Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: HLA B
Description: major histocompatibility complex, class I, B
Alias: B-4901, HLAB, major histocompatibility complex, class I, B, HLA class I antigen HLA-B, HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B alpha chain, MHC HLA-B cell surface glycoprotein, MHC HLA-B transmembrane glycoprotein, MHC class 1 antigen, MHC class I antigen HLA-B alpha chain, MHC class I antigen HLA-B heavy chain, MHC class I antigen SHCHA, MHC class I molecule, leukocyte antigen class I-B
Products: HLA B
- Ueta M, Kaniwa N, Sotozono C, Tokunaga K, Saito Y, Sawai H, et al. Independent strong association of HLA-A*02:06 and HLA-B*44:03 with cold medicine-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome with severe mucosal involvement. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4862 pubmed publisher..Analyses using data obtained from CM-SJS/TEN patients without SOC and patients with CM-unrelated SJS/TEN with SOC suggested that these two susceptibility alleles are involved in the development of only CM-SJS/TEN with SOC patients. ..
- Leonard J, Filzen T, Carter C, Schaefer M, Collins K. HIV-1 Nef disrupts intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class I, CD4, CD8, and CD28 by distinct pathways that share common elements. J Virol. 2011;85:6867-81 pubmed publisher..These studies provide important new information on the similarities and differences with which Nef affects intracellular trafficking and help focus future research on the best potential pharmaceutical targets. ..
- Kuo L, Baugh L, Denial S, Watkins R, Liu M, Garcia J, et al. Overlapping effector interfaces define the multiple functions of the HIV-1 Nef polyproline helix. Retrovirology. 2012;9:47 pubmed publisher..The polyproline segment is also adapted to downregulate MHCI with a non-canonical binding surface. Our results demonstrate that Nef polyproline helix is highly adapted to directly interact with multiple host cell proteins. ..
- Zuo J, Suen J, Wong A, Lewis M, Ayub A, Belzer M, et al. Functional analysis of HIV type 1 Nef gene variants from adolescent and adult survivors of perinatal infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28:486-92 pubmed publisher..Survival into adulthood with HIV infection acquired in infancy is not uniformly linked to loss of function in nef. The Nef protein remains a potential target for immunization or pharmacologic intervention. ..
- Wei J, Yen J, Juo S, Chen W, Wang Y, Chiu Y, et al. Association of ORAI1 haplotypes with the risk of HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20426 pubmed publisher..This is the first study that indicate haplotypes of ORAI1 (rs12313273 and rs7135617) are associated with the risk of HLA-B27 positive AS. ..
- Tajik N, Shahsavar F, Poormoghim H, Radjabzadeh M, Mousavi T, Jalali A. KIR3DL1+HLA-B Bw4Ile80 and KIR2DS1+HLA-C2 combinations are both associated with ankylosing spondylitis in the Iranian population. Int J Immunogenet. 2011;38:403-9 pubmed publisher..0081) and iKIR+HLA < aKIR (P(c) = 0.077) were more common in patient group. Our findings suggest a role for excessive or inappropriate NK cell activation through 'KIR/HLA' system in AS disease. ..
- Giles J, Shaw J, Piper C, Wong Baeza I, McHugh K, Ridley A, et al. HLA-B27 homodimers and free H chains are stronger ligands for leukocyte Ig-like receptor B2 than classical HLA class I. J Immunol. 2012;188:6184-93 pubmed publisher..The stronger interaction of B27 dimers and FHC forms with LILRB2 compared with other HLA class I could play a role in spondyloarthritis pathogenesis. ..
- Cauli A, Shaw J, Giles J, Hatano H, Ryśnik O, Payeli S, et al. The arthritis-associated HLA-B*27:05 allele forms more cell surface B27 dimer and free heavy chain ligands for KIR3DL2 than HLA-B*27:09. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52:1952-62 pubmed publisher..with KIR immune receptors could contribute to the difference in disease association between HLA-B*27:05 and HLAB*27:09...
- Payne R, Branch S, Kl verpris H, Matthews P, Koofhethile C, Strong T, et al. Differential escape patterns within the dominant HLA-B*57:03-restricted HIV Gag epitope reflect distinct clade-specific functional constraints. J Virol. 2014;88:4668-78 pubmed publisher..However, there the similarity ends. This study sought to better understand the reasons for these differences and what they teach us about which immune responses contribute to immune control of HIV infection...
- He N, Min F, Shi Y, Guo J, Liu X, Li B, et al. Cutaneous reactions induced by oxcarbazepine in Southern Han Chinese: incidence, features, risk factors and relation to HLA-B alleles. Seizure. 2012;21:614-8 pubmed publisher..Patients with a history of allergy are more susceptible to OXC-cADRs. No significant association between HLA-B*1502 and OXC-MPE was found. The associations between OXC-MPE and HLA alleles warrant further studies. ..
- Chen H, Ndhlovu Z, Liu D, Porter L, Fang J, Darko S, et al. TCR clonotypes modulate the protective effect of HLA class I molecules in HIV-1 infection. Nat Immunol. 2012;13:691-700 pubmed publisher..Thus, the efficacy of such so-called 'protective alleles' is modulated by specific TCR clonotypes selected during natural infection, which provides a functional explanation for divergent HIV-1 outcomes. ..
- Then S, Rani Z, Raymond A, Ratnaningrum S, Jamal R. Frequency of the HLA-B*1502 allele contributing to carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions in a cohort of Malaysian epilepsy patients. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2011;29:290-3 pubmed..In conclusion, this study confirmed the association of HLA-B*1502 with CBZ-SJS among Malaysian epilepsy patients, however there might be other genes that could be responsible for the CBZ-induced rash. ..
- Meuwissen P, Stolp B, Iannucci V, Vermeire J, Naessens E, Saksela K, et al. Identification of a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine amino acid triplet required for HIV-1 Nef function. Retrovirology. 2012;9:34 pubmed publisher..This surface appears to be essential for the majority of Nef functions and thus represents a prime target for the pharmacological inhibition of Nef. ..
- Zhang J, Xu D, Xu K, Wu B, Zheng M, Chen J, et al. HLA-A and HLA-B gene polymorphism and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a Han Chinese population. Respir Med. 2012;106:1456-62 pubmed publisher..05). These data suggest that the gene frequency of HLA-A*3, HLA-B*14, -B*15, -B*40, and the linked gene frequency of HLA-A2B15, -A2B40, -A11B15, -A24B58, -A30B40 is associated with IPF pathogenesis. ..
- Song R, Lisovsky I, Lebouché B, Routy J, Bruneau J, Bernard N. HIV protective KIR3DL1/S1-HLA-B genotypes influence NK cell-mediated inhibition of HIV replication in autologous CD4 targets. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1003867 pubmed publisher..We conclude that NK-mediated inhibition of viral replication in autologous iCD4 cells is partially due to a block at the level of HIV entry into new targets by secreted CC-chemokines. ..
- Lewis M, Lee P, Ng H, Yang O. Immune selection in vitro reveals human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef sequence motifs important for its immune evasion function in vivo. J Virol. 2012;86:7126-35 pubmed publisher..Overall, these data demonstrate that CTL pressure exerts a strong purifying selective pressure for MHC-I downregulation and identifies novel functional motifs present in Nef sequences in vivo. ..
- Gras S, Wilmann P, Chen Z, Halim H, Liu Y, Kjer Nielsen L, et al. A structural basis for varied ?? TCR usage against an immunodominant EBV antigen restricted to a HLA-B8 molecule. J Immunol. 2012;188:311-21 pubmed publisher..Collectively, we provide a portrait of how the host's adaptive immune response differentially engages a common viral Ag. ..
- Raychaudhuri S, Sandor C, Stahl E, Freudenberg J, Lee H, Jia X, et al. Five amino acids in three HLA proteins explain most of the association between MHC and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis. Nat Genet. 2012;44:291-6 pubmed publisher..This study shows how imputation of functional variation from large reference panels can help fine map association signals in the MHC. ..
- Rajapaksa U, Li D, Peng Y, McMichael A, Dong T, Xu X. HLA-B may be more protective against HIV-1 than HLA-A because it resists negative regulatory factor (Nef) mediated down-regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13353-8 pubmed publisher..We propose that the relative resistance to Nef-mediated down-regulation by the cytoplasmic domains of HLA-B compared with HLA-A contributes to the better control of HIV-1 infection associated with HLA-B-restricted CTLs. ..
- Iijima S, Lee Y, Ode H, Arold S, Kimura N, Yokoyama M, et al. A noncanonical mu-1A-binding motif in the N terminus of HIV-1 Nef determines its ability to downregulate major histocompatibility complex class I in T lymphocytes. J Virol. 2012;86:3944-51 pubmed publisher..Our findings will help understanding of how HIV-1 evades the antiviral immune response by selectively redirecting the cellular protein trafficking system. ..
- Vermeire J, Vanbillemont G, Witkowski W, Verhasselt B. The Nef-infectivity enigma: mechanisms of enhanced lentiviral infection. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9:474-89 pubmed..Hereby we aim to contribute to a better understanding of this highly conserved and therapeutically attractive Nef function. ..
- Brennan C, Ibarrondo F, Sugar C, Hausner M, Shih R, Ng H, et al. Early HLA-B*57-restricted CD8+ T lymphocyte responses predict HIV-1 disease progression. J Virol. 2012;86:10505-16 pubmed publisher..This is the first study to identify early CTL responses to IW9 as a correlate of protection in persons with HLA-B*57. ..
- Mwimanzi P, Markle T, Ogata Y, Martin E, Tokunaga M, Mahiti M, et al. Dynamic range of Nef functions in chronic HIV-1 infection. Virology. 2013;439:74-80 pubmed publisher..Strong functional co-dependencies and the polyfunctional nature of patient-derived Nef sequences suggest a phenotypic requirement to maintain multiple Nef functions during chronic infection. ..
- Hu S, Luan J, Li B, Chen J, Cai K, Huang L, et al. Genetic link between Chaoshan and other Chinese Han populations: Evidence from HLA-A and HLA-B allele frequency distribution. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007;132:140-50 pubmed..The different genetic background between northern and southern China may explain, at least partially, the prevalence of NPC among southern Chinese. ..
- Gonzalez Gay M, Rueda B, Vilchez J, Lopez Nevot M, Robledo G, Ruiz M, et al. Contribution of MHC class I region to genetic susceptibility for giant cell arteritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007;46:431-4 pubmed
- Naugler C, Liwski R. Human leukocyte antigen class I alleles and the risk of chronic myelogenous leukemia: a meta-analysis. Leuk Lymphoma. 2010;51:1288-92 pubmed publisher..Meta-analyses of published studies may overcome these limitations and may prove useful in uncovering allele-disease associations. ..
- Merino E, Galocha B, Vázquez M, Lopez de Castro J. Disparate folding and stability of the ankylosing spondylitis-associated HLA-B*1403 and B*2705 proteins. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3693-704 pubmed publisher..Our results indicate that the folding, maturation, and stability of B*1403 differ more from B*2705 than from B*1402. Thus, these features cannot account for the fact that only the 2 former allotypes are associated with AS. ..
- Mallal S, Nolan D, Witt C, Masel G, Martin A, Moore C, et al. Association between presence of HLA-B*5701, HLA-DR7, and HLA-DQ3 and hypersensitivity to HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitor abacavir. Lancet. 2002;359:727-32 pubmed..1 ancestral haplotype. In our population, withholding abacavir in those with HLA-B*5701, HLA-DR7, and HLA-DQ3 should reduce the prevalence of hypersensitivity from 9% to 2.5% without inappropriately denying abacavir to any patient. ..
- Swann S, Williams M, Story C, Bobbitt K, Fleis R, Collins K. HIV-1 Nef blocks transport of MHC class I molecules to the cell surface via a PI 3-kinase-dependent pathway. Virology. 2001;282:267-77 pubmed..We propose that Nef diverts MHC-1 proteins into a PI 3-kinase-dependent transport pathway that prevents expression on the cell surface. ..
- Greenberg M, Iafrate A, Skowronski J. The SH3 domain-binding surface and an acidic motif in HIV-1 Nef regulate trafficking of class I MHC complexes. EMBO J. 1998;17:2777-89 pubmed
- Johnson D. Differential expression of human major histocompatibility class I loci: HLA-A, -B, and -C. Hum Immunol. 2000;61:389-96 pubmed..Differential expression of these HLA class I loci may contribute to cell-type dependent immune reactions by preferentially presenting distinct peptides to T cells. ..
- Dikeakos J, Atkins K, Thomas L, Emert Sedlak L, Byeon I, Jung J, et al. Small molecule inhibition of HIV-1-induced MHC-I down-regulation identifies a temporally regulated switch in Nef action. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3279-92 pubmed publisher..Together, these studies resolve the seemingly controversial models that describe Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation and provide new insights into the mechanism of Nef action. ..
- Feng B, Sun L, Soltani Arabshahi R, Bowcock A, Nair R, Stuart P, et al. Multiple Loci within the major histocompatibility complex confer risk of psoriasis. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000606 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that there are at least two additional loci within the MHC conferring risk of psoriasis. ..
- Huang S, Wu T, Lee T, Yang E, Shaw C, Yeh C. The association of HLA -A, -B, and -DRB1 genotypes with Graves' disease in Taiwanese people. Tissue Antigens. 2003;61:154-8 pubmed..However, the finding in this study of a higher frequency of HLA-A*0207 in Taiwanese with Graves' disease has not been documented in any other ethnic group. ..
- Lee S, Klein J, Haagenson M, Baxter Lowe L, Confer D, Eapen M, et al. High-resolution donor-recipient HLA matching contributes to the success of unrelated donor marrow transplantation. Blood. 2007;110:4576-83 pubmed..High-resolution DNA matching for HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 alleles is associated with higher rates of survival. ..
- Lee S, Kwon O, Park M, Oh H, Park Y, Lee S. HLA alleles in Korean patients with Takayasu arteritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2007;25:S18-22 pubmed..Further, our results reveal that the haplotype A*2402-B*5201-DRB1*1502 could be a risk factor for TA, and the allele B*5201 is significantly associated with CHF. ..
- Williams F, Meenagh A, Single R, McNally M, Kelly P, Nelson M, et al. High resolution HLA-DRB1 identification of a Caucasian population. Hum Immunol. 2004;65:66-77 pubmed..Evidence for selection was seen on haplotypes HLA-A*010101-B*0801-DRB1*030101 and HLA-A*290201-B*440301-DRB1*070101 based on their patterns of linkage disequilibrium. ..
- Kuniholm M, Kovacs A, Gao X, Xue X, Marti D, Thio C, et al. Specific human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles associated with hepatitis C virus viremia. Hepatology. 2010;51:1514-22 pubmed publisher..HLA genotype influences the host capacity to clear HCV viremia. The specific HLA associations observed in the current study are unlikely to be due to chance because they were a priori hypothesized. ..
- Choukri F, Chakib A, Himmich H, Marih L, Caillat Zucman S. HLA-B phenotype modifies the course of Behçet's disease in Moroccan patients. Tissue Antigens. 2003;61:92-6 pubmed..These data may suggest that treatment should be given early in the course of the disease in B*51 or B*15-positive patients in order to stabilize the inflammatory process. ..
- Orchard T, Holt H, Bradbury L, Hammersma J, McNally E, Jewell D, et al. The prevalence, clinical features and association of HLA-B27 in sacroiliitis associated with established Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;29:193-7 pubmed publisher..HLA-B27 is not associated with isolated sacroiliitis, but is associated with AS. However, possession of HLA-B27 appears to convey a very high risk of developing axial inflammation in Crohn's disease. ..
- Kasifoglu T, Calisir C, Cansu D, Korkmaz C. The frequency of sacroiliitis in familial Mediterranean fever and the role of HLA-B27 and MEFV mutations in the development of sacroiliitis. Clin Rheumatol. 2009;28:41-6 pubmed publisher..7%. Sacroiliitis may be seen more frequently in FMF patients than expected. HLA-B27 positivity and/or M694V mutation may play a role in the development of sacroiliitis and the severity of seronegative spondyloarthropathy. ..
- Llano M, Lee N, Navarro F, Garcia P, Albar J, Geraghty D, et al. HLA-E-bound peptides influence recognition by inhibitory and triggering CD94/NKG2 receptors: preferential response to an HLA-G-derived nonamer. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:2854-63 pubmed..These results raise the possibility that CD94/NKG2-mediated recognition of HLA-E expressed on extravillous cytotrophoblasts plays an important role in maternal-fetal cellular interactions. ..
- Zehbe I, Mytilineos J, Wikström I, Henriksen R, Edler L, Tommasino M. Association between human papillomavirus 16 E6 variants and human leukocyte antigen class I polymorphism in cervical cancer of Swedish women. Hum Immunol. 2003;64:538-42 pubmed..The evaluation of associations of HLA alleles with HPV variants may be helpful in defining prognostic markers and in designing vaccines capable of mediating immune protection against HPV infection. ..
- Kirchhoff F, Schindler M, Specht A, Arhel N, Munch J. Role of Nef in primate lentiviral immunopathogenesis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:2621-36 pubmed publisher..This evolutionary loss of a specific Nef function may contribute to the high virulence of HIV-1 in humans. ..
- Storkus W, Alexander J, Payne J, Dawson J, Cresswell P. Reversal of natural killing susceptibility in target cells expressing transfected class I HLA genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:2361-4 pubmed..Furthermore, this protection did not extend to cytotoxicity mediated by interleukin 2-stimulated human NK effector cells. ..
- Daar A, Fuggle S, Fabre J, Ting A, Morris P. The detailed distribution of HLA-A, B, C antigens in normal human organs. Transplantation. 1984;38:287-92 pubmed..We conclude, therefore, that class I antigens are not ubiquitous, as previously thought. ..
- Hildesheim A, Apple R, Chen C, Wang S, Cheng Y, Klitz W, et al. Association of HLA class I and II alleles and extended haplotypes with nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002;94:1780-9 pubmed..The extended haplotypes associated with NPC might, in part, explain the higher rates of NPC in this ethnic group. ..
- Smith K, Reid S, Harlos K, McMichael A, Stuart D, Bell J, et al. Bound water structure and polymorphic amino acids act together to allow the binding of different peptides to MHC class I HLA-B53. Immunity. 1996;4:215-28 pubmedThe structure of the human MHC class I molecule HLA-B53 complexed to two nonameric peptide epitopes (from the malaria parasite P. falciparum and the HIV2 gag protein) has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.3 angstrom resolution...
- Thio C, Thomas D, Karacki P, Gao X, Marti D, Kaslow R, et al. Comprehensive analysis of class I and class II HLA antigens and chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Virol. 2003;77:12083-7 pubmed..The associations with class I alleles are consistent with a previously implicated role for CD8-mediated cytolytic-T-cell response in determining the outcome of an acute HBV infection. ..
- Gillespie G, Kaul R, Dong T, Yang H, Rostron T, Bwayo J, et al. Cross-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a HIV-1 p24 epitope in slow progressors with B*57. AIDS. 2002;16:961-72 pubmed..B*5701+ and B5703+ donors demonstrate broad functional cross-reactivity to both common and rare variants of a dominant p24 epitope, which could be relevant to the association of B*57 alleles with slow progression to AIDS. ..
- Eike M, Becker T, Humphreys K, Olsson M, Lie B. Conditional analyses on the T1DGC MHC dataset: novel associations with type 1 diabetes around HLA-G and confirmation of HLA-B. Genes Immun. 2009;10:56-67 pubmed publisher..On account of the unusual genetic complexity of the MHC, further fine mapping is demanded, with the possible exception of HLA-B. However, our results mean that these efforts can be focused on narrow, defined regions of the MHC. ..
- Kim A, Kuntzen T, Timm J, Nolan B, Baca M, Reyor L, et al. Spontaneous control of HCV is associated with expression of HLA-B 57 and preservation of targeted epitopes. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:686-696.e1 pubmed publisher..The finding that HLA-B 57-mediated antiviral immunity is associated with control of both human immunodeficiency virus-1 and HCV suggests a common shared mechanism of a successful immune response against persistent viruses. ..
- Bannai M, Tanaka H, Lin L, Kashiwase K, Tokunaga K, Juji T. Five HLA-B22 group alleles in Japanese. Tissue Antigens. 1997;49:376-82 pubmed
- Mangasarian A, Foti M, Aiken C, Chin D, Carpentier J, Trono D. The HIV-1 Nef protein acts as a connector with sorting pathways in the Golgi and at the plasma membrane. Immunity. 1997;6:67-77 pubmed..Taken together, these data suggest that Nef down-regulates CD4 and probably MHC I by physically connecting these receptors with sorting pathways in the Golgi and at the plasma membrane...
- Turnquist H, Schenk E, McIlhaney M, Hickman H, Hildebrand W, Solheim J. Disparate binding of chaperone proteins by HLA-A subtypes. Immunogenetics. 2002;53:830-4 pubmed..In total, HLA-A molecules exhibit natural allele-specific distinctions in chaperone association that correlate with differences in cell surface expression and with the identity of amino acid position 116. ..
- Ben Dror L, Barnea E, Beer I, Mann M, Admon A. The HLA-B*2705 peptidome. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:420-9 pubmed publisher..The peptides we identified may provide the missing link between bacterial infections and the resulting SpA. ..
- Yao Y, Shi L, Matsushita M, Yu L, Lin K, Tao Y, et al. Distribution of HLA-A, -B, -Cw, and -DRB1 alleles and haplotypes in an isolated Han population in Southwest China. Tissue Antigens. 2009;73:561-8 pubmed publisher..In addition, significantly reduced allelic and haplotypic diversity in FYDH makes it an ideal homogenous population and very useful model for future investigations of issues related to immunogenetic diseases in the Han population. ..
- Honeyborne I, Prendergast A, Pereyra F, Leslie A, Crawford H, Payne R, et al. Control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with HLA-B*13 and targeting of multiple gag-specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes. J Virol. 2007;81:3667-72 pubmed..These data are consistent with data from studies of other HLA-class I alleles associated with HIV control that have shown that the targeting of multiple Gag epitopes is associated with relative suppression of viremia. ..
- Yamada T, Kaji N, Odawara T, Chiba J, Iwamoto A, Kitamura Y. Proline 78 is crucial for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef to down-regulate class I human leukocyte antigen. J Virol. 2003;77:1589-94 pubmed..Analyses of a series of PRD substitution mutants indicated that, because the substitution of Pro78 with Ala abolished down-regulation of HLA-I but not of CD4, Pro78 is important for HLA-I down-regulation in T lymphocytes. ..
- Ikeda H, Takahashi Y, Yamazaki E, Fujiwara T, Kaniwa N, Saito Y, et al. HLA class I markers in Japanese patients with carbamazepine-induced cutaneous adverse reactions. Epilepsia. 2010;51:297-300 pubmed publisher..These data may suggest that HLA-B*5901 is one of the candidate markers for CBZ-induced SJS in Japanese...
- Kjer Nielsen L, Clements C, Purcell A, Brooks A, Whisstock J, Burrows S, et al. A structural basis for the selection of dominant alphabeta T cell receptors in antiviral immunity. Immunity. 2003;18:53-64 pubmed..These findings indicate that TCR immunodominance is associated with structural properties conferring receptor specificity and suggest a novel structural link between TCR ligation and intracellular signaling. ..
- Howcroft T, Strebel K, Martin M, Singer D. Repression of MHC class I gene promoter activity by two-exon Tat of HIV. Science. 1993;260:1320-2 pubmed..These studies define an activity for two-exon Tat distinct from that of one-exon Tat and suggest a mechanism whereby HIV-1-infected cells might be able to avoid immune surveillance, allowing the virus to persist in the infected host. ..
- Lonjou C, Borot N, Sekula P, Ledger N, Thomas L, Halevy S, et al. A European study of HLA-B in Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis related to five high-risk drugs. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:99-107 pubmed publisher..Further investigations are necessary to delineate the exact role of the HLA region in SJS/TEN, and to look for other associations in other regions of the genome. ..
- Trachtenberg E, Vinson M, Hayes E, Hsu Y, Houtchens K, Erlich H, et al. HLA class I (A, B, C) and class II (DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, DPB1) alleles and haplotypes in the Han from southern China. Tissue Antigens. 2007;70:455-63 pubmed
- Cao K, Moormann A, Lyke K, Masaberg C, Sumba O, Doumbo O, et al. Differentiation between African populations is evidenced by the diversity of alleles and haplotypes of HLA class I loci. Tissue Antigens. 2004;63:293-325 pubmed
- Tassaneeyakul W, Tiamkao S, Jantararoungtong T, Chen P, Lin S, Chen W, et al. Association between HLA-B*1502 and carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions in a Thai population. Epilepsia. 2010;51:926-30 pubmed publisher..92% and 99.96%. Results from this study suggest that HLA-B*1502 may be a useful pharmacogenetic test for screening Thai individuals who may be at risk for CBZ-induced SJS and TEN. ..
- Shen C, Zhu B, Liu M, Li S. Genetic polymorphisms at HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 loci in Han population of Xi'an city in China. Croat Med J. 2008;49:476-82 pubmed..63%). The finding that the HLA loci are highly polymorphic in Han population of Xi'an City may be useful for population genetics, HLA-related studies, human identification, and paternity tests in forensic sciences. ..
- Harbo H, Lie B, Sawcer S, Celius E, Dai K, Oturai A, et al. Genes in the HLA class I region may contribute to the HLA class II-associated genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Tissue Antigens. 2004;63:237-47 pubmed..2). These results suggest that HLA-A or a gene in linkage disequilibrium with it may contribute to the HLA class II-associated genetic susceptibility to MS. ..
- Lin L, Tokunaga K, Nakajima F, Ishikawa Y, Kashiwase K, Tanaka H, et al. Both HLA-B*1301 and B*1302 exist in Asian populations and are associated with different haplotypes. Hum Immunol. 1995;43:51-6 pubmed..In addition, applying the PCR-SSCP method, B*1301 and B*1302 could also be simply distinguished from each other. ..
- Pazár B, Safrany E, Gergely P, Szanto S, Szekanecz Z, Poor G. Association of ARTS1 gene polymorphisms with ankylosing spondylitis in the Hungarian population: the rs27044 variant is associated with HLA-B*2705 subtype in Hungarian patients with ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol. 2010;37:379-84 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that the ARTS1 gene variants together with HLA-B27 strongly contribute to disease susceptibility in patients with AS. ..
- Mychaleckyj J, Noble J, Moonsamy P, Carlson J, Varney M, Post J, et al. HLA genotyping in the international Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium. Clin Trials. 2010;7:S75-87 pubmed publisher..Many of the strategies used in this study are generally applicable to other large multi-center studies. ..