Gene Symbol: HK3
Description: hexokinase 3
Alias: HKIII, HXK3, hexokinase-3, ATP:D-hexose 6-phosphotransferase, HK III, hexokinase 3 (white cell), hexokinase type III
Species: human
Products:     HK3

Top Publications

  1. Furuta H, Nishi S, Le Beau M, Fernald A, Yano H, Bell G. Sequence of human hexokinase III cDNA and assignment of the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome band 5q35.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Genomics. 1996;36:206-9 pubmed
    ..RNA blotting showed the presence of hexokinase III mRNA in liver and lung. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized the human hexokinase III gene (HK3) to chromosome 5, band q35.2.
  2. Rijksen G, Staal G, Beks P, Streefkerk M, Akkerman J. Compartmentation of hexokinase in human blood cells. Characterization of soluble and particulate enzymes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982;719:431-7 pubmed
    ..Only soluble hexokinase from lymphocytes shows a slightly decreased Km apparent for glucose (P less than 0.05). ..
  3. Hooft L, van der Veldt A, Hoekstra O, Boers M, Molthoff C, van Diest P. Hexokinase III, cyclin A and galectin-3 are overexpressed in malignant follicular thyroid nodules. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;68:252-7 pubmed
    ..Expression of hexokinase III (HK III) (P = 0.000) cyclin A (P = 0.002) and galectin-3 (P = 0...
  4. Federzoni E, Valk P, Torbett B, Haferlach T, Lowenberg B, Fey M, et al. PU.1 is linking the glycolytic enzyme HK3 in neutrophil differentiation and survival of APL cells. Blood. 2012;119:4963-70 pubmed publisher
    ..1-regulated genes involved in cell survival. We now identified the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 3 (HK3), a gene with cytoprotective functions, as transcriptional target of PU.1...
  5. Fedorova M, Krasnov G, Lukyanova E, Zaretsky A, Dmitriev A, Melnikova N, et al. The CIMP-high phenotype is associated with energy metabolism alterations in colon adenocarcinoma. BMC Med Genet. 2019;20:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulation of multiple genes involved in glycolysis and related processes (ENO2, PFKP, HK3, PKM, ENO1, HK2, PGAM1, GAPDH, ALDOA, GPI, TPI1, and HK1) was revealed in CIMP-high tumors compared to non-CIMP ..
  6. Fornecker L, Muller L, Bertrand F, Paul N, Pichot A, Herbrecht R, et al. Multi-omics dataset to decipher the complexity of drug resistance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Sci Rep. 2019;9:895 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, we identified significant targets related to tumor metabolism (Hexokinase 3), microenvironment (IDO1, CXCL13), cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion (S100 proteins) or BCR ..
  7. Perrin Cocon L, Aublin Gex A, Diaz O, Ramière C, Peri F, Andre P, et al. Toll-like Receptor 4-Induced Glycolytic Burst in Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Results from p38-Dependent Stabilization of HIF-1? and Increased Hexokinase II Expression. J Immunol. 2018;201:1510-1521 pubmed publisher
    ..LPS strongly enhanced the expression of HK2, whereas HK3 was reduced, HK1 remained unchanged, and HK4 was not expressed...
  8. Suh S, Kim Y, Goh T, Jeong D, Lee C, Jang J, et al. mRNA Expression of SLC5A5 and SLC2A Family Genes in Papillary Thyroid Cancer: An Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas. Yonsei Med J. 2018;59:746-753 pubmed publisher
    ..In PTC with BRAF mutations, expressions of SLC2A1, SLC2A3, HK2, and HK3 mRNA were higher than those in PTC without BRAF mutations...
  9. Chen C, Liu C, Chen G, Andrews J, Arnold A, Dreyfus J, et al. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:3327-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8...

More Information


  1. Fernández Coto D, Gil J, Hernandez A, Herrera Goepfert R, Castro Romero I, Hernandez Marquez E, et al. Quantitative proteomics reveals proteins involved in the progression from non-cancerous lesions to gastric cancer. J Proteomics. 2018;186:15-27 pubmed publisher
    ..with down-regulation of SIRT3 and SIRT5, and overexpression of enzymes supporting the glycolytic phenotype, such as HK3 and PCK2...
  2. Smith A, Wilson J. Disposition of mitochondrially bound hexokinase at the membrane surface, deduced from reactivity with monoclonal antibodies recognizing epitopes of defined location. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991;287:359-66 pubmed
    ..The disposition of the bound enzyme on the mitochondrial surface was deduced by relating these results to the proposed structure for brain hexokinase. ..
  3. Mao J, Li W, Mi B, Dawuda M, CALDERON URREA A, Ma Z, et al. Different exogenous sugars affect the hormone signal pathway and sugar metabolism in "Red Globe" (Vitis vinifera L.) plantlets grown in vitro as shown by transcriptomic analysis. Planta. 2017;246:537-552 pubmed publisher
    ..on the balanced expression of key potential candidate genes related to hormones (TCP15, LOG3, IPT3, ETR1, HK2, HK3, CKX7, SPY, GH3s, MYBH, AGB1, MKK2, PP2C, PYL, ABF, SnRK, etc...
  4. Sambarey A, Devaprasad A, Mohan A, Ahmed A, Nayak S, Swaminathan S, et al. Unbiased Identification of Blood-based Biomarkers for Pulmonary Tuberculosis by Modeling and Mining Molecular Interaction Networks. EBioMedicine. 2017;15:112-126 pubmed publisher additional validation on independent patient samples, and identify a signature comprising 10 genes - FCGR1A, HK3, RAB13, RBBP8, IFI44L, TIMM10, BCL6, SMARCD3, CYP4F3 and SLPI, that can discriminate between TB and healthy ..
  5. Vartanian A, Agnihotri S, Wilson M, Burrell K, Tonge P, Alamsahebpour A, et al. Targeting hexokinase 2 enhances response to radio-chemotherapy in glioblastoma. Oncotarget. 2016;7:69518-69535 pubmed publisher
    ..GBM, we showed that inducible knockdown of HK2 altered tumor metabolism, which could not be recapitulated by HK1 or HK3 loss...
  6. Harami Papp H, Pongor L, Munkácsy G, Horváth G, Nagy Ã, Ambrus A, et al. TP53 mutation hits energy metabolism and increases glycolysis in breast cancer. Oncotarget. 2016;7:67183-67195 pubmed publisher
    ..Top up-regulated metabolic genes include glycolytic enzymes (e.g. HK3, GPI, GAPDH, PGK1, ENO1), glycolysis regulator (PDK1) and pentose phosphate pathway enzymes (PGD, TKT, RPIA)...
  7. Pudova E, Kudryavtseva A, Fedorova M, Zaretsky A, Shcherbo D, Lukyanova E, et al. HK3 overexpression associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer. BMC Genomics. 2018;19:113 pubmed publisher
    ..genes with significant correlation coefficients, which included 21 EMT-related genes and a single glycolytic gene, HK3. The mRNA level of these genes was measured in 78 paired colorectal cancer samples by quantitative polymerase chain ..
  8. Kudryavtseva A, Fedorova M, Zhavoronkov A, Moskalev A, Zasedatelev A, Dmitriev A, et al. Effect of lentivirus-mediated shRNA inactivation of HK1, HK2, and HK3 genes in colorectal cancer and melanoma cells. BMC Genet. 2016;17:156 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of silencing of hexokinase genes (HK1, HK2, and HK3) in colorectal cancer (HT-29, SW 480, HCT-15, RKO, and HCT 116) and melanoma (MDA-MB-435S and SK-MEL-28) cell lines ..
  9. Liu J, Tong S, Qiu L, Ying S, Feng M. Two histidine kinases can sense different stress cues for activation of the MAPK Hog1 in a fungal insect pathogen. Environ Microbiol. 2017;19:4091-4102 pubmed publisher
    ..Of those, only Group III (HK3) homologues in some fungi can sense osmotic, fungicidal and/or oxidative cues upstream of the signalling MAPK Hog1 ..
  10. Ackerman W, Buhimschi I, Eidem H, Rinker D, Rokas A, Rood K, et al. Comprehensive RNA profiling of villous trophoblast and decidua basalis in pregnancies complicated by preterm birth following intra-amniotic infection. Placenta. 2016;44:23-33 pubmed publisher
    ..including additional IAI and iPTB specimens, the expression of three proteins (cathepsin S, lysozyme, and hexokinase 3) and two microRNAs (miR-133a and miR-223) was validated using immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, ..
  11. Adebali O, Petukh M, Reznik A, Tishkov A, Upadhyay A, Zhulin I. Class III Histidine Kinases: a Recently Accessorized Kinase Domain in Putative Modulators of Type IV Pilus-Based Motility. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed publisher
    ..a new type of histidine kinase that appeared to have features of both HKIs and HKIIs was identified and termed HKIII; however, the details of HKIII's relationship to other two classes of histidine kinases, their function, and ..
  12. Wyatt E, Wu R, Rabeh W, Park H, Ghanefar M, Ardehali H. Regulation and cytoprotective role of hexokinase III. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13823 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the three mammalian 100-kDa HK isoforms, HKI and II can bind to mitochondria and protect against cell death. HKIII does not bind mitochondria, and little is known about its regulation or cytoprotective effects...
  13. Federzoni E, Humbert M, Torbett B, Behre G, Fey M, Tschan M. CEBPA-dependent HK3 and KLF5 expression in primary AML and during AML differentiation. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4261 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified two novel unrelated CEBPA target genes, the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 3 (HK3) and the krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) transcription factor, by comparing gene profiles in two cohorts of ..
  14. Darling M, Tsai S, Jackson Boeters L, Daley T, Diamandis E. Human kallikrein 3 (prostate specific antigen) and human kallikrein 5 expression in salivary gland tumors. Int J Biol Markers. 2006;21:201-5 pubmed
    ..It has also been shown to be a potential biomarker for breast, ovarian and testicular cancer. Human kallikrein 3 (hK3; prostate-specific antigen) is the most useful marker for adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland...
  15. Lin Y, Wu Y, Wang Y, Yao Z, Tang J, Wang R, et al. Spatio-temporal expression of Hexokinase-3 in the injured female rat spinal cords. Neurochem Int. 2018;113:23-33 pubmed publisher
    Hexokinase-3 (HK3) is a member of hexokinase family, which can catalyze the first step of glucose metabolism...
  16. Colosimo A, Calabrese G, Gennarelli M, Ruzzo A, Sangiuolo F, Magnani M, et al. Assignment of the hexokinase type 3 gene (HK3) to human chromosome band 5q35.3 by somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1996;74:187-8 pubmed
  17. Krasnov G, Dmitriev A, Sadtritdinova A, Fedorova M, Snezhkina A, Melnikova N, et al. [Evaluation of Gene Expression of Hexokinases in Colorectal Cancer with the Use of Bioinformatics Methods]. Biofizika. 2015;60:1050-6 pubmed
    ..The HK3 expression level was significantly increased in 60% of samples. Most likely, just hexokinase 3 contributes significantly to the activation of glycolysis in colorectal cancer.
  18. Cavalcante I, Zerbini M, Alencar G, Mariani B, Buchpiguel C, Almeida M, et al. High 18F-FDG uptake in PMAH correlated with normal expression of Glut1, HK1, HK2, and HK3. Acta Radiol. 2016;57:370-7 pubmed publisher
    ..between 18F-FDG high uptake and the expression levels of the glycolytic pathway components GLUT1, HK1, HK2, and HK3 in PMAH. We selected 12 patients undergoing surgery for PMAH who had preoperatively undergone 18F-FDG PET/CT...
  19. Xie F, He M, He L, Liu K, Li M, Hu G, et al. Bipartite network analysis reveals metabolic gene expression profiles that are highly associated with the clinical outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia. Comput Biol Chem. 2017;67:150-157 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, the expression profiles of ALAS2, BCAT1, BLVRB, and HK3 showed distinct differences between the low-risk and high-risk patients...
  20. Gao H, Luo X, Chen X, Wang J. Identification of key genes affecting disease free survival time of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on bioinformatic analysis. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2015;54:38-43 pubmed publisher
    ..For the 75 key genes, 27 disease risk sub-pathways were identified, and HK3, HNMT, SULT2B1, KYNU, and PTGS2 were the significant key genes which were enriched in these sub-pathways...
  21. He C, Kraft P, Chen C, Buring J, Pare G, Hankinson S, et al. Genome-wide association studies identify loci associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause. Nat Genet. 2009;41:724-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3 (in the gene MCM8), 19q13.42 (in or near the gene BRSK1), 5q35.2 (in or near genes UIMC1 and HK3) and 6p24.2 (in the gene SYCP2L)...
  22. Palma F, Agostini D, Mason P, Dacha M, Piccoli G, Biagiarelli B, et al. Purification and characterization of the carboxyl-domain of human hexokinase type III expressed as fusion protein. Mol Cell Biochem. 1996;155:23-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we cloned the carboxyl-domain of human hexokinase type III and expressed it in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein, using the pGEX-2T ..
  23. Lowes W, Walker M, Alberti K, Agius L. Hexokinase isoenzymes in normal and cirrhotic human liver: suppression of glucokinase in cirrhosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1379:134-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore glucokinase is dramatically suppressed in liver disease, which although partly compensated for by the increase in hexokinase I (and II), accounts in part for the well-known glucose intolerance of liver cirrhosis. ..
  24. Povey S, Corney G, Harris H. Genetically determined polymorphism of a form of hexokinase, HK III, found in human leucocytes. Ann Hum Genet. 1975;38:407-15 pubmed
    1. A form of hexokinase which appears to correspond to HK III, seen in liver, spleen and lung, has been identified in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes...
  25. Mechanick J, Zhao S, Garvey W. Leptin, An Adipokine With Central Importance in the Global Obesity Problem. Glob Heart. 2018;13:113-127 pubmed publisher
    ..Emergent mechanistic components and potential diagnostic or therapeutic targets include hexokinase 3, urocortins, clusterin, sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 6, C-reactive protein, platelet ..
  26. Sui D, Wilson J. Interaction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4, Miz-1, leptin, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase, and granulin precursor with the N-terminal half of type III hexokinase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;382:262-74 pubmed
    ..precursor were identified as proteins interacting with the N-terminal half of mammalian Type III hexokinase (HKIII) in the yeast two-hybrid method. These interactions were confirmed by in vitro binding studies...
  27. Anderson N, Anderson N. The human plasma proteome: history, character, and diagnostic prospects. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2002;1:845-67 pubmed
  28. Zelent B, Bialas C, Gryczynski I, Chen P, Chib R, Lewerissa K, et al. Tryptophan Fluorescence Yields and Lifetimes as a Probe of Conformational Changes in Human Glucokinase. J Fluoresc. 2017;27:1621-1631 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, removal of water around the aromatic ring by addition of glucose substrate or osmolyte may reduce the quenching. ..
  29. Adkins J, Varnum S, Auberry K, Moore R, Angell N, Smith R, et al. Toward a human blood serum proteome: analysis by multidimensional separation coupled with mass spectrometry. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2002;1:947-55 pubmed
    ..With this study, we have performed the most extensive analysis of serum proteins to date and laid the foundation for future refinements in the identification of novel protein biomarkers of disease. ..
  30. Reid S, Masters C. On the developmental properties and tissue interactions of hexokinase. Mech Ageing Dev. 1985;31:197-212 pubmed
  31. Fonteyne P, Casneuf V, Pauwels P, Van Damme N, Peeters M, Dierckx R, et al. Expression of hexokinases and glucose transporters in treated and untreated oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Histol Histopathol. 2009;24:971-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, Hscores of patients with radio-chemotherapy for GLUT3, hexokinase II and III were significantly higher when compared to patients that underwent primary surgery. ..