Gene Symbol: hBD-2
Description: defensin beta 4A
Alias: BD-2, DEFB-2, DEFB102, DEFB2, DEFB4, HBD-2, SAP1, beta-defensin 4A, beta defensin-2, defensin, beta 2, defensin, beta 4, skin-antimicrobial peptide 1
Species: human
Products:     hBD-2

Top Publications

  1. Schroder J, Harder J. Human beta-defensin-2. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1999;31:645-51 pubmed
  2. Bals R, Wang X, Wu Z, Freeman T, Bafna V, Zasloff M, et al. Human beta-defensin 2 is a salt-sensitive peptide antibiotic expressed in human lung. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:874-80 pubmed
    ..These data suggest the existence of a family of beta-defensin molecules on mucosal surfaces that in the aggregate contributes to normal host defense. ..
  3. Janssens W, Nuytten H, Dupont L, Van Eldere J, Vermeire S, Lambrechts D, et al. Genomic copy number determines functional expression of {beta}-defensin 2 in airway epithelial cells and associates with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Baseline and inflammatory induced transcript expression of DEFB4 was studied in nasal epithelial cell cultures and its effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibition was assessed...
  4. Kawsar H, Ghosh S, Hirsch S, Koon H, Weinberg A, Jin G. Expression of human beta-defensin-2 in intratumoral vascular endothelium and in endothelial cells induced by transforming growth factor beta. Peptides. 2010;31:195-201 pubmed publisher
  5. Vongsa R, Zimmerman N, Dwinell M. CCR6 regulation of the actin cytoskeleton orchestrates human beta defensin-2- and CCL20-mediated restitution of colonic epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10034-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings expand the mechanistic role for chemokines and HBD2 in mucosal inflammation to include immunocyte trafficking and killing of microbes with the concomitant activation of restitutive migration and barrier repair. ..
  6. Kao C, Kim C, Huang F, Wu R. Requirements for two proximal NF-kappaB binding sites and IkappaB-zeta in IL-17A-induced human beta-defensin 2 expression by conducting airway epithelium. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:15309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration of the involvement of two proximal NF-kappaB sites and IkappaB-zeta in the regulation of hBD-2 by IL-17A, two important genes responsible for host defense. ..
  7. Uehara A, Fujimoto Y, Fukase K, Takada H. Various human epithelial cells express functional Toll-like receptors, NOD1 and NOD2 to produce anti-microbial peptides, but not proinflammatory cytokines. Mol Immunol. 2007;44:3100-11 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that TLR and NOD in various epithelial cells are functional receptors that induce anti-bacterial responses in general without being accompanied by inflammatory responses. ..
  8. Moon S, Lee H, Pan H, Takeshita T, Park R, Cha K, et al. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:12 pubmed
    ..influenzae (NTHi) and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization) in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-..
  9. Kumar A, Zhang J, Yu F. Toll-like receptor 2-mediated expression of beta-defensin-2 in human corneal epithelial cells. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:380-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the epithelium might play a role in innate defense against bacterial infection by directly killing bacteria in the cornea. ..

More Information


  1. Fahlgren A, Hammarstrom S, Danielsson A, Hammarstrom M. Increased expression of antimicrobial peptides and lysozyme in colonic epithelial cells of patients with ulcerative colitis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003;131:90-101 pubmed
    ..The high antimicrobial activity of epithelial cells in chronic colitis may be a consequence of changes in the epithelial lining, permitting adherence of both pathogenic bacteria and commensals directly to the epithelial cell surface. ..
  2. Uehara N, Yagihashi A, Kondoh K, Tsuji N, Fujita T, Hamada H, et al. Human beta-defensin-2 induction in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosal tissues: antimicrobial effect of overexpression. J Med Microbiol. 2003;52:41-5 pubmed
    ..pylori completely. The results suggest that hBD-2 may be involved in the pathophysiology of H. pylori-induced gastritis. ..
  3. Yang D, Chertov O, Bykovskaia S, Chen Q, Buffo M, Shogan J, et al. Beta-defensins: linking innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic and T cell CCR6. Science. 1999;286:525-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta-defensins may promote adaptive immune responses by recruiting dendritic and T cells to the site of microbial invasion through interaction with CCR6. ..
  4. Harder J, Bartels J, Christophers E, Schroder J. A peptide antibiotic from human skin. Nature. 1997;387:861 pubmed
  5. Jang B, Lim K, Paik J, Kwon Y, Shin S, Kim S, et al. Up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 by interleukin-1beta in A549 cells: involvement of PI3K, PKC, p38 MAPK, JNK, and NF-kappaB. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;320:1026-33 pubmed
  6. Hollox E, Huffmeier U, Zeeuwen P, Palla R, Lascorz J, Rodijk Olthuis D, et al. Psoriasis is associated with increased beta-defensin genomic copy number. Nat Genet. 2008;40:23-5 pubmed
    ..Comparisons in both cohorts showed a significant association between higher genomic copy number for beta-defensin genes and risk of psoriasis. ..
  7. Varoga D, Klostermeier E, Paulsen F, Wruck C, Lippross S, Brandenburg L, et al. The antimicrobial peptide HBD-2 and the Toll-like receptors-2 and -4 are induced in synovial membranes in case of septic arthritis. Virchows Arch. 2009;454:685-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The induction of anti-inflammatory pathways in infected synoviocytes suggests involvement in intra-articular defense mechanisms. ..
  8. MacRedmond R, Greene C, Taggart C, McElvaney N, O Neill S. Respiratory epithelial cells require Toll-like receptor 4 for induction of human beta-defensin 2 by lipopolysaccharide. Respir Res. 2005;6:116 pubmed
    ..This data defines an additional role for TLR4 in the host defense in the lung. ..
  9. Röhrl J, Yang D, Oppenheim J, Hehlgans T. Specific binding and chemotactic activity of mBD4 and its functional orthologue hBD2 to CCR6-expressing cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7028-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the beta-defensin fusion proteins used in this study retained their biological activity and are a feasible tool to identify and analyze specific beta-defensin receptor interactions. ..
  10. Wehkamp J, Harder J, Wehkamp K, Wehkamp von Meissner B, Schlee M, Enders C, et al. NF-kappaB- and AP-1-mediated induction of human beta defensin-2 in intestinal epithelial cells by Escherichia coli Nissle 1917: a novel effect of a probiotic bacterium. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5750-8 pubmed
    ..The induction of hBD-2 may contribute to an enhanced mucosal barrier to the luminal bacteria. ..
  11. Yin L, Chino T, Horst O, Hacker B, Clark E, Dale B, et al. Differential and coordinated expression of defensins and cytokines by gingival epithelial cells and dendritic cells in response to oral bacteria. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:37 pubmed publisher
    ..Differential and coordinated regulation between GECs and DCs may be important in regulation of innate immune homeostasis and response to pathogens in the oral cavity. ..
  12. Winter J, Pantelis A, Reich R, Martini M, Kraus D, Jepsen S, et al. Human beta-defensin-1, -2, and -3 exhibit opposite effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma cell proliferation. Cancer Invest. 2011;29:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..HBD-3 stimulation enhanced hBD-1 expression. HBDs profoundly impact on OSCC proliferation and hBD expression in vitro. Therefore, hBD-1 might function as a tumor suppressor gene in OSCCs, while hBD-2 and -3 might be protooncogenes. ..
  13. Yoshimoto T, Yamaai T, Mizukawa N, Sawaki K, Nakano M, Yamachika E, et al. Different expression patterns of beta-defensins in human squamous cell carcinomas. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:4629-33 pubmed
    ..HBD-2 may lead to the death of normal keratinocytes adjacent to the SCCs, which might, in turn, indirectly assist in the multiplication of tumor cells. ..
  14. Griffin S, Taggart C, Greene C, O Neill S, McElvaney N. Neutrophil elastase up-regulates human beta-defensin-2 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells. FEBS Lett. 2003;546:233-6 pubmed
    ..An increase in HBD-2 protein expression was observed in primary NHBE cells after incubation with NE as assessed by laser scanning cytometry. In conclusion, NE up-regulates HBD-2 expression in bronchial epithelial cells. ..
  15. Niyonsaba F, Iwabuchi K, Matsuda H, Ogawa H, Nagaoka I. Epithelial cell-derived human beta-defensin-2 acts as a chemotaxin for mast cells through a pertussis toxin-sensitive and phospholipase C-dependent pathway. Int Immunol. 2002;14:421-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, we suggest that hBD-2, which was originally believed to be involved in innate host defense, may participate in the recruitment of mast cells to inflammation foci. ..
  16. Zhuravel E, Shestakova T, Efanova O, Yusefovich Y, Lytvin D, Soldatkina M, et al. Human beta-defensin-2 controls cell cycle in malignant epithelial cells: in vitro study. Exp Oncol. 2011;33:114-20 pubmed
    ..The results of our study suggest that in malignant epithelial cells hBD-2 may control cell growth via arrest of G1/S transition and activation of pRB. ..
  17. Schibli D, Hunter H, Aseyev V, Starner T, Wiencek J, McCray P, et al. The solution structures of the human beta-defensins lead to a better understanding of the potent bactericidal activity of HBD3 against Staphylococcus aureus. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8279-89 pubmed
  18. Bogefors J, Kvarnhammar A, Höckerfelt U, Cardell L. Reduced tonsillar expression of human β-defensin 1, 2 and 3 in allergic rhinitis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;65:431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with the down-regulation of HBDs in epithelial cells in the presence of allergic mediators suggest that AR patients have an impaired antimicrobial defense that might make them more susceptible to respiratory tract infections. ..
  19. Biragyn A, Ruffini P, Leifer C, Klyushnenkova E, Shakhov A, Chertov O, et al. Toll-like receptor 4-dependent activation of dendritic cells by beta-defensin 2. Science. 2002;298:1025-9 pubmed
    ..These events, in turn, trigger robust, type 1 polarized adaptive immune responses in vivo, suggesting that mDF2beta may play an important role in immunosurveillance against pathogens and, possibly, self antigens or tumor antigens. ..
  20. Starner T, Swords W, Apicella M, McCray P. Susceptibility of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae to human beta-defensins is influenced by lipooligosaccharide acylation. Infect Immun. 2002;70:5287-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, NTHI was more susceptible to HBD-3 and showed no changes in sensitivity as a result of lipooligosaccharide mutations in oligosaccharide and lipid A biosynthesis genes. ..
  21. Moon S, Lee H, Li J, Nagura M, Kang S, Chun Y, et al. Activation of a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway is required for IL-1alpha-induced upregulation of beta-defensin 2 in human middle ear epithelial cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1590:41-51 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that the transcriptional activation of hBD-2 gene by IL-1 alpha is mediated through an Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. ..
  22. Abe S, Miura K, Kinoshita A, Mishima H, Miura S, Yamasaki K, et al. Copy number variation of the antimicrobial-gene, defensin beta 4, is associated with susceptibility to cervical cancer. J Hum Genet. 2013;58:250-3 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate association between copy number variation of the defensin beta 4 gene (DEFB4) and susceptibility to cervical cancer in a population at high risk of persistent oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) ..
  23. Jenke A, Zilbauer M, Postberg J, Wirth S. Human ?-defensin 2 expression in ELBW infants with severe necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Res. 2012;72:513-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In severe NEC, low hBD2 expression was accompanied by low TLR4/MD2 expression, suggesting an inadequate response to luminal bacteria, possibly predisposing those infants to the development of NEC. ..
  24. Nakatsuji T, Kao M, Zhang L, Zouboulis C, Gallo R, Huang C. Sebum free fatty acids enhance the innate immune defense of human sebocytes by upregulating beta-defensin-2 expression. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:985-94 pubmed publisher
    ..acnes and enhance the skin's innate antibacterial defense by inducing the expression of hBD-2 in sebocytes as well...
  25. Mathews M, Jia H, Guthmiller J, Losh G, Graham S, Johnson G, et al. Production of beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides by the oral mucosa and salivary glands. Infect Immun. 1999;67:2740-5 pubmed
    ..Human beta-defensins may play an important role in the innate defenses against oral microorganisms. ..
  26. Joly S, Compton L, Pujol C, Kurago Z, Guthmiller J. Loss of human beta-defensin 1, 2, and 3 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009;24:353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the regulation of HBD-1 (also published as DEFB1), HBD-2 (DEFB4) and HBD-3 (DEFB103A) (http://www.genenames.org/index...
  27. Kanda N, Watanabe S. Leptin enhances human beta-defensin-2 production in human keratinocytes. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Leptin may promote cutaneous antimicrobial defense, inflammation, and wound repair via hBD-2. ..
  28. Chung W, Dale B. Innate immune response of oral and foreskin keratinocytes: utilization of different signaling pathways by various bacterial species. Infect Immun. 2004;72:352-8 pubmed
  29. Joly S, Maze C, McCray P, Guthmiller J. Human beta-defensins 2 and 3 demonstrate strain-selective activity against oral microorganisms. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1024-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, the significant variability between strains underlies the importance of testing multiple strains when evaluating activities of antimicrobial peptides. ..
  30. Diamond G, Kaiser V, Rhodes J, Russell J, Bevins C. Transcriptional regulation of beta-defensin gene expression in tracheal epithelial cells. Infect Immun. 2000;68:113-9 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations indicate that a strategy for the induction of peptide-based antimicrobial innate immunity is conserved among evolutionarily diverse organisms. ..
  31. Joly S, Organ C, Johnson G, McCray P, Guthmiller J. Correlation between beta-defensin expression and induction profiles in gingival keratinocytes. Mol Immunol. 2005;42:1073-84 pubmed
  32. Krisanaprakornkit S, Kimball J, Dale B. Regulation of human beta-defensin-2 in gingival epithelial cells: the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, but not the NF-kappaB transcription factor family. J Immunol. 2002;168:316-24 pubmed
    ..Studies of hBD-2 regulation provide insight into how its expression may be enhanced to control infection locally within the mucosa and thereby reduce microbial invasion into the underlying tissue. ..
  33. Mineshiba J, Myokai F, Mineshiba F, Matsuura K, Nishimura F, Takashiba S. Transcriptional regulation of beta-defensin-2 by lipopolysaccharide in cultured human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005;45:37-44 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the two NF-(kappa)B binding sites contribute to LPS-mediated hBD-2 transcription while the NF-IL6 binding site represses LPS-independent hBD-2 transcription in the HeLa cells. ..
  34. Fellermann K, Stange D, Schaeffeler E, Schmalzl H, Wehkamp J, Bevins C, et al. A chromosome 8 gene-cluster polymorphism with low human beta-defensin 2 gene copy number predisposes to Crohn disease of the colon. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;79:439-48 pubmed
    ..033). In conclusion, a lower HBD-2 gene copy number in the beta-defensin locus predisposes to colonic CD, most likely through diminished beta-defensin expression. ..
  35. Harder J, Meyer Hoffert U, Teran L, Schwichtenberg L, Bartels J, Maune S, et al. Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta, but not IL-6, induce human beta-defensin-2 in respiratory epithelia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000;22:714-21 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it might be important in lung infections caused by mucoid PA, including those seen in patients with CF. ..
  36. Voss E, Wehkamp J, Wehkamp K, Stange E, Schröder J, Harder J. NOD2/CARD15 mediates induction of the antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin-2. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2005-11 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that NOD2 serves as an intracellular pattern recognition receptor to enhance host defense by inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides such as hBD-2. ..
  37. Hoover D, Rajashankar K, Blumenthal R, Puri A, Oppenheim J, Chertov O, et al. The structure of human beta-defensin-2 shows evidence of higher order oligomerization. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32911-8 pubmed
    ..The structural and electrostatic properties of the hBD2 octamer support an electrostatic charge-based mechanism of membrane permeabilization by beta-defensins, rather than a mechanism based on formation of bilayer-spanning pores. ..
  38. Jurevic R, Chrisman P, Mancl L, Livingston R, Dale B. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotype analysis in beta-defensin genes in different ethnic populations. Genet Test. 2002;6:261-9 pubmed
    ..We examined the occurrence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human beta-defensin genes DEFB1 and DEFB2 encoding human beta-defensin-1 and -2 (hBD-1, hBD-2), respectively, in five ethnic populations and defined ..
  39. Lu Z, Kim K, Suico M, Shuto T, Li J, Kai H. MEF up-regulates human beta-defensin 2 expression in epithelial cells. FEBS Lett. 2004;561:117-21 pubmed
    ..The interaction between the EBS and MEF protein was further confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Thus, our data indicate that MEF may play an important role in regulating HBD2 expression in epithelial cells. ..
  40. Kucukkolbasi H, Küçükkolbaşı S, Ayyildiz H, Dursun R, Kara H. Evaluation of hbetaD-1 and hbetaD-2 levels in saliva of patients with oral mucosal diseases. West Indian Med J. 2013;62:230-8 pubmed
  41. Dössel J, Meyer Hoffert U, Schroder J, Gerstel U. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived rhamnolipids subvert the host innate immune response through manipulation of the human beta-defensin-2 expression. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1364-75 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa infections, rhamnolipids can be engaged by P. aeruginosa for a targeted attenuation of the innate immunity to manage its survival and colonization on compromised epithelia. ..
  42. Kublin J, Mikolajczak S, Sack B, Fishbaugher M, Seilie A, Shelton L, et al. Complete attenuation of genetically engineered Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites in human subjects. Sci Transl Med. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..parasite by deleting three genes expressed in the pre-erythrocytic stage (Pf p52-/p36-/sap1-)...
  43. Barrera G, Sanchez G, Gonzalez J. Trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk downregulates cytokines (IL8 and IL6) and promotes human beta defensin (hBD2 and hBD4) expression in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29. Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2012;12:256-64 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that TFF can activate intestinal epithelial cells and could actively participate in the immune system of breastfed babies by inducing the production of peptides related to innate defence, such as defensins. ..
  44. Krisanaprakornkit S, Chotjumlong P, Kongtawelert P, Reutrakul V. Involvement of phospholipase D in regulating expression of anti-microbial peptide human beta-defensin-2. Int Immunol. 2008;20:21-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these findings indicate the involvement of PLD activation in hBD-2 up-regulation in HGECs, which correlates with the state of epithelial differentiation. ..
  45. Xiong W, Shao Z, Xiong Y, Chen J, Sun Y, Zhu L, et al. Dehydroandrographolide enhances innate immunity of intestinal tract through up-regulation the expression of hBD-2. Daru. 2015;23:37 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that DA enhanced innate immunity of intestinal tract by up-regulating the expression of hBD-2 through the p38 MAPK pathways. ..
  46. Ross D, Cole A, Yoshioka D, Park A, Belperio J, Laks H, et al. Increased bronchoalveolar lavage human beta-defensin type 2 in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Transplantation. 2004;78:1222-4 pubmed
    ..We therefore speculate that complex interactions between adaptive and innate immunity may contribute to the propagation of airway inflammation in BOS. ..
  47. Meng W, Du R, Wang Y, Chen Z, Ding Y. Human β-defensin messenger RNA is overexpressed in the cervical epithelia of patients with nongonococcal cervicitis. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2013;17:440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..012) and hBD-3 mRNA (1.23 [0.32] vs 1.13 [0.26], p = .009) decreased significantly after the successful antimicrobial treatment. Expressions of hBD-2 and hBD-3 mRNA are up-regulated in NGC, suggesting the role of mucosal immunity in NGC. ..
  48. Kim Y, Shin H, Lee J, Jung Y, Kim H, Ha U. Pneumolysin-mediated expression of ?-defensin 2 is coordinated by p38 MAP kinase-MKP1 in human airway cells. J Microbiol. 2013;51:194-9 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae infection. These results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the coordinative regulation of BD2 expression via p38-MKP1 in the pathogenesis of airway infectious diseases. ..
  49. Hau C, Kanda N, Noda S, Tatsuta A, Kamata M, Shibata S, et al. Visfatin enhances the production of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, human β-defensin-2, human β-defensin-3, and S100A7 in human keratinocytes and their orthologs in murine imiquimod-induced psoriatic skin. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:1705-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Visfatin may potentiate the development of psoriasis via antimicrobial peptides. ..
  50. Kanda N, Watanabe S. Histamine enhances the production of human beta-defensin-2 in human keratinocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1916-23 pubmed
    ..Histamine may potentiate anti-microbial defense, skin inflammation, and wound repair via the induction of hBD-2. ..
  51. Park J, Oh B, Kim J, Park J, Kim C, Lee Y, et al. Copy number variation of ?-defensin genes in Behçet's disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2011;29:S20-3 pubmed
    ..2 is an inducible antimicrobial peptide, the level of which can be influenced by copy number (CN) of the DEFB4. We investigated the relationship between copy number variation (CNV) of DEFB4 and BD...
  52. Park K, Ommori R, Imoto K, Asada H. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors selectively inhibit the expressions of human β-defensins induced by Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Dermatol Sci. 2014;75:94-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, EGFRIs suppressed the expressions of hBD2 and 3 induced by S. epidermidis. EGFRIs may cause cutaneous adverse effects through selectively perturbing innate immune responses induced by commensal and pathogenic bacteria. ..
  53. Szekeres M, Somogyvári F, Bencsik K, Szolnoki Z, Vécsei L, Mándi Y. GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS OF HUMAN β-DEFENSINS IN PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. Ideggyogy Sz. 2015;68:127-33 pubmed
    ..relevance of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the DEFB1 gene and the copy number polymorphism of the DEFB4 genes in MS. DEFBI polymorphisms: c.-20G > A (rsl 1362), DEFB1 c.-44C > G (rsI 800972), DEFB1 c...
  54. Fusco A, Savio V, Cammarota M, Alfano A, Schiraldi C, Donnarumma G. Beta-Defensin-2 and Beta-Defensin-3 Reduce Intestinal Damage Caused by Salmonella typhimurium Modulating the Expression of Cytokines and Enhancing the Probiotic Activity of Enterococcus faecium. J Immunol Res. 2017;2017:6976935 pubmed publisher
    ..typhimurium infections and their interaction with the bacteria of the gut microbiota...
  55. Krishnakumari V, Nagaraj R. Binding of peptides corresponding to the carboxy-terminal region of human-?-defensins-1-3 with model membranes investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1818:1386-94 pubmed publisher
  56. Morampudi V, Braun M, D Souza S. Modulation of early ?-defensin-2 production as a mechanism developed by type I Toxoplasma gondii to evade human intestinal immunity. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2043-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings strongly support the modulation of early ?-defensin 2 expression as a mechanism used by type I T. gondii parasites to mediate immune evasion. ..
  57. Goo J, Ji J, Jeon H, Kim M, Jeon S, Cho M, et al. Expression of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37 and hBD-2 in nonlesional skin of atopic individuals. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27:341-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the expression of antimicrobial peptides at baseline was not different between nonlesional skin of atopic individuals and normal skin of nonatopic individuals. ..
  58. Han S, Bishop B, van Hoek M. Antimicrobial activity of human beta-defensins and induction by Francisella. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;371:670-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The differential induction of beta-defensins in Francisella infected lung epithelial cells suggests a complex dynamic in the expression of antimicrobial peptides and the innate immune response. ..
  59. Gambichler T, Skrygan M, Appelhans C, Tomi N, Reinacher Schick A, Altmeyer P, et al. Expression of human beta-defensins in patients with mycosis fungoides. Arch Dermatol Res. 2007;299:221-4 pubmed
    ..We observed an identical pattern of hBD expression in MD and AD suggesting a common regulatory mechanism that might mainly be driven by T helper 2 lymphocytes. ..
  60. Oren A, Ganz T, Liu L, Meerloo T. In human epidermis, beta-defensin 2 is packaged in lamellar bodies. Exp Mol Pathol. 2003;74:180-2 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that HBD-2 is released with the contents of the LBs. Along with other investigations, our findings indicate that the lipid "permeability" barrier of the skin contains antimicrobial substances. ..
  61. Stockmann P, Wehrhan F, Schwarz Furlan S, Stelzle F, Trabert S, Neukam F, et al. Increased human defensine levels hint at an inflammatory etiology of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw: an immunohistological study. J Transl Med. 2011;9:135 pubmed publisher
  62. Tiszlavicz Z, Szabolcs A, Takacs T, Farkas G, Kovacs Nagy R, Szantai E, et al. Polymorphisms of beta defensins are associated with the risk of severe acute pancreatitis. Pancreatology. 2010;10:483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..the relevance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DEFB1 gene and copy number polymorphisms of the DEFB4 genes in AP...
  63. Kase K, Hua J, Yokoi H, Ikeda K, Nagaoka I. Inhibitory action of roxithromycin on histamine release and prostaglandin D2 production from beta-defensin 2-stimulated mast cells. Int J Mol Med. 2009;23:337-40 pubmed
    ..25 and 12.5 microg/ml of RXM (p<0.05). The present findings suggest that RXM modulates mast cell activation induced by hBD-2 via a Ca2+ signal pathway, thereby possibly alleviating chronic airway inflammation. ..
  64. Liu H, He G, Sun H. [Expression and significance of human beta-defensin in recurrent nasal polyps]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2008;33:1119-22 pubmed
    ..hBD-1 is a constitutive expression and hBD-2 is an induced expression. beta-Defensin may play an important role in forming the nasal polyps. ..
  65. Fan S, Liu X, Liao Q. Human defensins and cytokines in vaginal lavage fluid of women with bacterial vaginosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;103:50-4 pubmed publisher
    ..05). HBD-2 and HD-5 may be involved in defending against invasion by BV-related microorganisms and the decrease in IL-4 concentration may increase susceptibility to BV. ..
  66. Gankovskaya L, Helminskaya N, Svitich O, Molchanova E, Grechenko V, Sokolova E, et al. [STUDY OF THE ROLE OF INNATE IMMUNITY FACTORS (TLR2, HBD-2, TNF-α, TGF-β) IN PERIODONTITIS PATHOGENESIS]. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2015;:93-7 pubmed
    ..Conclusion.-The study carried out has shown that disturbance of molecular mechanisms of innate immunity system has an important place in pathogenesis of periodontitis. - ..
  67. Ghattas Ayoub C, Aminoshariae A, Bakkar M, Ghosh S, Bonfield T, Demko C, et al. Comparison of IL-1β, TNF-α, hBD-2, and hBD-3 Expression in the Dental Pulp of Smokers Versus Nonsmokers. J Endod. 2017;43:2009-2013 pubmed publisher
  68. Rohleder N, Wolff K, Heimüller S, Axt A, Kesting M, Koerdt S, et al. Influence of gender on epithelial host defence peptide gene expression under non-infected and infected conditions: A basic medical research study. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2018;46:128-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, gender does not affect the cutaneous expression of the investigated HDP. This is fundamental knowledge for the study and potential use of HDP derivates as alternative antibiotic substances. ..