Gene Symbol: HK2
Description: hexokinase 2
Alias: HKII, HXK2, hexokinase-2, HK II, hexokinase type II, hexokinase-2, muscle, muscle form hexokinase
Species: human
Products:     HK2

Top Publications

  1. Shinohara Y, Yamamoto K, Kogure K, Ichihara J, Terada H. Steady state transcript levels of the type II hexokinase and type 1 glucose transporter in human tumor cell lines. Cancer Lett. 1994;82:27-32 pubmed
    ..However, in cell lines A431 and HeLa, in which the expression level of type 1 glucose transporter was lower than that in HepG2 cells, the amount of type II hexokinase transcript was almost negligible. ..
  2. Machida K, Ohta Y, Osada H. Suppression of apoptosis by cyclophilin D via stabilization of hexokinase II mitochondrial binding in cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14314-20 pubmed
    ..Based on the above, we propose here that cyclophilin D suppresses apoptotic cell death via a mitochondrial hexokinase II-dependent mechanism in cancer cells. ..
  3. Shulga N, Wilson Smith R, Pastorino J. Hexokinase II detachment from the mitochondria potentiates cisplatin induced cytotoxicity through a caspase-2 dependent mechanism. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:3355-64 pubmed
    ..Notably, the detachment of hexokinase II from the mitochondria markedly potentiates the onset of caspase-2 induced mitochondrial damage, thus resulting in a synergistic induction of cisplatin induced cytotoxicity. ..
  4. Wolf A, Agnihotri S, Micallef J, Mukherjee J, Sabha N, Cairns R, et al. Hexokinase 2 is a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis and promotes tumor growth in human glioblastoma multiforme. J Exp Med. 2011;208:313-26 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; Here, we show that the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 2 (HK2) is crucial for the Warburg effect in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common malignant brain ..
  5. Vidal Puig A, Printz R, Stratton I, Granner D, Moller D. Analysis of the hexokinase II gene in subjects with insulin resistance and NIDDM and detection of a Gln142-->His substitution. Diabetes. 1995;44:340-6 pubmed
    Hexokinase II (HKII) is the predominant hexokinase isozyme expressed in insulin-responsive tissues...
  6. Echwald S, Bjørbaek C, Hansen T, Clausen J, Vestergaard H, Zierath J, et al. Identification of four amino acid substitutions in hexokinase II and studies of relationships to NIDDM, glucose effectiveness, and insulin sensitivity. Diabetes. 1995;44:347-53 pubmed
    ..diabetes mellitus (pre-NIDDM) and NIDDM subjects, we have examined the coding region of the HKII gene in NIDDM patients to determine whether these patients show genetic polymorphisms that are associated with or ..
  7. Gwak G, Yoon J, Kim K, Lee H, Chung J, Gores G. Hypoxia stimulates proliferation of human hepatoma cells through the induction of hexokinase II expression. J Hepatol. 2005;42:358-64 pubmed
    ..Therefore, hexokinase II induction may participate in HCC progression and the blockage of this enzyme may therapeutically be efficacious in human HCCs. ..
  8. Chiara F, Castellaro D, Marin O, Petronilli V, BRUSILOW W, Juhaszova M, et al. Hexokinase II detachment from mitochondria triggers apoptosis through the permeability transition pore independent of voltage-dependent anion channels. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1852 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have profound implications for our understanding of the pathways of outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and their inactivation in tumors. ..
  9. Yasuda S, Arii S, Mori A, Isobe N, Yang W, Oe H, et al. Hexokinase II and VEGF expression in liver tumors: correlation with hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and its significance. J Hepatol. 2004;40:117-23 pubmed
    We analyzed the expressions of hexokinase II (HK II), a key enzyme in glycolysis, and VEGF in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver cancer in relation to tumor vascularity, and the participation of hypoxia-inducible factor-..

More Information

Publications122 found, 100 shown here

  1. Mamede M, Higashi T, Kitaichi M, Ishizu K, Ishimori T, Nakamoto Y, et al. [18F]FDG uptake and PCNA, Glut-1, and Hexokinase-II expressions in cancers and inflammatory lesions of the lung. Neoplasia. 2005;7:369-79 pubmed
    ..05). Our study indicates that 18F-FDG uptake in lung cancer correlates well with the Glut-1, HK-II, and PCNA expression. For nonmalignant lesions, the presence of a higher inflammatory process correlated with 18F-FDG uptake. ..
  2. Kwee S, Hernandez B, Chan O, Wong L. Choline kinase alpha and hexokinase-2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: association with survival. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46591 pubmed publisher
    Hexokinase-2 (HK2) and more recently choline kinase alpha (CKA) expression has been correlated with clinical outcomes in several major cancers...
  3. Mathupala S, Rempel A, Pedersen P. Glucose catabolism in cancer cells. Isolation, sequence, and activity of the promoter for type II hexokinase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:16918-25 pubmed
  4. Laakso M, Malkki M, Deeb S. Amino acid substitutions in hexokinase II among patients with NIDDM. Diabetes. 1995;44:330-4 pubmed
    ..b>HKII is considered to be a promising candidate gene for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and insulin ..
  5. Palmieri D, Fitzgerald D, Shreeve S, Hua E, Bronder J, Weil R, et al. Analyses of resected human brain metastases of breast cancer reveal the association between up-regulation of hexokinase 2 and poor prognosis. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1438-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hexokinase 2 (HK2) was also of interest because of its increased expression in brain metastases...
  6. Gregersen L, Jacobsen A, Frankel L, Wen J, Krogh A, Lund A. MicroRNA-143 down-regulates Hexokinase 2 in colon cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:232 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the identification of Hexokinase 2 (HK2) as a direct target of miR-143...
  7. Tyszka Czochara M, Bukowska Strakova K, Kocemba Pilarczyk K, Majka M. Caffeic Acid Targets AMPK Signaling and Regulates Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Anaplerosis while Metformin Downregulates HIF-1α-Induced Glycolytic Enzymes in Human Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Lines. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..such as glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT3) and regulatory enzymes of glycolytic pathway Hexokinase 2 (HK2), 6-Phosphofructo-2-Kinase/Fructose-2,6-Biphosphatase 4 (PFKFB4), Pyruvate Kinase (PKM..
  8. Massari F, Ciccarese C, Santoni M, Iacovelli R, Mazzucchelli R, Piva F, et al. Metabolic phenotype of bladder cancer. Cancer Treat Rev. 2016;45:46-57 pubmed publisher
    ..genes (SRC-3, glucose transporter type 1 [GLUT1], GLUT3, lactic dehydrogenase A [LDHA], LDHB, hexokinase 1 [HK1], HK2, pyruvate kinase type M [PKM], and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha [HIF-1α]), resulting in an overproduction of ..
  9. Wang H, Xin H, Guo J, Gao Y, Liu C, Dai D, et al. Genome-wide screening of hexokinase gene family and functional elucidation of HXK2 response to cold stress in Jatropha curcas. Mol Biol Rep. 2019;46:1649-1660 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study might provide theoretical foundation for further studies on gene cloning and functional verification of HXK family in J. curcas. ..
  10. Xu X, Li D, Li X, Shi Q, Ju X. Mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium alleviates oxidative stress injury induced by hydrogen peroxide via regulating miR143 and its target protein in hepatocytes. BMC Immunol. 2017;18:51 pubmed publisher
    ..stem cell conditioned medium (MSC-CM) and explore the roles of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) and hexokinase 2 (HK2) in this process...
  11. Harfmann B, Schroder E, Kachman M, Hodge B, Zhang X, Esser K. Muscle-specific loss of Bmal1 leads to disrupted tissue glucose metabolism and systemic glucose homeostasis. Skelet Muscle. 2016;6:12 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that both mRNA expression and activity of two key rate-limiting enzymes of glycolysis, hexokinase 2 (Hk2) and phosphofructokinase 1 (Pfk1), were significantly reduced in the iMSBmal1 (-/-) muscle...
  12. Xiao W, Sarsour E, Wagner B, Doskey C, Buettner G, Domann F, et al. Succinate dehydrogenase activity regulates PCB3-quinone-induced metabolic oxidative stress and toxicity in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Arch Toxicol. 2016;90:319-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from a q-RT-PCR assay showed significant increases in the mRNA levels of hexokinase 2 (hk2), pyruvate kinase M2 (pkm2) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), and decreases in the mRNA levels ..
  13. Broecker Preuss M, Becher Boveleth N, Bockisch A, Duhrsen U, Muller S. Regulation of glucose uptake in lymphoma cell lines by c-MYC- and PI3K-dependent signaling pathways and impact of glycolytic pathways on cell viability. J Transl Med. 2017;15:158 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of mRNAs of the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase 2 (HK2), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and of the glucose metabolism-..
  14. de Andrade Barreto E, de Souza Santos P, Bergmann A, de Oliveira I, Wernersbach Pinto L, Blanco T, et al. Alterations in glucose metabolism proteins responsible for the Warburg effect in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Exp Mol Pathol. 2016;101:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..are changes in the glycolytic pathway enzymes such as: pyruvate kinase M1 and M2 (PKM2 and PKM1), hexokinase II (HKII), glucose transporter isoform 1 (GLUT-1), and transcription factor induced by hypoxia (HIF1α), responsible for the ..
  15. Zhou H, Hu S, Jin Q, Shi C, Zhang Y, Zhu P, et al. Mff-Dependent Mitochondrial Fission Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Cardiac Microvasculature Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Induction of mROS-Mediated Cardiolipin Oxidation and HK2/VDAC1 Disassociation-Involved mPTP Opening. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..transition pore opening via blocking the oligomerization of voltage-dependent anion channel 1 and subsequent hexokinase 2 separation from mitochondria...
  16. Cheng H, Chang W, Hu Y, Hsieh B, Huang T, Chong I, et al. Arecoline Increases Glycolysis and Modulates pH Regulator Expression in HA22T/VGH Hepatoma Cells, Leading to Increase of Intracellular Ca2+, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Anoikis. J Cancer. 2017;8:3173-3182 pubmed publisher
    ..production through induction of glycolytic genes, including glucose transporter 3 (Glut3), hexokinase 1 (HK1), hexokinase 2 (HK2), and pyruvate kinase (PK)...
  17. Demel H, Feuerecker B, Piontek G, Seidl C, Blechert B, Pickhard A, et al. Effects of topoisomerase inhibitors that induce DNA damage response on glucose metabolism and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in multiple myeloma cells. Am J Cancer Res. 2015;5:1649-64 pubmed
    ..purpose we monitored [18F]-FDG uptake, cell viability using an ATP assay and expression of GLUT-1, hexokinase II (HKII), cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP via Western-blotting...
  18. Nam H, Chandrashekar D, Kundu A, Shelar S, Kho E, Sonpavde G, et al. Integrative Epigenetic and Gene Expression Analysis of Renal Tumor Progression to Metastasis. Mol Cancer Res. 2019;17:84-96 pubmed publisher
    ..several metabolism-related proteins were identified as differentially regulated via methylation including hexokinase 2, aldolase C, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and estrogen-related receptor-γ (ESRRG), which has a known role in the ..
  19. Zhou H, Zhang Y, Hu S, Shi C, Zhu P, Ma Q, et al. Melatonin protects cardiac microvasculature against ischemia/reperfusion injury via suppression of mitochondrial fission-VDAC1-HK2-mPTP-mitophagy axis. J Pineal Res. 2017;63: pubmed publisher
    ..mitochondrial fission, which subsequently induced voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) oligomerization, hexokinase 2 (HK2) liberation, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, PINK1/Parkin upregulation, and ..
  20. Callaghan N, Williams K, Maccormack T. Cardioprotective mitochondrial binding by hexokinase I is induced by a hyperoxic acute thermal insult in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2018;224:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, protein sequence analysis suggested that the physiological contributions of HKI and HKII in salmonids vary from those in mammals, further explaining the dynamic nature of the traditionally-inert HKI...
  21. Soler Torronteras R, Lara Chica M, Garcia V, Calzado M, Munoz E. Hypoximimetic activity of N-acyl-dopamines. N-arachidonoyl-dopamine stabilizes HIF-1? protein through a SIAH2-dependent pathway. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1843:2730-43 pubmed publisher
    ..of genes such as erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1), hexokinase 2 (HK2) and Bcl-2/E1B-nineteen kiloDalton interacting protein (BNIP3) in primary astrocytes...
  22. Yu H, Zhang H, Dong M, Wu Z, Shen Z, Xie Y, et al. Metabolic reprogramming and AMPK?1 pathway activation by caulerpin in colorectal cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2017;50:161-172 pubmed publisher
    ..time treatment with caulerpin, associated with upregulation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase II (HKII) and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) protein expressions...
  23. Xu X, Li J, Sun X, Guo Y, Chu D, Wei L, et al. Tumor suppressor NDRG2 inhibits glycolysis and glutaminolysis in colorectal cancer cells by repressing c-Myc expression. Oncotarget. 2015;6:26161-76 pubmed publisher
    ..transporters and the catalytic enzymes involved in glycolysis revealed that glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase 2 (HK2), pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was significantly suppressed by ..
  24. Cho J, Kim G, Mansfield B, Chou J. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase-α deficiency leads to metabolic reprogramming in glycogen storage disease type Ia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;498:925-931 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the HCA/HCC lesions in L-G6pc-/- mice exhibit elevated levels of hexokinase 2 (HK2) and the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) which play an important role in aerobic glycolysis and ..
  25. Nurcholis M, Nitiyon S, Suprayogi -, Rodrussamee N, Lertwattanasakul N, Limtong S, et al. Functional analysis of Mig1 and Rag5 as expressional regulators in thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019;103:395-410 pubmed publisher
    ..thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, disrupted mutants of genes for Mig1 and Rag5 as orthologs of Mig1 and Hxk2, respectively, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were constructed, and their characteristics were compared with those of ..
  26. Pavo N, Lukovic D, Zlabinger K, Lorant D, Goliasch G, Winkler J, et al. Intrinsic remote conditioning of the myocardium as a comprehensive cardiac response to ischemia and reperfusion. Oncotarget. 2017;8:67227-67240 pubmed publisher
    ..of seven genes of interest (HIF-1?; caspase-3, transcription factor GATA4; myocyte enhancer factor 2C /MEF2c/; hexokinase 2 /HK2/; clusterin /CLU/ and excision repair cross-complementation group 4 /ERCC4/) were measured by qPCR...
  27. Li Y, Lu B, Sheng L, Zhu Z, Sun H, Zhou Y, et al. Hexokinase 2-dependent Hyperglycolysis Driving Microglial Activation Contributes to Ischemic Brain Injury. J Neurochem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Using BV 2 and primary microglial cultures, we found hyperglycolysis and induction of the key glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 2 (HK2) were essential for microglia-mediated neuroinflammation under hypoxia...
  28. Wang L, Wang J, Xiong H, Wu F, Lan T, Zhang Y, et al. Co-targeting hexokinase 2-mediated Warburg effect and ULK1-dependent autophagy suppresses tumor growth of PTEN- and TP53-deficiency-driven castration-resistant prostate cancer. EBioMedicine. 2016;7:50-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, mechanism-driven co-targeting hexokinase 2 (HK2)-mediated Warburg effect with 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) and ULK1-dependent autophagy with chloroquine (CQ) ..
  29. Tian C, Yuan Z, Xu D, Ding P, Wang T, Zhang L, et al. Inhibition of glycolysis by a novel EGFR/HER2 inhibitor KU004 suppresses the growth of HER2+ cancer. Exp Cell Res. 2017;357:211-221 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study demonstrated that the downregulation of HKII by KU004 was mainly mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway...
  30. Bhalla K, Jaber S, Nahid M N, Underwood K, Beheshti A, Landon A, et al. Role of hypoxia in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: Metabolic repression and selective translation of HK2 facilitates development of DLBCL. Sci Rep. 2018;8:744 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening of primary DLBCL patient samples revealed that expression of HK2, which encodes for the enzyme hexokinase 2, was significantly correlated with DLBCL phenotype...
  31. DeWaal D, Nogueira V, Terry A, Patra K, Jeon S, Guzman G, et al. Hexokinase-2 depletion inhibits glycolysis and induces oxidative phosphorylation in hepatocellular carcinoma and sensitizes to metformin. Nat Commun. 2018;9:446 pubmed publisher
    ..HCC) cells are metabolically distinct from normal hepatocytes by expressing the high-affinity hexokinase (HK2) and suppressing glucokinase (GCK). This is exploited to selectively target HCC...
  32. Tang L, Wang J, Xu T, Zhao Z, Zheng J, Ge R, et al. Mitochondrial toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate in mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Toxicology. 2017;382:108-116 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes were related to the increased EGFR phosphorylation, activated Rictor signaling, then mediated HK2 binding to mitochondrial membrane...
  33. Koppelstaetter C, Kern G, Leierer G, Mair S, Mayer G, Leierer J. Effect of cyclosporine, tacrolimus and sirolimus on cellular senescence in renal epithelial cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2018;48:86-92 pubmed publisher
    ..of CsA, FK506 and Sirolimus on the process of cellular senescence in different human renal tubule cell types (HK2, RPTEC)...
  34. Pham L, Ramírez S, Gottwein J, Fahnøe U, Li Y, Pedersen J, et al. HCV Genotype 6a Escape From and Resistance to Velpatasvir, Pibrentasvir, and Sofosbuvir in Robust Infectious Cell Culture Models. Gastroenterology. 2018;154:2194-2208.e12 pubmed publisher
    ..The consensus sequences of strains HK2 (MG717925) and HK6a (MG717928), originating from serum of patients with chronic HCV infection, were determined by ..
  35. Zhou Y, Lu N, Qiao C, Ni T, Li Z, Yu B, et al. FV-429 induces apoptosis and inhibits glycolysis by inhibiting Akt-mediated phosphorylation of hexokinase II in MDA-MB-231 cells. Mol Carcinog. 2016;55:1317-28 pubmed publisher
    ..FV-429 triggered the apoptosis and simultaneously inhibited the glycolysis of MDA-MB-231 cells. Both the HK II activity and its level in mitochondria were significantly down regulated by FV-429...
  36. Oyarzún C, Salinas C, Gómez D, Jaramillo K, Pérez G, Alarcón S, et al. Increased levels of adenosine and ecto 5'-nucleotidase (CD73) activity precede renal alterations in experimental diabetic rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;468:354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the proximal tubule cell line HK2 we identified TGF-β as a key modulator of CD73 activity...
  37. Gellai R, Hodrea J, Lenart L, Hosszú A, Koszegi S, Balogh D, et al. Role of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification in diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2016;311:F1172-F1181 pubmed publisher
    ..tubular injury is the prominent site of DN, the effect of hyperglycemia was first measured in proximal tubular (HK2) cells cultured in high glucose...
  38. Liu Z, Xue L, Liu Z, Huang J, Wen J, Hu J, et al. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis Accelerates the Progression of Renal Fibrosis in Lupus Nephritis by Activating SMAD and p38 MAPK in TGF-?1 Signaling Pathway. Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:8986451 pubmed publisher
    ..MRL/lpr mice were used for in vivo experiments and human proximal tubular cells (HK2 cells) were used for in vitro experiments...
  39. Gu Z, Xia J, Xu H, Frech I, Tricot G, Zhan F. NEK2 Promotes Aerobic Glycolysis in Multiple Myeloma Through Regulating Splicing of Pyruvate Kinase. J Hematol Oncol. 2017;10:17 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of NEK2 decreases the ratio of PKM2/PKM1 and also other aerobic glycolysis genes including GLUT4, HK2, ENO1, LDHA, and MCT4...
  40. Lehto M, Xiang K, Stoffel M, Espinosa R, Groop L, Le Beau M, et al. Human hexokinase II: localization of the polymorphic gene to chromosome 2. Diabetologia. 1993;36:1299-302 pubmed
    ..As a first step, we have cloned the human hexokinase II gene (HK2) and mapped it to human chromosome 2, band p13.1, by fluorescence in situ hybridization to metaphase chromosomes...
  41. Zhou Q, Ning Y, Zeng R, Chen L, Kou P, Xu C, et al. Erbin interacts with Sema4C and inhibits Sema4C-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HK2 cells. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2013;33:672-679 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we aimed to examine the interaction between Erbin and Sema4C. HK2 cells were treated with TGF-?1, or transfected with Erbin and (or) Sema4C...
  42. Lee S, Hosokawa K, Kim S, Jeong O, Lilja H, Laurell T, et al. A Highly Sensitive Porous Silicon (P-Si)-Based Human Kallikrein 2 (hK2) Immunoassay Platform toward Accurate Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer. Sensors (Basel). 2015;15:11972-87 pubmed publisher
    Levels of total human kallikrein 2 (hK2), a protein involved the pathology of prostate cancer (PCa), could be used as a biomarker to aid in the diagnosis of this disease...
  43. Vilhelmsson Timmermand O, Larsson E, Ulmert D, Tran T, Strand S. Radioimmunotherapy of prostate cancer targeting human kallikrein-related peptidase 2. EJNMMI Res. 2016;6:27 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the uptake and therapeutic efficacy of (177)Lu-m11B6, a human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (hK2)-targeting radioimmunoconjugate in a pre-clinical setting...
  44. Wang J, Duan Z, Nugent Z, Zou J, Borowsky A, Zhang Y, et al. Reprogramming metabolism by histone methyltransferase NSD2 drives endocrine resistance via coordinated activation of pentose phosphate pathway enzymes. Cancer Lett. 2016;378:69-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Its overexpression coordinately up-regulated hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), two key enzymes of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate ..
  45. Smiles W, Conceição M, Telles G, Chacon Mikahil M, Cavaglieri C, Vechin F, et al. Acute low-intensity cycling with blood-flow restriction has no effect on metabolic signaling in human skeletal muscle compared to traditional exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017;117:345-358 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes implicated in substrate metabolism (HK2 and PDK4) were increased above rest (~143 to 338%) and BFR cycling (~212 to 517%) with END (P?<?0.001)...
  46. Xiong X, Wen Y, Mitov M, C Oaks M, Miyamoto S, Gao T. PHLPP regulates hexokinase 2-dependent glucose metabolism in colon cancer cells. Cell Death Discov. 2017;3:16103 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we found that PHLPP formed a complex with Akt and hexokinase 2 (HK2) in the mitochondrial fraction of colon cancer cells and knockdown of PHLPP enhanced Akt-mediated ..
  47. Winther S, Isidor M, Basse A, Skjoldborg N, Cheung A, Quistorff B, et al. Restricting glycolysis impairs brown adipocyte glucose and oxygen consumption. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;:ajpendo.00218.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..Diminishing glycolytic flux by knockdown of the first and final enzyme of glycolysis, i.e. hexokinase 2 (HK2) and pyruvate kinase M (PKM), respectively, decreased glucose uptake and ISO-stimulated oxygen consumption...
  48. Climent M, Quintavalle M, Miragoli M, Chen J, Condorelli G, Elia L. TGFβ Triggers miR-143/145 Transfer From Smooth Muscle Cells to Endothelial Cells, Thereby Modulating Vessel Stabilization. Circ Res. 2015;116:1753-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified hexokinase II (HKII) and integrin β 8 (ITGβ8)-2 genes essential for the angiogenic potential of ECs-as targets of miR-143 and miR-..
  49. Bramer S, Macedo A, Klein C. Hexokinase 2 drives glycogen accumulation in equine endometrium at day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2017;15:4 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, hexokinase 2 (HK2) activity was assessed using a colorimetric assay...
  50. Zhao Y, Yin Z, Li H, Fan J, Yang S, Chen C, et al. MiR-30c protects diabetic nephropathy by suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in db/db mice. Aging Cell. 2017;16:387-400 pubmed publisher
    ..this study, loss of miR-30c accompanied with increased EMT was observed in renal tubules of db/db mice and cultured HK2 cells exposed to high glucose...
  51. Rodriguez Enriquez S, Marin Hernandez A, Gallardo Pérez J, Moreno Sanchez R. Kinetics of transport and phosphorylation of glucose in cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2009;221:552-9 pubmed publisher
    ..are the main controlling steps, the GLUT and HK kinetics and the contents of GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, GLUT4, HKI, and HKII were analyzed in rat hepatocarcinoma AS-30D and HeLa human cervix cancer...
  52. Cheng X, Liu F, Liu H, Wang G, Hao H. Enhanced glycometabolism as a mechanism of NQO1 potentiated growth of NSCLC revealed by metabolomic profiling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;496:31-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Also we found that NQO1 depletion significantly decreased the gene expression levels of hexokinase II (HKII), a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis responsible for the transformation of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate...
  53. Zhang J, Shan J, Chen X, Li S, Long D, Li Y. Celastrol mediates Th17 and Treg cell generation via metabolic signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;497:883-889 pubmed publisher
    ..Celastrol suppressed the expression of glucose transporter, Glut1, and the rate-limiting enzyme, HK2, in addition to mTOR, HIF-1α, c-Myc and Akt expression in Th17 cells...
  54. da Rocha Filho H, da Silva E, Silva F, Courrol L, de Mesquita C, Bellini M. Expression of Genes Involved in Porphyrin Biosynthesis Pathway in the Human Renal Cell Carcinoma. J Fluoresc. 2015;25:1363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We used two kidney cell lines, one normal (HK2) and another malignant (Caki-1)...
  55. Viticchiè G, Agostini M, Lena A, Mancini M, Zhou H, Zolla L, et al. p63 supports aerobic respiration through hexokinase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:11577-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 2 (HK2) represents the first step of glucose utilization in cells...
  56. Baschnagel A, Wobb J, Dilworth J, Williams L, Eskandari M, Wu D, et al. The association of (18)F-FDG PET and glucose metabolism biomarkers GLUT1 and HK2 in p16 positive and negative head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Radiother Oncol. 2015;117:118-24 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the relationship between FDG-PET maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax), p16, EGFR, GLUT1 and HK2 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC)...
  57. Wang X, Li D, Li Q, Ma Y, Yao J, Huang X, et al. Metabolomic analysis reveals the relationship between AZI1 and sugar signaling in systemic acquired resistance of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2016;107:273-287 pubmed publisher was found that the transcript abundances of sugar signaling genes, including SUS1, SUS2, SUS3, SUS6, SUT1, HXK1, HXK2, SNRK1.2, ERD6, TPS1, TOR, SNRK1.1, SNRK1...
  58. Hoppe Seyler K, Honegger A, Bossler F, Sponagel J, Bulkescher J, Lohrey C, et al. Viral E6/E7 oncogene and cellular hexokinase 2 expression in HPV-positive cancer cell lines. Oncotarget. 2017;8:106342-106351 pubmed publisher
    ..which in cancer cells is often linked to an increased expression of the rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme Hexokinase 2 (HK2)...
  59. Gong L, Cui Z, Yu X, Wei Y, Peng J, Leng X. Hexokinase II in CD133+ and CD133- hepatoma BEL-7402 Cells. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:377-81 pubmed publisher
    ..7% of the overall cellular hexokinase activity. The results indicate that hexokinase II is vitally meaningful for CD133+ hepatoma BEL-7402 cells. Hexokinase II represents a new therapeutic target for treating CD133+ hepatoma cells. ..
  60. Penny H, Sieow J, Adriani G, Yeap W, See Chi Ee P, San Luis B, et al. Warburg metabolism in tumor-conditioned macrophages promotes metastasis in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Oncoimmunology. 2016;5:e1191731 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibiting glycolysis in TAMs with a competitive inhibitor to Hexokinase II (HK2), 2-deoxyglucose (2DG), was sufficient to disrupt this pro-metastatic phenotype, reversing the observed increases ..
  61. Zhang J, Wang S, Jiang B, Huang L, Ji Z, Li X, et al. c-Src phosphorylation and activation of hexokinase promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis. Nat Commun. 2017;8:13732 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we find that c-Src can interact with and phosphorylate hexokinases HK1 and HK2, the rate-limiting enzymes in glycolysis...
  62. Jin F, Wang Y, Zhu Y, Li S, Liu Y, Chen C, et al. The miR-125a/HK2 axis regulates cancer cell energy metabolism reprogramming in hepatocellular carcinoma. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3089 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the molecular mechanism through which miR-125a inhibits HCC glycolysis and identified hexokinase II (HK2) as a direct target gene of miR-125a...
  63. Liao W, Fu Z, Zou Y, Wen D, Ma H, Zhou F, et al. MicroRNA-140-5p attenuated oxidative stress in Cisplatin induced acute kidney injury by activating Nrf2/ARE pathway through a Keap1-independent mechanism. Exp Cell Res. 2017;360:292-302 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro study, Enforced expression of miR-140-5p in HK2 cells significantly attenuated oxidative stress by decreasing ROS level and increasing the expression of manganese ..
  64. Zhao K, Murray E, Murray S. HK2 Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells Synthesize and Secrete Plasma Proteins Predominantly Through the Apical Surface. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118:924-933 pubmed publisher
    ..We now demonstrate that even at a resting state, a PTEC cell line, HK2 expresses mRNAs for and synthesizes and secretes plasma proteins in a complex with complement C3, an α2
  65. Min J, Wei C. Hydroxysafflor yellow A cardioprotection in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury mainly via Akt/hexokinase II independent of ERK/GSK-3? pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;87:419-426 pubmed publisher
    ..PI3K/Akt and ERK as the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway and Hexokinase II (HKII) were both examined...
  66. Kolar D, Gresikova M, Waskova Arnostova P, Elsnicova B, Kohutova J, Hornikova D, et al. Adaptation to chronic continuous hypoxia potentiates Akt/HK2 anti-apoptotic pathway during brief myocardial ischemia/reperfusion insult. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;432:99-108 pubmed publisher
    ..The main objective of this study was to investigate the anti-apoptotic Akt/hexokinase 2 (HK2) pathway in hypoxic hearts subjected to I/R insult...
  67. Hsieh W, Ramadesikan S, FEKETE D, Aguilar R. Kidney-differentiated cells derived from Lowe Syndrome patient's iPSCs show ciliogenesis defects and Six2 retention at the Golgi complex. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0192635 pubmed publisher
    ..of differentiated cells from different iPSC colonies and by the use of the human proximal tubule kidney cell line HK2. Indeed, OCRL1 KO led to both ciliogenesis defects and Six2 retention in the Golgi complex...
  68. Qiu M, Han B, Luo H, Zhou Z, Wang Z, Wang F, et al. Expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and hexokinase-II in gastric adenocarcinoma: the impact on prognosis and correlation to clinicopathologic features. Tumour Biol. 2011;32:159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..022). Both HIF-1? and HK-II were overexpressed in gastric adenocarcinoma. The multivariate Cox analysis revealed that both of them were independent factors on survival of gastric adenocarcinoma patients. ..
  69. Zhu W, Huang Y, Pan Q, Xiang P, Xie N, Yu H. MicroRNA-98 Suppress Warburg Effect by Targeting HK2 in Colon Cancer Cells. Dig Dis Sci. 2017;62:660-668 pubmed publisher
    ..miR-98 inhibited glycolysis by directly targeting hexokinase 2, or HK2, illustrating a novel pathway to mediate Warburg effect of cancer cells...
  70. Guo N, Zhang J, Wu J, Xu Y. Isoflurane promotes glucose metabolism through up-regulation of miR-21 and suppresses mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in ovarian cancer cells. Biosci Rep. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..The glycolysis enzymes, HK2, PKM2, and LDHA were up-regulated by isoflurane...
  71. Kim J, Gao P, Liu Y, Semenza G, Dang C. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and dysregulated c-Myc cooperatively induce vascular endothelial growth factor and metabolic switches hexokinase 2 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7381-93 pubmed
    ..MYC, we demonstrate that HIF-1 cooperates with dysregulated c-Myc to promote glycolysis by induction of hexokinase 2, which catalyzes the first step of glycolysis, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, which inactivates pyruvate ..
  72. Zhang D, Yip Y, Li L. In silico construction of HK2-VDAC1 complex and investigating the HK2 binding-induced molecular gating mechanism of VDAC1. Mitochondrion. 2016;30:222-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hexokinase 2 (HK2) binds to Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 (VDAC1) on mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) to facilitate a preferential access of ATP to HK2 for glycolysis, in order to maintain a constant energy source for cell ..
  73. Liu H, Liu N, Cheng Y, Jin W, Zhang P, Wang X, et al. Hexokinase 2 (HK2), the tumor promoter in glioma, is downregulated by miR-218/Bmi1 pathway. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0189353 pubmed publisher
    ..The glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 2 (HK2) is crucial for the Warburg effect in human glioma, the most common malignant brain tumor...
  74. Baines C, Song C, Zheng Y, Wang G, Zhang J, Wang O, et al. Protein kinase Cepsilon interacts with and inhibits the permeability transition pore in cardiac mitochondria. Circ Res. 2003;92:873-80 pubmed
    ..the pore, namely voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), and hexokinase II (HKII). VDAC1, ANT1, and HKII were present in the PKCepsilon complex at approximately 2%, approximately 0...
  75. Wang W, Liu Z, Zhao L, Sun J, He Q, Yan W, et al. Hexokinase 2 enhances the metastatic potential of tongue squamous cell carcinoma via the SOD2-H2O2 pathway. Oncotarget. 2017;8:3344-3354 pubmed publisher
    The glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HK2), which is aberrantly expressed in various types of tumours, is associated with metastasis...
  76. Sparrow A, Sweetman D, Welham S. LIM kinase function and renal growth: Potential role for LIM kinases in fetal programming of kidney development. Life Sci. 2017;186:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..E12.5 metanephric kidneys and HK2 cells were grown in culture with the pharmacological LIM-kinase inhibitor BMS5...
  77. Yang B, Zhang L, Cao Y, Chen S, Cao J, Wu D, et al. Overexpression of lncRNA IGFBP4-1 reprograms energy metabolism to promote lung cancer progression. Mol Cancer. 2017;16:154 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we found lnc-IGFBP4-1 could influences ATP production levels and expression of enzymes including HK2, PDK1 and LDHA, in addition, decline in both ATP production and these enzymes in response to 2-DG and 2-DG-combined ..
  78. Fong L, Jing R, Smalley K, Taccioli C, Fahrmann J, Barupal D, et al. Integration of metabolomics, transcriptomics, and microRNA expression profiling reveals a miR-143-HK2-glucose network underlying zinc-deficiency-associated esophageal neoplasia. Oncotarget. 2017;8:81910-81925 pubmed publisher
    ..reported transcriptomic data for this tissue unveils a link between glucose down-regulation and overexpression of HK2, an enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glycolysis and is overexpressed in cancer cells...
  79. Bukhari S, Ali M, Lee H. Upstream signalling of mTORC1 and its hyperactivation in type 2 diabetes (T2D). BMB Rep. 2017;50:601-609 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we suggest the regulatory roles of telomerase (TERT) and hexokinase II (HKII) on mTORC1 as possible remedies to treat hyperactivation...
  80. Paudyal B, Oriuchi N, Paudyal P, Higuchi T, Nakajima T, Endo K. Expression of glucose transporters and hexokinase II in cholangiocellular carcinoma compared using [18F]-2-fluro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of Glut (1-5) and HK II was studied using immunohistochemistry of 26 patients with CCC who underwent whole-body (18)F-FDG positron ..
  81. Peng Q, Zhou J, Zhou Q, Pan F, Zhong D, Liang H. Downregulation of the hexokinase II gene sensitizes human colon cancer cells to 5-fluorouracil. Chemotherapy. 2008;54:357-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanisms of HK II on chemosensitivity of a colon cancer cell line (LoVo) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
  82. Moon J, Jin W, Kwak J, Kim H, Yun M, Kim J, et al. Androgen stimulates glycolysis for de novo lipid synthesis by increasing the activities of hexokinase 2 and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 2 in prostate cancer cells. Biochem J. 2011;433:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..androgen increases glucose utilization for de novo lipogenesis in LNCaP cells through the activation of HK2 (hexokinase 2) and activation of the cardiac isoform of PFKFB2 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase)...
  83. Contreras Galindo R, Dube D, Fujinaga K, Kaplan M, Markovitz D. Susceptibility of Human Endogenous Retrovirus Type K to Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) make up 8% of the human genome. The HERV type K (HERV-K) HML-2 (HK2) family contains proviruses that are the most recent entrants into the human germ line and are transcriptionally active...
  84. He W, Fang N, Wang R, Wu Y, Zeng G, Guan C, et al. Fine Mapping of a New Race-Specific Blast Resistance Gene, Pi-hk2, in Japonica Heikezijing from Taihu Region of China. Phytopathology. 2017;107:84-91 pubmed
    ..10 and phenotypic variance of 46.19% and might be a major QTL, named Pi-hk2. The line RIL84 with Pi-hk2 derived from a cross between Heikezijing and Suyunuo was selected as Pi-hk2 gene donor ..
  85. Min J, Kim K, Kim H, Kim E, Noh W, Jeon H, et al. INPP4B-mediated tumor resistance is associated with modulation of glucose metabolism via hexokinase 2 regulation in laryngeal cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;440:137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Intriguingly, overexpression of INPP4B enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Of the glycolysis-regulatory genes, hexokinase 2 (HK2) was mainly regulated by INPP4B and this regulation was mediated through the Akt-mTOR pathway...
  86. Neary C, Pastorino J. Akt inhibition promotes hexokinase 2 redistribution and glucose uptake in cancer cells. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:1943-8 pubmed publisher
    Hexokinase II (HK2), the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of glycolysis, is overexpressed in many cancers, as is the central signaling kinase Akt...
  87. Deeb S, Malkki M, Laakso M. Human hexokinase II: sequence and homology to other hexokinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;197:68-74 pubmed
    ..The availability of this sequence would facilitate investigating the role of mutations in the HKII gene in the etiology of this disease.
  88. Yoon D, Buchler P, Saarikoski S, Hines O, Reber H, Hankinson O. Identification of genes differentially induced by hypoxia in pancreatic cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;288:882-6 pubmed
    ..These genes may provide new targets for diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. ..
  89. He H, Bi X, Zheng Z, Dai Q, Han Z, Liang Y, et al. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR assessment of PIM-1 and hK2 mRNA expression in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Med Oncol. 2009;26:303-8 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the expressions of PIM-1 and hK2 mRNA in normal prostate, benign prostatic glandular hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer (PCa), and to explore the association of PIM-1 and hK2 expressions with PCa progression...
  90. Cavalcante I, Zerbini M, Alencar G, Mariani B, Buchpiguel C, Almeida M, et al. High 18F-FDG uptake in PMAH correlated with normal expression of Glut1, HK1, HK2, and HK3. Acta Radiol. 2016;57:370-7 pubmed publisher
    ..correlation between 18F-FDG high uptake and the expression levels of the glycolytic pathway components GLUT1, HK1, HK2, and HK3 in PMAH...
  91. Kim H, Jang H, Kim T, Kang B, Lee S, Jeon Y, et al. Core Pluripotency Factors Directly Regulate Metabolism in Embryonic Stem Cell to Maintain Pluripotency. Stem Cells. 2015;33:2699-711 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, Oct4 directly governs Hk2 and Pkm2, which are important glycolytic enzymes that determine the rate of glycolytic flux...
  92. Qin Y, Cheng C, Lu H, Wang Y. miR-4458 suppresses glycolysis and lactate production by directly targeting hexokinase2 in colon cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Using bioinformatic databases, we predicted that hexokinase2 (HK2), a rate-limiting enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, was a target of miR-4458, so the effects of miR-4458 on ..