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy controls. Mol Med. 2011;17:807-15 pubmed publisher
    b>High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) has been implicated as an important mediator in the pathogenesis of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  8. Xiao J, Ding Y, Huang J, Li Q, Liu Y, Ni W, et al. The association of HMGB1 gene with the prognosis of HCC. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89097 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is an evolutionarily ancient and critical regulator of cell death and survival. HMGB1 is a chromatin-associated nuclear protein molecule that triggers extracellular damage...
  9. Arrigo T, Chirico V, Salpietro V, Munafò C, Ferrau V, Gitto E, et al. High-mobility group protein B1: a new biomarker of metabolic syndrome in obese children. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168:631-8 pubmed publisher
    Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation. High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) plays a key role in inflammation and immunostimulatory and chemotactic processes...

More Information

Publications82

  1. Jube S, Rivera Z, Bianchi M, Powers A, Wang E, Pagano I, et al. Cancer cell secretion of the DAMP protein HMGB1 supports progression in malignant mesothelioma. Cancer Res. 2012;72:3290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..The damage-associated molecular pattern protein HMGB1 has been implicated previously in transformation of mesothelial cells...
  2. Liu F, Zhang Y, Peng Z, Gao H, Xu L, Chen M. High expression of high mobility group box 1 (hmgb1) predicts poor prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma after curative hepatectomy. J Transl Med. 2012;10:135 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box 1(HMGB1) overexpression has been reported in a variety of human cancers. However, the role of HMGB1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear...
  3. Schiraldi M, Raucci A, Muñoz L, Livoti E, Celona B, Venereau E, et al. HMGB1 promotes recruitment of inflammatory cells to damaged tissues by forming a complex with CXCL12 and signaling via CXCR4. J Exp Med. 2012;209:551-63 pubmed publisher
    After tissue damage, inflammatory cells infiltrate the tissue and release proinflammatory cytokines. HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1), a nuclear protein released by necrotic and severely stressed cells, promotes cytokine release via its ..
  4. Lee H, Park M, Shin N, Kim G, Kim Y, Shin J, et al. High mobility group box-1 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta and secreted in colon cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;424:321-6 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein, is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells...
  5. Shim E, Chun E, Lee H, Bang B, Kim T, Cho S, et al. The role of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the pathogenesis of asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42:958-65 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) belonging to endogenous danger signals prolongs eosinophil survival and acts as a chemoattractant.
  6. Maugeri N, Franchini S, Campana L, Baldini M, Ramirez G, Sabbadini M, et al. Circulating platelets as a source of the damage-associated molecular pattern HMGB1 in patients with systemic sclerosis. Autoimmunity. 2012;45:584-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that platelet activation results in i) the translocation from the cytoplasm to the surface of HMGB1, a prototypical DAMP signal associated with tissue regeneration and ii) the release of platelet derived ..
  7. Dong Y, Cui L, Peng C, Cheng D, Han B, Huang F. Expression and clinical significance of HMGB1 in human liver cancer: Knockdown inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:87-94 pubmed publisher
    The high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in tumorigenesis and progression of many malignant cancers...
  8. Bellussi L, Iosif C, Sarafoleanu C, Jianu E, Duda R, Panaitescu E, et al. Are HMGB1 protein expression and secretion markers of upper airways inflammatory diseases?. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2013;27:791-804 pubmed
    ..at the origin of the airways inflammatory pathologies, our attention has been recently addressed to the study of HMGB1, a protein belonging to the group of alarmins...
  9. Liu K, Huang J, Xie M, Yu Y, Zhu S, Kang R, et al. MIR34A regulates autophagy and apoptosis by targeting HMGB1 in the retinoblastoma cell. Autophagy. 2014;10:442-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the microRNA MIR34A-dependent high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) downregulation inhibits autophagy and enhances chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in the retinoblastoma cell...
  10. Pisetsky D. The expression of HMGB1 on microparticles released during cell activation and cell death in vitro and in vivo. Mol Med. 2014;20:158-63 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) is a nonhistone nuclear protein that is a prototypic alarmin that can stimulate innate immunity and drive the pathogenesis of a wide range of inflammatory diseases...
  11. Chen T, Guo Z, Wang W, Qin S, Cao N, Li M. Increased serum HMGB1 levels in patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Exp Dermatol. 2014;23:419-23 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) has been implicated as a pro-inflammatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
  12. Hashimoto T, Ishii J, Kitagawa F, Yamada S, Hattori K, Okumura M, et al. Circulating high-mobility group box 1 and cardiovascular mortality in unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis. 2012;221:490-5 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, which suggests a potential role of this protein in the pathophysiology of acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
  13. Romero R, Chaiworapongsa T, Savasan Z, Hussein Y, Dong Z, Kusanovic J, et al. Clinical chorioamnionitis is characterized by changes in the expression of the alarmin HMGB1 and one of its receptors, sRAGE. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:558-67 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein is an alarmin, a normal cell constituent, which is released into the extracellular environment upon cellular stress/damage and capable of activating inflammation and tissue repair...
  14. Kalousova M, Svarcová J, Muravská A, Kvasnicka J, Landova L, Zima T, et al. Relationship of soluble RAGE and RAGE ligands HMGB1 and EN-RAGE to endothelial dysfunction in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2012;120:277-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to compare concentration of soluble RAGE and its ligands (EN-RAGE and HMGB1) with different biochemical parameters in Type 1 (T1DM) and Type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus...
  15. Wolf M, Lossdörfer S, Craveiro R, Jager A. High-mobility group box protein-1 released by human-periodontal ligament cells modulates macrophage migration and activity in vitro. Innate Immun. 2014;20:688-96 pubmed publisher
    ..High-mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1) is released into the extracellular milieu by damaged cells and functions as an alarmin to mediate the ..
  16. Glasnović A, Cvija H, Stojic M, Tudorić Đeno I, Ivcevic S, Romic D, et al. Decreased level of sRAGE in the cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients at clinical onset. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2014;21:226-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Soluble RAGE (sRAGE), HMGB1, S100 calcium-binding protein A12 (S100A12), interleukin (IL)-1? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were measured ..
  17. Smolarczyk R, Cichon T, Matuszczak S, Mitrus I, Lesiak M, Kobusińska M, et al. The role of Glycyrrhizin, an inhibitor of HMGB1 protein, in anticancer therapy. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2012;60:391-9 pubmed publisher
    ..During this process, a protein termed high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is released from cell nucleus into cytoplasm and then into extracellular milieu...
  18. Chen D, Mao M, Bellussi L, Passali D, Chen L. Increase of high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2014;4:453-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, CRSwNP in Asia has shown different immunopathologic features. High-mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein that has been suggested to be involved in various chronic inflammatory diseases...
  19. LeBlanc P, Doggett T, Choi J, Hancock M, Durocher Y, Frank F, et al. An immunogenic peptide in the A-box of HMGB1 protein reverses apoptosis-induced tolerance through RAGE receptor. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:7777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an important mediator of both sepsis lethality and the induction of immune tolerance by apoptotic cells...
  20. van Beijnum J, Nowak Sliwinska P, van den Boezem E, Hautvast P, Buurman W, Griffioen A. Tumor angiogenesis is enforced by autocrine regulation of high-mobility group box 1. Oncogene. 2013;32:363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In a screen for markers of tumor angiogenesis, we recently identified high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), known to act as proinflammatory cytokine and chromatin-binding molecule...
  21. Zickert A, Palmblad K, Sundelin B, Chavan S, Tracey K, Bruchfeld A, et al. Renal expression and serum levels of high mobility group box 1 protein in lupus nephritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R36 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a nuclear DNA binding protein acting as a pro-inflammatory mediator following extracellular release...
  22. Livesey K, Kang R, Vernon P, Buchser W, Loughran P, Watkins S, et al. p53/HMGB1 complexes regulate autophagy and apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2012;72:1996-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and p53 form a complex that regulates the balance between tumor cell death and survival...
  23. Davalos A, Kawahara M, Malhotra G, Schaum N, Huang J, Ved U, et al. p53-dependent release of Alarmin HMGB1 is a central mediator of senescent phenotypes. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:613-29 pubmed publisher
    ..b>HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) modulates gene expression in the nucleus, but certain immune cells secrete HMGB1 as an ..
  24. Harris H, Andersson U, Pisetsky D. HMGB1: a multifunctional alarmin driving autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2012;8:195-202 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGB1 is a non-histone nuclear protein that can serve as an alarmin to drive the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune disease...
  25. Mardente S, Mari E, Consorti F, Di Gioia C, Negri R, Etna M, et al. HMGB1 induces the overexpression of miR-222 and miR-221 and increases growth and motility in papillary thyroid cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2012;28:2285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a late inflammatory cytokine that signals danger to the immune system through the receptor for ..
  26. Venereau E, Schiraldi M, Uguccioni M, Bianchi M. HMGB1 and leukocyte migration during trauma and sterile inflammation. Mol Immunol. 2013;55:76-82 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGB1 is a nuclear protein that is released or secreted following trauma or severe cellular stress. Extracellular HMGB1 triggers inflammation and recruits leukocytes to the site of tissue damage...
  27. Dejean E, Foisseau M, Lagarrigue F, Lamant L, Prade N, Marfak A, et al. ALK+ALCLs induce cutaneous, HMGB-1-dependent IL-8/CXCL8 production by keratinocytes through NF-?B activation. Blood. 2012;119:4698-707 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these mediators create a premetastatic niche within the skin, thereby participating in ALK(+) lymphoma epidermotropism. ..
  28. Chen T, Guo Z, Li L, Wang L, Jia R, Cao N, et al. Increased HMGB1 serum levels and altered HMGB1 expression in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Arch Dermatol Res. 2013;305:263-7 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) has been implicated as a pro-inflammatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, information about HMGB1 in inflammatory skin diseases is unknown...
  29. Schierbeck H, Pullerits R, Pruunsild C, Fischer M, Holzinger D, Laestadius A, et al. HMGB1 levels are increased in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, correlate with early onset of disease, and are independent of disease duration. J Rheumatol. 2013;40:1604-13 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) has been implicated as a mediator of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), while its role in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has not been described...
  30. Maugeri N, Rovere Querini P, Baldini M, Baldissera E, Sabbadini M, Bianchi M, et al. Oxidative stress elicits platelet/leukocyte inflammatory interactions via HMGB1: a candidate for microvessel injury in sytemic sclerosis. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2014;20:1060-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The function of the prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), depends on its redox status...
  31. Yanai H, Matsuda A, An J, Koshiba R, Nishio J, Negishi H, et al. Conditional ablation of HMGB1 in mice reveals its protective function against endotoxemia and bacterial infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20699-704 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein abundantly expressed in the nucleus that has gained much attention for its regulation of immunity and inflammation...
  32. Jia L, Clear A, Liu F, Matthews J, Uddin N, McCarthy A, et al. Extracellular HMGB1 promotes differentiation of nurse-like cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2014;123:1709-19 pubmed publisher
    ..High-mobility group protein B-1 (HMGB1) is a highly conserved nuclear protein that can be actively secreted by innate immune cells and passively released ..
  33. Wittwer C, Boeck S, Heinemann V, Haas M, Stieber P, Nagel D, et al. Circulating nucleosomes and immunogenic cell death markers HMGB1, sRAGE and DNAse in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:2619-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Circulating nucleosomes and immunogenic cell death markers, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), soluble receptors of advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and DNAse activity, were measured by enzyme-linked ..
  34. Little A, Corbett E, Ortega F, Schatz D. Cooperative recruitment of HMGB1 during V(D)J recombination through interactions with RAG1 and DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:3289-301 pubmed publisher
    ..b>HMGB1/2 play a critical, although poorly understood, role in vitro in the assembly of functional RAG-RSS complexes, into ..
  35. Chen X, Zhang X, Li Y, Chen X, Tang D, Ran R. Involvement of HMGB1 mediated signalling pathway in diabetic retinopathy: evidence from type 2 diabetic rats and ARPE-19 cells under diabetic condition. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:1598-603 pubmed publisher
    ..to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, and high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) could promote inflammation as an alarmin...
  36. Chuangui C, Peng T, Zhentao Y. The expression of high mobility group box 1 is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:1021-7 pubmed
    The objective is to explore the expression of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and its relationship with lymph node metastasis and the prognosis of patients as well as possible mechanism...
  37. Kang R, Tang D, Schapiro N, Loux T, Livesey K, Billiar T, et al. The HMGB1/RAGE inflammatory pathway promotes pancreatic tumor growth by regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics. Oncogene. 2014;33:567-77 pubmed publisher
    ..the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) and one of its primary ligands, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), are required for optimal mitochondrial function within tumors...
  38. Chen R, Yi P, Zhou R, Xiao M, Huang Z, Tang D, et al. The role of HMGB1-RAGE axis in migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;390:271-80 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group protein box1 (HMGB1) and its receptor-receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) are pivotal factors in the development and progression of many types of tumor, but the role of HMGB1-RAGE axis in ..
  39. Allonso D, Belgrano F, Calzada N, Guzman M, Vazquez S, Mohana Borges R. Elevated serum levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in dengue-infected patients are associated with disease symptoms and secondary infection. J Clin Virol. 2012;55:214-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cells (DCs) are able to release a non-classical pro-inflammatory cytokine called high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)...
  40. Kang R, Zhang Q, Zeh H, Lotze M, Tang D. HMGB1 in cancer: good, bad, or both?. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:4046-57 pubmed publisher
    Forty years ago, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was discovered in calf thymus and named according to its electrophoretic mobility in polyacrylamide gels. Now, we know that HMGB1 performs dual functions...
  41. Hong S, Cho J, Um J, Shin J, Park I, Lee S, et al. Increased expression of high-mobility group protein B1 in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2013;27:278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..High-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein that has a proinflammatory function when secreted into extracellular space...
  42. Abu El Asrar A, Nawaz M, Kangave D, Abouammoh M, Mohammad G. High-mobility group box-1 and endothelial cell angiogenic markers in the vitreous from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Mediators Inflamm. 2012;2012:697489 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the vitreous fluid from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and to correlate its levels with clinical disease activity and the ..
  43. Naumnik W, Nilklińska W, Ossolinska M, Chyczewska E. Serum levels of HMGB1, survivin, and VEGF in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer during chemotherapy. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2009;47:703-9 pubmed publisher
    Recently, several reports have suggested that HMGB1 (the high-mobility group box-1) plays a key role in tumor angiogenesis through multiple mechanisms, including up-regulation of proangiogenic factors...
  44. Porto A, Palumbo R, Pieroni M, Aprigliano G, Chiesa R, Sanvito F, et al. Smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerotic plaques secrete and proliferate in response to high mobility group box 1 protein. FASEB J. 2006;20:2565-6 pubmed
    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin component leaked out by necrotic cells and actively secreted by activated myeloid cells. The extracellular protein is a potent mediator of tissue remodeling...
  45. Bao G, Qiao Q, Zhao H, He X. Prognostic value of HMGB1 overexpression in resectable gastric adenocarcinomas. World J Surg Oncol. 2010;8:52 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGB1(High mobility group box 1), originally described as a nuclear protein, is now regarded as a multifunctional protein with a paradoxical dual effect in tumors...
  46. Buhimschi C, Baumbusch M, Dulay A, Oliver E, Lee S, Zhao G, et al. Characterization of RAGE, HMGB1, and S100beta in inflammation-induced preterm birth and fetal tissue injury. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:958-75 pubmed publisher
    ..reaction triggered by both noxious exogenous (microbes) and endogenous [high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), S100 calcium binding proteins] inducers of inflammation...
  47. Chavakis E, Hain A, Vinci M, Carmona G, Bianchi M, Vajkoczy P, et al. High-mobility group box 1 activates integrin-dependent homing of endothelial progenitor cells. Circ Res. 2007;100:204-12 pubmed
    ..Integrins contribute to EPC homing. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that is released extracellularly on cell necrosis and tissue damage, eliciting a ..
  48. Meyer A, Staratschek Jox A, Springwald A, Wenk H, Wolf J, Wickenhauser C, et al. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma expressing high levels of the danger-signalling protein HMGB1. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008;49:1184-9 pubmed publisher
    b>HMGB1 is a high mobility group protein that can act either as a DNA binding protein or extracellularly as a cytokine-like danger signal...
  49. Rabadi M, Kuo M, Ghaly T, Rabadi S, Weber M, Goligorsky M, et al. Interaction between uric acid and HMGB1 translocation and release from endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302:F730-41 pubmed publisher
    ..between alarmins [acting via Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)], uric acid (UA), and high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) during acute kidney injury...
  50. Tang D, Kang R, Livesey K, Cheh C, Farkas A, Loughran P, et al. Endogenous HMGB1 regulates autophagy. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:881-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a chromatin-associated nuclear protein and extracellular damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, is a ..
  51. Rouhiainen A, Kuja Panula J, Wilkman E, Pakkanen J, Stenfors J, Tuominen R, et al. Regulation of monocyte migration by amphoterin (HMGB1). Blood. 2004;104:1174-82 pubmed
    b>Amphoterin (HMGB1) is a 30-kD heparin-binding protein involved in process extension and migration of cells by a mechanism involving the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)...
  52. Goldstein R, Bruchfeld A, Yang L, Qureshi A, Gallowitsch Puerta M, Patel N, et al. Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway activity and High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) serum levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Mol Med. 2007;13:210-5 pubmed
    High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) is a cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory diseases...
  53. Okazaki K, Kondo M, Kato M, Kakinuma R, Nishida A, Noda M, et al. Elevation of high-mobility group box 1 concentration in asphyxiated neonates. Neonatology. 2008;94:105-9 pubmed publisher
    ..033). We suggest that the elevation of HMGB-1 might be associated with abnormal inflammatory responses involving the excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines in neonates with asphyxia. ..
  54. Gardella S, Andrei C, Ferrera D, Lotti L, Torrisi M, Bianchi M, et al. The nuclear protein HMGB1 is secreted by monocytes via a non-classical, vesicle-mediated secretory pathway. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:995-1001 pubmed
    b>HMGB1, a non-histone nuclear factor, acts extracellularly as a mediator of delayed endotoxin lethality, which raises the question of how a nuclear protein can reach the extracellular space...
  55. Gao M, Hu Z, Zheng Y, Zeng Y, Shen X, Zhong D, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist troglitazone inhibits high mobility group box 1 expression in endothelial cells via suppressing transcriptional activity of nuclear factor ?B and activator protein 1. Shock. 2011;36:228-34 pubmed publisher
    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a delayed mediator of proinflammatory cytokines, could initiate and amplify inflammatory responses to infection, injury, and other inflammatory stimuli, and it has emerged as a potential therapeutic ..
  56. Parkkinen J, Raulo E, Merenmies J, Nolo R, Kajander E, Baumann M, et al. Amphoterin, the 30-kDa protein in a family of HMG1-type polypeptides. Enhanced expression in transformed cells, leading edge localization, and interactions with plasminogen activation. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:19726-38 pubmed
    b>Amphoterin is a heparin-binding protein that is developmentally regulated in brain and functionally involved in neurite outgrowth. Unexpectedly, amphoterin has a high mobility group 1 (HMG1)-type sequence...
  57. Fiuza C, Bustin M, Talwar S, Tropea M, Gerstenberger E, Shelhamer J, et al. Inflammation-promoting activity of HMGB1 on human microvascular endothelial cells. Blood. 2003;101:2652-60 pubmed
    ..High-mobility group protein-1 (HMGB1), a novel inflammatory molecule, is a late mediator of endotoxin shock and is present in the blood of septic ..
  58. Ulfgren A, Grundtman C, Borg K, Alexanderson H, Andersson U, Harris H, et al. Down-regulation of the aberrant expression of the inflammation mediator high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 in muscle tissue of patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis treated with corticosteroids. Arthritis Rheum. 2004;50:1586-94 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our findings indicate that systemically administered high-dose corticosteroids selectively down-regulate aberrant expression of HMGB-1 in mononuclear inflammatory cells in vivo. ..
  59. Liu G, Wang J, Park Y, Tsuruta Y, Lorne E, Zhao X, et al. High mobility group protein-1 inhibits phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils through binding to phosphatidylserine. J Immunol. 2008;181:4240-6 pubmed
    ..High mobility group protein-1 (HMGB1), a nuclear nonhistone DNA-binding protein, has recently been found to be secreted by immune cells upon ..
  60. Kocsis A, Szabolcs A, Hofner P, Takacs T, Farkas G, Boda K, et al. Plasma concentrations of high-mobility group box protein 1, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products and circulating DNA in patients with acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2009;9:383-91 pubmed publisher
    High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), a late-acting proinflammatory cytokine, is secreted actively by inflammatory cells, and released passively from necrotic cells...
  61. Uramoto H, Izumi H, Nagatani G, Ohmori H, Nagasue N, Ise T, et al. Physical interaction of tumour suppressor p53/p73 with CCAAT-binding transcription factor 2 (CTF2) and differential regulation of human high-mobility group 1 (HMG1) gene expression. Biochem J. 2003;371:301-10 pubmed
    ..In the present paper, we report that p53 down-regulates the activity of the high mobility group 1 (HMG1) gene promoter, whereas p73alpha up-regulates the activity of this promoter...
  62. Ferrari S, Finelli P, Rocchi M, Bianchi M. The active gene that encodes human high mobility group 1 protein (HMG1) contains introns and maps to chromosome 13. Genomics. 1996;35:367-71 pubmed
    The human genome contains a large number of sequences related to the cDNA for High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMG1), which so far has hampered the cloning and mapping of the active HMG1 gene...
  63. Zetterström C, Bergman T, Rynnel Dagöö B, Erlandsson Harris H, Soder O, Andersson U, et al. High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1) is an antibacterial factor produced by the human adenoid. Pediatr Res. 2002;52:148-54 pubmed
    ..identified by N-terminal sequence analysis and mass spectrometry as high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1)...
  64. Shen X, Hong L, Sun H, Shi M, Song Y. The expression of high-mobility group protein box 1 correlates with the progression of non-small cell lung cancer. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:535-9 pubmed
    High-mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) released from dying tumor cells promotes tumor progression, on the other hand HMGB1 activates dendritic cells and triggers anti-neoplastic response of T-cells in chemotherapy and radiotherapy...
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    The nuclear protein HMGB1 has previously been demonstrated to act as an alarmin and to promote inflammation upon extracellular release, yet its mode of action is still not well defined...
  66. Wähämaa H, Schierbeck H, Hreggvidsdottir H, Palmblad K, Aveberger A, Andersson U, et al. High mobility group box protein 1 in complex with lipopolysaccharide or IL-1 promotes an increased inflammatory phenotype in synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R136 pubmed publisher
    In addition to its direct proinflammatory activity, extracellular high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) can strongly enhance the cytokine response evoked by other proinflammatory molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG-DNA ..
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    High Mobility Group 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin component that, when leaked out by necrotic cells, triggers inflammation...
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    b>Amphoterin, the major product of the high mobility group-1 gene, is a ligand associated with cancer invasion and metastasis through activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)...
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    ..CD4+ T cells, requires the autocrine/paracrine release of the nuclear protein high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)...
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    b>HMGB1 is a nuclear protein that is overexpressed and secreted in cancer cells. However, little is known about the roles of HMGB1 in the cytoplasm and secretory pathway in cancer cells...
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    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is released by necrotic cells or secreted in response to inflammatory stimuli. Extracellular HMGB1 may act as a pro-inflammatory cytokine in rheumatoid arthritis...
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    ..HMG-box proteins might be targeted to particular DNA sites in chromatin by either protein-protein interactions or recognition of specific DNA structures. ..