HGS

Summary

Gene Symbol: HGS
Description: hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate
Alias: HRS, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, human growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, protein pp110
Species: human
Products:     HGS

Top Publications

  1. Berlin I, Schwartz H, Nash P. Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor ubiquitination and trafficking by the USP8·STAM complex. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34909-21 pubmed publisher
    ..USP8 depletion accelerates receptor turnover, whereas loss of hepatocyte growth factor-regulated substrate (Hrs) rescues this phenotype, indicating that USP8 protects EGFR from degradation via an Hrs-dependent pathway...
  2. Katz M, Shtiegman K, Tal Or P, Yakir L, Mosesson Y, Harari D, et al. Ligand-independent degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor involves receptor ubiquitylation and Hgs, an adaptor whose ubiquitin-interacting motif targets ubiquitylation by Nedd4. Traffic. 2002;3:740-51 pubmed
    ..By studying Hgs, a mammalian homolog of a yeast vacuolar-sorting adaptor, we provide information on the less understood, ligand-..
  3. Chin L, Raynor M, Wei X, Chen H, Li L. Hrs interacts with sorting nexin 1 and regulates degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7069-78 pubmed
    Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is a mammalian homologue of yeast vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) protein Vps27p; however, the role of Hrs in lysosomal trafficking is unclear...
  4. Raiborg C, Bache K, Mehlum A, Stang E, Stenmark H. Hrs recruits clathrin to early endosomes. EMBO J. 2001;20:5008-21 pubmed
    The hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, Hrs, has been implicated in intracellular trafficking and signal transduction...
  5. Husebye H, Halaas Ø, Stenmark H, Tunheim G, Sandanger Ø, Bogen B, et al. Endocytic pathways regulate Toll-like receptor 4 signaling and link innate and adaptive immunity. EMBO J. 2006;25:683-92 pubmed
    ..with the ubiquitin-binding endosomal sorting protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, Hrs. Inhibition of endocytosis and endosomal sorting increased LPS signaling...
  6. Janvier K, Pelchen Matthews A, Renaud J, Caillet M, Marsh M, Berlioz Torrent C. The ESCRT-0 component HRS is required for HIV-1 Vpu-mediated BST-2/tetherin down-regulation. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001265 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that HRS, a key component of the ESCRT-0 complex, promotes efficient release of HIV-1 and that siRNA-mediated HRS depletion ..
  7. Gruenberg J, Stenmark H. The biogenesis of multivesicular endosomes. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004;5:317-23 pubmed
  8. Urbé S, Sachse M, Row P, Preisinger C, Barr F, Strous G, et al. The UIM domain of Hrs couples receptor sorting to vesicle formation. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4169-79 pubmed
    b>Hepatocyte growth factor regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs), a main component of the 'bilayered' clathrin coat on sorting endosomes, was originally identified as a substrate of activated tyrosine kinase receptors...
  9. Kanazawa C, Morita E, Yamada M, Ishii N, Miura S, Asao H, et al. Effects of deficiencies of STAMs and Hrs, mammalian class E Vps proteins, on receptor downregulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309:848-56 pubmed
    ..epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation is partially but not completely impaired in both Hrs(-/-) and STAM1(-/-)STAM2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Sun Y, Hedman A, Tan X, Schill N, Anderson R. Endosomal type I? PIP 5-kinase controls EGF receptor lysosomal sorting. Dev Cell. 2013;25:144-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of ILV sorting greatly enhances and prolongs EGFR signaling. PIPKI?i5 and SNX5 prevent Hrs ubiquitination, and this facilitates the Hrs association with EGFR that is required for ILV sorting...
  2. Ren X, Kloer D, Kim Y, Ghirlando R, Saidi L, Hummer G, et al. Hybrid structural model of the complete human ESCRT-0 complex. Structure. 2009;17:406-16 pubmed publisher
    The human Hrs and STAM proteins comprise the ESCRT-0 complex, which sorts ubiquitinated cell surface receptors to lysosomes for degradation...
  3. Malerød L, Stuffers S, Brech A, Stenmark H. Vps22/EAP30 in ESCRT-II mediates endosomal sorting of growth factor and chemokine receptors destined for lysosomal degradation. Traffic. 2007;8:1617-29 pubmed
    The ubiquitin-binding protein Hrs and endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-I and ESCRT-III are involved in sorting endocytosed and ubiquitinated receptors to lysosomes for degradation and efficient termination of ..
  4. Hirano S, Kawasaki M, Ura H, Kato R, Raiborg C, Stenmark H, et al. Double-sided ubiquitin binding of Hrs-UIM in endosomal protein sorting. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:272-7 pubmed
    b>Hrs has an essential role in sorting of monoubiquitinated receptors to multivesicular bodies for lysosomal degradation, through recognition of ubiquitinated receptors by its ubiquitin-interacting motif (UIM)...
  5. Hanyaloglu A, McCullagh E, von Zastrow M. Essential role of Hrs in a recycling mechanism mediating functional resensitization of cell signaling. EMBO J. 2005;24:2265-83 pubmed
    Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is well known to terminate cell signaling by sorting activated receptors to the MVB/lysosomal pathway...
  6. Kostaras E, Sflomos G, Pedersen N, Stenmark H, Fotsis T, Murphy C. SARA and RNF11 interact with each other and ESCRT-0 core proteins and regulate degradative EGFR trafficking. Oncogene. 2013;32:5220-32 pubmed publisher
    ..RNF11 and SARA interact with the ESCRT-0 subunits STAM2 and Eps15b, but only RNF11 associates with the core subunit Hrs. Both gain- and loss-of-function perturbation of RNF11 and SARA levels result in delayed degradation of epidermal ..
  7. Im Y, Kuo L, Ren X, Burgos P, Zhao X, Liu F, et al. Crystallographic and functional analysis of the ESCRT-I /HIV-1 Gag PTAP interaction. Structure. 2010;18:1536-47 pubmed publisher
    ..4-1.6 Å structures of the human TSG101 UEV domain alone and with wild-type and mutant HIV-1 PTAP and Hrs PSAP nonapeptides...
  8. Bouamr F, Houck Loomis B, de Los Santos M, Casaday R, Johnson M, Goff S. The C-terminal portion of the Hrs protein interacts with Tsg101 and interferes with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag particle production. J Virol. 2007;81:2909-22 pubmed
    ..In uninfected cells, the Hrs protein recruits the ESCRT-I complex to the endosome, also through an interaction with Tsg101, to promote the ..
  9. Tamai K, Tanaka N, Nara A, Yamamoto A, Nakagawa I, Yoshimori T, et al. Role of Hrs in maturation of autophagosomes in mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;360:721-7 pubmed
    ..The molecular process of autophagy is still unclear. Here we demonstrate that Hrs, a master regulator in endosomal protein sorting, plays critical roles for the autophagic degradation of non-..
  10. Bishop N, Horman A, Woodman P. Mammalian class E vps proteins recognize ubiquitin and act in the removal of endosomal protein-ubiquitin conjugates. J Cell Biol. 2002;157:91-101 pubmed
    ..Both tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101)/human VPS (hVPS)28 and hepatocyte growth factor receptor substrate (Hrs) cytosolic complexes bind ubiquitin-agarose...
  11. Gillooly D, Morrow I, Lindsay M, Gould R, Bryant N, Gaullier J, et al. Localization of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate in yeast and mammalian cells. EMBO J. 2000;19:4577-88 pubmed
  12. Marchese A, Raiborg C, Santini F, Keen J, Stenmark H, Benovic J. The E3 ubiquitin ligase AIP4 mediates ubiquitination and sorting of the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4. Dev Cell. 2003;5:709-22 pubmed
    ..ubiquitin ligase AIP4 mediates ubiquitination of CXCR4 at the plasma membrane, and of the ubiquitin binding protein Hrs on endosomes. CXCR4 activation promotes CXCR4 colocalization with AIP4 and Hrs within the same region of endosomes...
  13. Pornillos O, Higginson D, Stray K, Fisher R, Garrus J, Payne M, et al. HIV Gag mimics the Tsg101-recruiting activity of the human Hrs protein. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:425-34 pubmed
    ..the COOH-terminal region of the endosomal protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs; residues 222-777)...
  14. Asao H, Sasaki Y, Arita T, Tanaka N, Endo K, Kasai H, et al. Hrs is associated with STAM, a signal-transducing adaptor molecule. Its suppressive effect on cytokine-induced cell growth. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:32785-91 pubmed
    ..The 110-kDa molecule was found to be a human counterpart of mouse Hrs (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) and to be associated with STAM...
  15. Razi M, Futter C. Distinct roles for Tsg101 and Hrs in multivesicular body formation and inward vesiculation. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3469-83 pubmed
    ..In contrast, depletion of hepatocyte growth factor receptor substrate (Hrs) only modestly inhibits EGF degradation, does not induce tubulation of the early endosome, and causes the ..
  16. Martin Serrano J, Yarovoy A, Perez Caballero D, Bieniasz P, Yaravoy A. Divergent retroviral late-budding domains recruit vacuolar protein sorting factors by using alternative adaptor proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:12414-9 pubmed
  17. Hoeller D, Crosetto N, Blagoev B, Raiborg C, Tikkanen R, Wagner S, et al. Regulation of ubiquitin-binding proteins by monoubiquitination. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:163-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that monoubiquitination of the endocytic proteins Sts1, Sts2, Eps15 and Hrs results in intramolecular interactions between ubiquitin and their UBDs, thereby preventing them from binding in ..
  18. Raiborg C, Bache K, Gillooly D, Madshus I, Stang E, Stenmark H. Hrs sorts ubiquitinated proteins into clathrin-coated microdomains of early endosomes. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:394-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, Hrs, is involved in the endosomal sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins...
  19. Bean A, Davanger S, Chou M, Gerhardt B, Tsujimoto S, Chang Y. Hrs-2 regulates receptor-mediated endocytosis via interactions with Eps15. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:15271-8 pubmed
    b>Hrs-2, via interactions with SNAP-25, plays a regulatory role on the exocytic machinery. We now show that Hrs-2 physically interacts with Eps15, a protein required for receptor-mediated endocytosis...
  20. Lu Q, Hope L, Brasch M, Reinhard C, Cohen S. TSG101 interaction with HRS mediates endosomal trafficking and receptor down-regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7626-31 pubmed
    ..Here we report that TSG101 interacts with hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), an early endosomal protein, and that disruption of this interaction impedes endosomal trafficking and endocytosis-..
  21. Ren X, Hurley J. VHS domains of ESCRT-0 cooperate in high-avidity binding to polyubiquitinated cargo. EMBO J. 2010;29:1045-54 pubmed publisher
    VHS (Vps27, Hrs, and STAM) domains occur in ESCRT-0 subunits Hrs and STAM, GGA adapters, and other trafficking proteins. The structure of the STAM VHS domain-ubiquitin complex was solved at 2...
  22. Sierra M, Wright M, Nash P. AMSH interacts with ESCRT-0 to regulate the stability and trafficking of CXCR4. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13990-4004 pubmed publisher
    ..mutant of AMSH show basal hyperubiquitination, but not increased degradation, of the ESCRT-0 components STAM1 and Hrs. This is dependent on the RXXK motif of AMSH...
  23. Malik R, Marchese A. Arrestin-2 interacts with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery to modulate endosomal sorting of CXCR4. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2529-41 pubmed publisher
    ..interaction blocks agonist promoted ubiquitination of hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) but not CXCR4 and STAM-1 ubiquitination...
  24. Hasdemir B, Bunnett N, Cottrell G. Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) mediates post-endocytic trafficking of protease-activated receptor 2 and calcitonin receptor-like receptor. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29646-57 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated the role of hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), in post-endocytic sorting and signaling of PAR(2)...
  25. Bache K, Brech A, Mehlum A, Stenmark H. Hrs regulates multivesicular body formation via ESCRT recruitment to endosomes. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:435-42 pubmed
    b>Hrs and the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport, ESCRT-I, -II, and -III, are involved in the endosomal sorting of membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies and lysosomes or vacuoles...
  26. Bache K, Raiborg C, Mehlum A, Stenmark H. STAM and Hrs are subunits of a multivalent ubiquitin-binding complex on early endosomes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:12513-21 pubmed
    ..and STAM2, which have been identified as regulators of receptor signaling and trafficking, interact directly with Hrs, which mediates the endocytic sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins...
  27. Sposto R, Keegan T, Vigen C, Kwan M, Bernstein L, John E, et al. The Effect of Patient and Contextual Characteristics on Racial/Ethnic Disparity in Breast Cancer Mortality. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016;25:1064-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In a model adjusting only for age and study, breast cancer-specific HRs relative to Whites were 1.69 (95% CI, 1.46-1.96), 1.00 (0.84-1.19), and 0.52 (0.33-0...
  28. Braekkan S, Grosse S, Okoroh E, Tsai J, Cannegieter S, Naess I, et al. Venous thromboembolism and subsequent permanent work-related disability. J Thromb Haemost. 2016;14:1978-1987 pubmed publisher
    ..Cox-regression models using age as time-scale and VTE as time-varying exposure were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for sex, body mass index, smoking, education level, marital status, ..
  29. Keadle S, Moore S, Sampson J, Xiao Q, Albanes D, Matthews C. Causes of Death Associated With Prolonged TV Viewing: NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49:811-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for TV viewing and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression...
  30. Pan F, Zhang Y, Man V, Roland C, Sagui C. E-motif formed by extrahelical cytosine bases in DNA homoduplexes of trinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..TRs have two non-equivalent reading frames, (GCC)n and (CCG)n; while HRs have three: (CCCGGC)n, (CGGCCC)n, (CCCCGG)n...
  31. Li H, Bai G, Ge Y, Zhang Q, Kong X, Meng W, et al. Hydrogen-rich saline protects against small-scale liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress. Life Sci. 2018;194:7-14 pubmed publisher
    Our research investigated the role of Hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on the Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway and the effect of HRS on tissue injury in small Bama pig model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion combined with partial ..
  32. Beer T, Miller K, Tombal B, Cella D, Phung D, Holmstrom S, et al. The association between health-related quality-of-life scores and clinical outcomes in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients: Exploratory analyses of AFFIRM and PREVAIL studies. Eur J Cancer. 2017;87:21-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) represented the hazard of rPFS or OS per minimally important difference (MID) ..
  33. Wu Z, Zhou R, Su Y, Sun L, Liao Y, Liao W. Prognostic Value of MACC1 in Digestive System Neoplasms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:252043 pubmed publisher
    ..According to our inclusion criteria, 18 studies with a total of 2,948 patients were identified. Pooled HRs indicated that high MACC1 expression significantly correlates with poorer OS in patients with digestive system ..
  34. Vahdat L, Layman R, Yardley D, Gradishar W, Salkeni M, Joy A, et al. Randomized Phase II Study of Ramucirumab or Icrucumab in Combination with Capecitabine in Patients with Previously Treated Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer. Oncologist. 2017;22:245-254 pubmed publisher
    ..3 (6.3-13.0) weeks on ICR + CAP, and 19.0 (12.1-24.3) weeks on CAP (hazard ratios [HRs]: 0.691, p = .1315, RAM + CAP versus CAP; 1.480, p = ...
  35. Grol Prokopczyk H, Verdes Tennant E, McEniry M, Ispány M. Promises and Pitfalls of Anchoring Vignettes in Health Survey Research. Demography. 2015;52:1703-28 pubmed publisher
    ..WHS) (representing 10 countries; n = 52,388), as well as similar vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) (n = 4,528)...
  36. Wallin A, Orsini N, Forouhi N, Wolk A. Fish consumption in relation to myocardial infarction, stroke and mortality among women and men with type 2 diabetes: A prospective cohort study. Clin Nutr. 2018;37:590-596 pubmed publisher
    ..Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
  37. Ju J, Li Y, Chai J, Ma C, Ni Q, Shen Z, et al. The role of perineural invasion on head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma prognosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;122:691-701 pubmed publisher
    ..Study information and hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted, and HRs were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects model and the DerSimonian and Laird ..
  38. Cestari D, Gaier E, Bouzika P, Blachley T, De Lott L, Rizzo J, et al. Demographic, Systemic, and Ocular Factors Associated with Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy. Ophthalmology. 2016;123:2446-2455 pubmed publisher
    ..Multivariable Cox regression modeling was used to generate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to describe the statistical relationship between selected demographic ..
  39. Hou H, Lin C, Leung C. Integrating Macular Ganglion Cell Inner Plexiform Layer and Parapapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements to Detect Glaucoma Progression. Ophthalmology. 2018;125:822-831 pubmed publisher
    ..99; 95% CI, 1.48-6.02), after adjusting for baseline covariates. The HRs for likely and possible VF progression were 3.48 (95% CI, 1.51-8.01) and 2.74 (95% CI, 1.26-5...
  40. Frej C, Linder A, Happonen K, Taylor F, Lupu F, Dahlbäck B. Sphingosine 1-phosphate and its carrier apolipoprotein M in human sepsis and in Escherichia coli sepsis in baboons. J Cell Mol Med. 2016;20:1170-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In the lethal E. coli baboon sepsis, S1P decreased already within 6-8 hrs, whereas the apoM decrease was seen later at 12-24 hrs...
  41. Ryan C, Ged Y, Quinn F, Walker J, Kennedy J, Gillham C, et al. Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Arising Adjacent to a Breast Implant. Int J Surg Pathol. 2016;24:448-55 pubmed publisher
    ..cellular nodules comprising small lymphocytes, eosinophils and interspersed large atypical Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS)-like cells. The HRS-like cells stained positively for CD30 and CD15 by immunohistochemistry...
  42. Li P, Fan H, He Q. Pretransplant diabetes mellitus predicts worse outcomes of liver transplantation: evidence from meta-analysis. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018;41:211-221 pubmed publisher
    ..Hazard ratios (HRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to assess the effect of DM...
  43. Lv J, Yu C, Guo Y, Bian Z, Yang L, Chen Y, et al. Gallstone Disease and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. Sci Rep. 2017;7:15853 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with participants without GSD at baseline, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for type 2 diabetes for those with GSD were 1.09 (95% CI: 0.96-1.24; P = 0.206), 1.21 (95% CI: 1...
  44. Kurotani K, Miyamoto T, Kochi T, Eguchi M, Imai T, Nishihara A, et al. Metabolic syndrome components and diabetes incidence according to the presence or absence of impaired fasting glucose: The Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study. J Epidemiol. 2017;27:408-412 pubmed publisher
    ..We calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) for diabetes incidence using the Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up period (median 4...
  45. Kim J, Lee C. Wound healing potential of a polyvinyl alcohol-blended pectin hydrogel containing Hippophae rahmnoides L. extract in a rat model. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;99:586-593 pubmed publisher
    ..64±2.7 GAE mg/g and that of flavonoids was 13.15±1.8 QE mg/g. Of the total flavonoids in HGs, 61.6 and 50.0% were released at pH 5.5 and 7.4 after 60min...
  46. Kessler A, Maclean J. An Economic Perspective on Personality Traits and Alcohol Misuse: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study. J Ment Health Policy Econ. 2015;18:75-92 pubmed
    ..We obtain data on older adults 50 years and older from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Our outcomes include one measure of use (any use) and two measures of misuse (heavy drinking and binge drinking)...
  47. Corby Harris V, Meador C, Snyder L, Schwan M, Maes P, Jones B, et al. Transcriptional, translational, and physiological signatures of undernourished honey bees (Apis mellifera) suggest a role for hormonal factors in hypopharyngeal gland degradation. J Insect Physiol. 2016;85:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..and physiological changes in preparation for brood rearing, including the growth of hypopharyngeal glands (HGs)...
  48. Liu J, Liu S, Zhou H, Hanson T, Yang L, Chen Z, et al. Association of green tea consumption with mortality from all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer in a Chinese cohort of 165,000 adult men. Eur J Epidemiol. 2016;31:853-65 pubmed publisher
    ..non-green tea drinkers, regular drinkers had significantly lower all-cause mortality, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) being 0.94 (95 % CI 0.89, 0.99) for ≤5 g/day, 0.95 (0.91, 0.99) for 5-10 g/day and 0.89 (0.85, 0...
  49. Åberg M, Torén K, Nilsson M, Henriksson M, Kuhn H, Nyberg J, et al. Nonpsychotic Mental Disorders in Teenage Males and Risk of Early Stroke: A Population-Based Study. Stroke. 2016;47:814-21 pubmed publisher
    ..38; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.79; HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.60 to 3.19; and HR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.63 to 2.96. HRs for stroke were attenuated when fitness level and intelligence quotient were introduced...
  50. Fernandez J, Acevedo J, Prado V, Mercado M, Castro M, Pavesi M, et al. Clinical course and short-term mortality of cirrhotic patients with infections other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Liver Int. 2017;37:385-395 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and type-1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), hospital, 30-day and 90-day mortality and risk factors of death in 441 decompensated patients.
  51. Byrne D, Rolando L, Aliyu M, McGown P, Connor L, Awalt B, et al. Modifiable Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: 10-Year Health Outcomes From a Health Promotion Program. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51:1027-1037 pubmed publisher
    ..Cox proportional-hazards models computed hazard ratios (HRs) for lifestyle characteristics associated with time to one of seven self-reported chronic diseases or death...
  52. Stoica O, Stanciu C, Cojocariu C, Miftode E, Boiculese L, Trifan A, et al. Clostridium difficile Infection in Hospitalized Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2015;24:423-8 pubmed publisher
    ..those with HE and CDI were more likely to have older age, increased serum creatinine level, hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), and more prior hospitalizations...
  53. Liao K, Chuang H, Lai S. Metformin Use Correlates with Reduced Risk of Gallstones in Diabetic Patients: A 12-Year Follow-up Study. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:765 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Results: After controlling for potential confounders, the adjusted HRs of gallstones were 1.11 (95%CI: 0.84-1.46) for subjects with metformin dosage of 29-180 cumulative DDD, and 0...
  54. Fang L, Li L, Qu Z, Xu H, Xu J, Yan N. A novel method for the sequential removal and separation of multiple heavy metals from wastewater. J Hazard Mater. 2018;342:617-624 pubmed publisher
    ..The removal efficiency of Hg2+ was higher than that of Cd2+, while the Ksp of HgS was lower than that of CdS...
  55. Tae B, Jeong C, Kwak C, Kim H, Moon K, Ku J. Pathology in repeated transurethral resection of a bladder tumor as a risk factor for prognosis of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0189354 pubmed publisher
    ..models stratified by study to assess the independent effects of the predictive factors and estimated hazard ratios (HRs) from the Cox models. We investigated a total of 198 patients who were diagnosed with high-risk NMIBC...
  56. Freedman D, Wu J, Chen H, Kuncl R, Enewold L, Engels E, et al. Associations between cancer and Alzheimer's disease in a U.S. Medicare population. Cancer Med. 2016;5:2965-2976 pubmed publisher
    ..logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs)...
  57. Lei L, Wang J, Zhang L, Chen Y, Yuan P, Liu D. Meta-analysis of the clinical value of abnormally expressed long non-coding RNAs for pancreatic cancer. Oncotarget. 2017;8:89149-89159 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative meta-analyses of the pooled diagnostic parameters and hazard ratios (HRs) were enabled by using standard statistical methods...
  58. Wilson F, Varu A, Mitra D, Cameron C, Iyer S. Systematic review and network meta-analysis comparing palbociclib with chemotherapy agents for the treatment of postmenopausal women with HR-positive and HER2-negative advanced/metastatic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017;166:167-177 pubmed publisher
    ..59 (0.19-1.96)], docetaxel [HR 0.51 (0.14-2.03)] and other monotherapy or combination agents (HRs ranging from 0.24 to 0.99)...
  59. Irani A, Owen J, Mercadante D, Williams M. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Illuminate the Role of Counterion Condensation in the Electrophoretic Transport of Homogalacturonans. Biomacromolecules. 2017;18:505-516 pubmed publisher
    Homogalacturonans (HGs) are polysaccharide copolymers of galacturonic acid and its methylesterified counterpart...
  60. Martinez C, Diaz A, Meldrum C, McDonald M, Murray S, Kinney G, et al. Handgrip Strength in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Associations with Acute Exacerbations and Body Composition. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017;14:1638-1645 pubmed publisher
    Handgrip strength (HGS) predicts mortality in the elderly, but its determinants and clinical significance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been defined.
  61. Wang J, Yang C, Zou L. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression has prognostic significance in patients with glioma. Mol Clin Oncol. 2017;7:885-890 pubmed publisher
    ..of relevant publications was conducted to select eligible studies on this subject, and the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and related risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were assessed...
  62. Tang H, Babicheva A, McDermott K, Gu Y, Ayon R, Song S, et al. Endothelial HIF-2? Contributes to Severe Pulmonary Hypertension by Inducing Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;:ajplung.00096.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, hypoxia (48-72 hrs) increased HIF-1? in normal human PASMC and HIF-2? in normal human LVEC...
  63. Qi R, Foo W, Ferrandino M, Davis L, Sekar S, Longo T, et al. Over half of contemporary clinical Gleason 8 on prostate biopsy are downgraded at radical prostatectomy. Can J Urol. 2017;24:8982-8989 pubmed
    Contemporary clinical guidelines utilize the highest Gleason sum (HGS) in any one core on prostate biopsy to determine prostate cancer treatment...
  64. Muchova L, Vanova K, Suk J, Micuda S, Dolezelova E, Fuksa L, et al. Protective effect of heme oxygenase induction in ethinylestradiol-induced cholestasis. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19:924-33 pubmed publisher
    ..c.) for 5 days. HMOX1 was induced by heme (15 μmol/kg i.p.) 24 hrs prior to ethinylestradiol...
  65. Fang L, Wang H, Li P. Systematic analysis reveals a lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network associated with platinum resistance in high-grade serous ovarian cancer. Invest New Drugs. 2018;36:187-194 pubmed publisher
    Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is the major barrier to treating high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGS-OvCa)...
  66. van Vliet N, van der Spoel E, Beekman M, Slagboom P, Blauw G, Gussekloo J, et al. Thyroid status and mortality in nonagenarians from long-lived families and the general population. Aging (Albany NY). 2017;9:2223-2234 pubmed publisher
    ..70). The results from both studies were combined to derive generalizable associations. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the highest compared to lowest tertiles were determined, resulting in TSH HR 0.91 (P=0.25), fT4 HR 1.22 (P=0...
  67. Ogura T, Kitano M, Takenaka M, Okuda A, Minaga K, Yamao K, et al. Multicenter prospective evaluation study of endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy combined with antegrade stenting (with video). Dig Endosc. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS) is often indicated for advanced stage patients. Therefore it is important to prevent adverse events associated with EUS-HGS procedures and obtain long stent patency...
  68. Gatta G, Peris Bonet R, Visser O, Stiller C, Marcos Gragera R, Sanchez M, et al. Geographical variability in survival of European children with central nervous system tumours. Eur J Cancer. 2017;82:137-148 pubmed publisher
    ..We provided age-adjusted survival and used a Cox model to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs) of death, adjusting by age, site and grading by country...
  69. Yoshioka T, Shigekawa M, Yamai T, Suda T, Kegasawa T, Iwahashi K, et al. The safety and benefit of pancreatic juice cytology under ERCP in IPMN patients. Pancreatology. 2016;16:1020-1027 pubmed publisher
    ..2012 for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN), defined two characteristics: high-risk stigmata (HRS) and worrisome features (WF). Patients with WF require detailed examination including cytology...
  70. Cui X, Jing X, Wu X. The prognostic value of long non coding RNAs in cervical cancer: A meta-analysis. Oncotarget. 2017;8:62470-62477 pubmed publisher
    ..We searched databases to identify relevant articles. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated...
  71. Kusumoto F, Bailey K, Chaouki A, Deshmukh A, Gautam S, Kim R, et al. Systematic Review for the 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS Guideline for Management of Patients With Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical . Heart Rhythm. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, there is a debate among clinicians on the usefulness of electrophysiological study for risk stratification of asymptomatic patients with Brugada syndrome...
  72. Khanaki A, Tian H, Xu Z, Zheng R, He Y, Cui Z, et al. Effect of high carbon incorporation in Co substrates on the epitaxy of hexagonal boron nitride/graphene heterostructures. Nanotechnology. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..It is also found that in all three h-BN/G heterostructure growth regions, a 3-hrs h-BN growth at 900 ºC leads to h-BN film with a thickness of 1~2 nm, regardless of the underneath G layers' ..
  73. Canal F, Anthony E, Lescure A, del Nery E, Camonis J, Perez F, et al. A kinome siRNA screen identifies HGS as a potential target for liver cancers with oncogenic mutations in CTNNB1. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:1020 pubmed publisher
    ..silencing of five of these genes selectively impaired the viability of HuH6 cells with high β-catenin signaling: HGS, STRADA, FES, BRAF and PKMYT1...
  74. Sjöqvist M, Antfolk D, Ferraris S, Rraklli V, Haga C, Antila C, et al. PKC? regulates Notch receptor routing and activity in a Notch signaling-dependent manner. Cell Res. 2014;24:433-50 pubmed publisher
    ..internalization, accompanied with increased ubiquitylation and interaction with the endosomal sorting protein Hrs. Collectively, these data identify PKC? as a key regulator of Notch trafficking and demonstrate that distinct steps ..
  75. Wang C, Liu Y, Zhou J, Ye L, Chen N, Zhu M, et al. There is no relationship between SOD2 Val-16Ala polymorphism and breast cancer risk or survival. Mol Clin Oncol. 2017;7:579-590 pubmed publisher
    ..PubMed and EMBASE databases was conducted to illuminate the association with odd ratios (ORs) or hazards ratios (HRs)...
  76. Donnelly D, Smith R, Morin P, Lipovsek D, Gokemeijer J, Cohen D, et al. Synthesis and Biologic Evaluation of a Novel 18F-Labeled Adnectin as a PET Radioligand for Imaging PD-L1 Expression. J Nucl Med. 2018;59:529-535 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical studies with 18F-BMS-986192 are under way to measure PD-L1 expression in human tumors. ..
  77. Adam R, Díez González L, Ocana A, Seruga B, Amir E, Templeton A. Prognostic role of telomere length in malignancies: A meta-analysis and meta-regression. Exp Mol Pathol. 2017;102:455-474 pubmed publisher
    ..b>HRs were weighted by generic inverse variance and computed by random effects modeling...
  78. Amano Y, Yamashita Y, Kojima K, Yoshino K, Tanaka N, Sugamura K, et al. Hrs recognizes a hydrophobic amino acid cluster in cytokine receptors during ubiquitin-independent endosomal sorting. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15458-72 pubmed publisher
    Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is a component of the ESCRT-0 protein complex that captures ubiquitylated cargo proteins and sorts them to the lysosomal pathway...
  79. Kim G, Park E, Kong Y, Han J. Novel function of POSH, a JNK scaffold, as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for the Hrs stability on early endosomes. Cell Signal. 2006;18:553-63 pubmed
    ..domain of the protein and POSH was colocalized with hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) on early endosomes via interaction of Hrs with POSH's two rear SH3 domains...