haptoglobin

Summary

Gene Symbol: haptoglobin
Description: haptoglobin
Alias: HP2ALPHA2, HPA1S, haptoglobin, binding peptide, haptoglobin alpha(1S)-beta, haptoglobin alpha(2FS)-beta, haptoglobin, alpha polypeptide, haptoglobin, beta polypeptide, zonulin
Species: human
Products:     haptoglobin

Top Publications

  1. Conway B, Savage D, Brady H, Maxwell A. Association between haptoglobin gene variants and diabetic nephropathy: haptoglobin polymorphism in nephropathy susceptibility. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2007;105:e75-9 pubmed
    ..3%, which is similar to that found in other Western European populations. The results suggest that the Hp(2) allele may confer susceptibility to nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. ..
  2. Staals J, Pieters B, Knottnerus I, Rouhl R, van Oostenbrugge R, Delanghe J, et al. Haptoglobin polymorphism and lacunar stroke. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2008;5:153-8 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin (Hp) 2-2 phenotype has been associated with peripheral and coronary artery disease and risk of vascular complications in diabetic patients, but any association of Hp polymorphism with cerebrovascular disease has not been ..
  3. Polticelli F, Bocedi A, Minervini G, Ascenzi P. Human haptoglobin structure and function--a molecular modelling study. FEBS J. 2008;275:5648-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Extra-erythrocytic hemoglobin is complexed to haptoglobin for clearance by tissue macrophages...
  4. Awadallah S, Atoum M. Haptoglobin polymorphism in breast cancer patients form Jordan. Clin Chim Acta. 2004;341:17-21 pubmed
    ..In this study, the distribution of haptoglobin phenotype among patients with familial and nonfamilial breast cancer was investigated...
  5. Wassell J. Haptoglobin: function and polymorphism. Clin Lab. 2000;46:547-52 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein capable of binding haemoglobin, thus preventing iron loss and renal damage...
  6. Kristiansen M, Graversen J, Jacobsen C, Sonne O, Hoffman H, Law S, et al. Identification of the haemoglobin scavenger receptor. Nature. 2001;409:198-201 pubmed
    ..Haemoglobin released into plasma is captured by the acute phase protein haptoglobin, which is depleted from plasma during elevated haemolysis...
  7. Nabli H, Tuller E, Sharpe Timms K. Haptoglobin expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus. Reprod Sci. 2010;17:47-55 pubmed publisher
    Elevated serum haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations have been reported in patients with malignant diseases...
  8. Dobryszycka W. Biological functions of haptoglobin--new pieces to an old puzzle. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1997;35:647-54 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin, an "acute phase" protein, has different functions, which display genetic polymorphism. The complex of haptoglobin with haemoglobin is metabolized in the heptic reticuloendothelial system...
  9. Depypere H, Langlois M, Delanghe J, Temmerman M, Dhont M. Haptoglobin polymorphism in patients with preeclampsia. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:924-8 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism has been associated with blood pressure regulation and essential hypertension. We investigated Hp polymorphism in patients with preeclampsia...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Awadallah S. Haptoglobin 2-2 phenotype is associated with decreased ferroxidase activity in smokers. Clin Chim Acta. 2003;334:71-6 pubmed
    ..Fasting blood specimens were collected from 489 Jordanian males (228 smokers and 261 nonsmokers). Haptoglobin phenotype was determined by electrophoresis, and lipid profile and ferroxidase activity were determined by ..
  2. Van Vlierberghe H, Delanghe J, De Bie S, Praet M, De Paepe A, Messiaen L, et al. Association between Cys282Tyr missense mutation and haptoglobin phenotype polymorphism in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;13:1077-81 pubmed
    In patients with chronic hepatitis C infection, the haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 phenotype is overrepresented. Data regarding the occurrence of the Cys282Tyr missense mutation in these patients are less clear...
  3. Wang Y, Kinzie E, Berger F, Lim S, Baumann H. Haptoglobin, an inflammation-inducible plasma protein. Redox Rep. 2001;6:379-85 pubmed
    ..In all vertebrates, a common set of APPs is increased and exerts essential protective functions. Haptoglobin (HP), one of the major APPs, acts as a high-affinity hemoglobin-binding protein and antioxidant...
  4. Spagnuolo M, Cigliano L, Maresca B, Pugliese C, Abrescia P. Identification of plasma haptoglobin forms which loosely bind hemoglobin. Biol Chem. 2011;392:371-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Haptoglobin (Hpt) is known to capture circulating free hemoglobin (Hb) and bind apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I or E...
  5. Teye K, Quaye I, Koda Y, Soejima M, Tsuneoka M, Pang H, et al. A-61C and C-101G Hp gene promoter polymorphisms are, respectively, associated with ahaptoglobinaemia and hypohaptoglobinaemia in Ghana. Clin Genet. 2003;64:439-43 pubmed
    ..The Hpdel allele seen in Asian populations was absent. We conclude that the Hp0 phenotype in Ghana has a genetic basis that differs significantly from that seen in Asia. ..
  6. Graversen J, Madsen M, Moestrup S. CD163: a signal receptor scavenging haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes from plasma. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34:309-14 pubmed
    ..when CD163 was identified as the endocytic receptor binding hemoglobin (Hb) in complex with the plasma protein haptoglobin (Hp)...
  7. Brouwers A, Langlois M, Delanghe J, Billiet J, De Buyzere M, Vercaemst R, et al. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein, iron stores, and haptoglobin polymorphism. Atherosclerosis. 2004;176:189-95 pubmed
    ..with body iron stores (serum ferritin) and iron-related genetic markers (hemochromatosis gene C282Y mutation, haptoglobin polymorphism). We investigated 381 (176 males, 205 females, age 45 +/- 6 years) healthy Caucasians...
  8. Maeda N, Yang F, Barnett D, Bowman B, Smithies O. Duplication within the haptoglobin Hp2 gene. Nature. 1984;309:131-5 pubmed
    DNA sequencing shows that the intragenic duplication within the human haptoglobin Hp2 allele was formed by a non-homologous, probably random, crossing-over within different introns of two Hp1 genes, probably in an Hp1F / Hp1S ..
  9. Tseng C, Lin C, Huang H, Liu H, Mao S. Antioxidant role of human haptoglobin. Proteomics. 2004;4:2221-8 pubmed
    Human plasma haptoglobin (Hp) is classified according to three phenotypes: Hp 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 attributed by their two common alleles 1 and 2...
  10. Nielsen M, Petersen S, Jacobsen C, Thirup S, Enghild J, Graversen J, et al. A unique loop extension in the serine protease domain of haptoglobin is essential for CD163 recognition of the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1072-9 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein are homologous hemoglobin-binding proteins consisting of a complement control repeat (alpha-chain) and a serine protease domain (beta-chain)...
  11. Mohieldein A, Alzohairy M, Hasan M, Khan A. Inflammatory markers and haptoglobin polymorphism in Saudi with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Glob J Health Sci. 2012;5:135-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism associated with clinical evolution of several inflammatory diseases and considered as a predictive factor for development of diabetes complications...
  12. Cigliano L, Pugliese C, Spagnuolo M, Palumbo R, Abrescia P. Haptoglobin binds the antiatherogenic protein apolipoprotein E - impairment of apolipoprotein E stimulation of both lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity and cholesterol uptake by hepatocytes. FEBS J. 2009;276:6158-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Haptoglobin (Hpt) binds apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), and impairs its stimulation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). LCAT plays a major role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)...
  13. Ryndel M, Behre C, Brohall G, Prahl U, Schmidt C, Bergstrom G, et al. The haptoglobin 2-2 genotype is associated with carotid atherosclerosis in 64-year old women with established diabetes. Clin Chim Acta. 2010;411:500-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Haptoglobin polymorphism generates three common human genotypes: Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2. Among subjects with diabetes, Hp2-2 is associated with an elevated risk to develop cardiovascular disease...
  14. Simpson M, Snell Bergeon J, Kinney G, Lache O, Miller Lotan R, Anbinder Y, et al. Haptoglobin genotype predicts development of coronary artery calcification in a prospective cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:99 pubmed publisher
    Coronary artery disease has been linked with genotypes for haptoglobin (Hp) which modulates extracorpuscular hemoglobin...
  15. Moreno Navarrete J, Sabater M, Ortega F, Ricart W, Fernandez Real J. Circulating zonulin, a marker of intestinal permeability, is increased in association with obesity-associated insulin resistance. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37160 pubmed publisher
    b>Zonulin is the only physiological mediator known to regulate intestinal permeability reversibly by modulating intercellular tight junctions...
  16. Fasano A. Zonulin, regulation of tight junctions, and autoimmune diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1258:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our discovery of zonulin, the only known physiologic modulator of intercellular TJs described so far, has increased our understanding of ..
  17. Maeda N. Nucleotide sequence of the haptoglobin and haptoglobin-related gene pair. The haptoglobin-related gene contains a retrovirus-like element. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:6698-709 pubmed
    Thirty-three kilobase pairs (kb) of human DNA containing the haptoglobin (Hp) and haptoglobin-related (Hpr) gene pair were cloned, and the nucleotide sequence of 21-kb DNA was determined...
  18. Yang F, Brune J, Baldwin W, Barnett D, Bowman B. Identification and characterization of human haptoglobin cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:5875-9 pubmed
    Recombinant plasmids containing human cDNA encoding haptoglobin, a plasma protein that binds free hemoglobin, have been isolated by screening an adult human liver library with a mixed oligonucleotide probe...
  19. Aucan C, Walley A, Greenwood B, Hill A. Haptoglobin genotypes are not associated with resistance to severe malaria in The Gambia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96:327-8 pubmed
    The influence of haptoglobin polymorphisms on severe malaria occurrence was assessed in 1183 individuals from The Gambia. No significant association was found between severe malaria and either haptoglobin genotypes or phenotypes...
  20. Park S, Baek S, Oh M, Choi S, Park E, Kim N, et al. Enhancement of angiogenic and vasculogenic potential of endothelial progenitor cells by haptoglobin. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3235-40 pubmed publisher
    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were transfected with the haptoglobin (Hp) gene to investigate the effect of Hp on cell function. Hp potentiated the gene expression of various pro-angiogenic factors in the EPCs...
  21. Costacou T, Ferrell R, Orchard T. Haptoglobin genotype: a determinant of cardiovascular complication risk in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2008;57:1702-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Haptoglobin is a plasma protein that binds free hemoglobin, thereby inhibiting hemoglobin-induced oxidative damage...
  22. Madsen M, Graversen J, Moestrup S. Haptoglobin and CD163: captor and receptor gating hemoglobin to macrophage lysosomes. Redox Rep. 2001;6:386-8 pubmed
    The plasma protein haptoglobin and the endocytic hemoglobin receptor HbSR/CD163 are key molecules in the process of removing hemoglobin released from ruptured erythrocytes...
  23. Asleh R, Miller Lotan R, Aviram M, Hayek T, Yulish M, Levy J, et al. Haptoglobin genotype is a regulator of reverse cholesterol transport in diabetes in vitro and in vivo. Circ Res. 2006;99:1419-25 pubmed
    Two common alleles exist at the haptoglobin (Hp) locus, and the Hp2 allele is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, specifically in diabetes mellitus (DM)...
  24. Gueye P, Glasser N, Ferard G, Lessinger J. Influence of human haptoglobin polymorphism on oxidative stress induced by free hemoglobin on red blood cells. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:542-7 pubmed
    An in vitro study was conducted to determine whether haptoglobin phenotypes differed in their protective effect against oxidative stress induced by extracellular hemoglobin on red blood cells...
  25. Pan J, Cheng T, Shih C, Chiang S, Chou S, Mao S, et al. Haptoglobin phenotypes and plasma haptoglobin levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg. 2011;53:1189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Haptoglobin (Hp) is a genetically determined acute phase protein, the synthesis of which is increased during inflammation...
  26. Bienzle U, Eggelte T, Adjei L, Dietz E, Ehrhardt S, Cramer J, et al. Limited influence of haptoglobin genotypes on severe malaria in Ghanaian children. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:668-71 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphisms in sub-Saharan Africa have been associated with an increased risk of severe malaria. However, available data are inconclusive...
  27. Spagnuolo M, Cigliano L, D Andrea L, Pedone C, Abrescia P. Assignment of the binding site for haptoglobin on apolipoprotein A-I. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1193-8 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin (Hpt) was previously found to bind the high density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and able to inhibit the ApoA-I-dependent activity of the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), which plays a ..
  28. Saccucci P, Verdecchia M, Piciullo A, Bottini N, Rizzo R, Gloria Bottini F, et al. Convulsive disorder and genetic polymorphism. Association of idiopathic generalized epilepsy with haptoglobin polymorphism. Neurogenetics. 2004;5:245-8 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin is a polymorphic protein that is well known for its hemoglobin (Hb)-binding property...
  29. Kurosky A, Barnett D, Lee T, Touchstone B, Hay R, Arnott M, et al. Covalent structure of human haptoglobin: a serine protease homolog. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:3388-92 pubmed
    The complete amino acid sequences and the disulfide arrangements of the two chains of human haptoglobin 1-1 were established. The alpha 1 and beta chains of haptoglobin contain 83 and 245 residues, respectively...
  30. Lioupis C, Barbatis C, Drougou A, Koliaraki V, Mamalaki A, Klonaris C, et al. Association of haptoglobin genotype and common cardiovascular risk factors with the amount of iron in atherosclerotic carotid plaques. Atherosclerosis. 2011;216:131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of carotid atherosclerotic plaques removed from patients treated for carotid disease and find any relation with haptoglobin genotype and other common cardiovascular risk factors...
  31. Yang F, Haile D, Berger F, Herbert D, Van Beveren E, Ghio A. Haptoglobin reduces lung injury associated with exposure to blood. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;284:L402-9 pubmed
    The biological functions of the acute- phase protein haptoglobin (Hp) may be related to its ability to bind hemoglobin (Hb) or to modulate immune response...
  32. Koda Y, Soejima M, Yamagishi S, Amano S, Okamoto T, Inagaki Y, et al. Haptoglobin genotype and diabetic microangiopathies in Japanese diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2002;45:1039-40 pubmed
  33. Hämäläinen P, Saltevo J, Kautiainen H, Mäntyselkä P, Vanhala M. Erythropoietin, ferritin, haptoglobin, hemoglobin and transferrin receptor in metabolic syndrome: a case control study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:116 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to compare serum erythropoietin, ferritin, haptoglobin, hemoglobin, and transferrin receptor (sTFR) levels between subjects with and without MetS and subjects with ..
  34. Nakagawa T, Muramoto Y, Hori M, Mihara S, Marubayashi T, Nakagawa K. A preliminary investigation of the association between haptoglobin polymorphism, serum ferritin concentration and fatty liver disease. Clin Chim Acta. 2008;398:34-8 pubmed publisher
    The genetic polymorphism of haptoglobin (HP) has been associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the HP polymorphism could affect the incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
  35. Friis H, Gomo E, Nyazema N, Ndhlovu P, Krarup H, Madsen P, et al. Iron, haptoglobin phenotype, and HIV-1 viral load: a cross-sectional study among pregnant Zimbabwean women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;33:74-81 pubmed
    Viral load is a determinant of HIV-1 progression and transmission. Iron status and the phenotype of haptoglobin, a heme-binding acute phase reactant, may be determinants of viral load...
  36. Mustafa S, Vukovich T, Prikoszovich T, Winzer C, Schneider B, Esterbauer H, et al. Haptoglobin phenotype and gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:2103-7 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin (Hp), an Hb-binding plasma protein, exists in two major allelic variants. Hp1 has higher Hb binding and antioxidant capacity compared with Hp2. Individuals with Hp1 exhibit a lower incidence of angiopathies...
  37. Milman U, Blum S, Shapira C, Aronson D, Miller Lotan R, Anbinder Y, et al. Vitamin E supplementation reduces cardiovascular events in a subgroup of middle-aged individuals with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype: a prospective double-blinded clinical trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:341-7 pubmed
    ..However, these studies did not address possible benefit to subgroups with increased oxidative stress. Haptoglobin (Hp), a major antioxidant protein, is a determinant of cardiovascular events in patients with Type 2 diabetes ..
  38. Costa Mallen P, Checkoway H, Zabeti A, Edenfield M, Swanson P, Longstreth W, et al. The functional polymorphism of the hemoglobin-binding protein haptoglobin influences susceptibility to idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:216-22 pubmed
    ..Hemoglobin is the richest source of iron in the body. The human Haptoglobin (Hp) protein is a plasma alpha-2 glycoprotein that removes free Hemoglobin from the circulation and tissues and ..
  39. Igl W, Johansson A, Wilson J, Wild S, Polasek O, Hayward C, et al. Modeling of environmental effects in genome-wide association studies identifies SLC2A2 and HP as novel loci influencing serum cholesterol levels. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000798 pubmed publisher
    ..1 x 10(-3), p(SE,adjusted) = 3.8 x 10(-4), p(NS,unadjusted) = 0.035) in the HP gene (Haptoglobin-related protein precursor). Both showed evidence of association with total cholesterol...
  40. Roguin A, Koch W, Kastrati A, Aronson D, Schomig A, Levy A. Haptoglobin genotype is predictive of major adverse cardiac events in the 1-year period after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2628-31 pubmed
    The goal of this study was to determine whether the haptoglobin (Hp) genotype was predictive of restenosis and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) in individuals with diabetes...
  41. Delanghe J, Langlois M, De Buyzere M. Haptoglobin polymorphism: a key factor in the proatherogenic role of B cells?. Atherosclerosis. 2011;217:80-2 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Haptoglobin is a polymorphic glycoprotein that binds to CD22 on B lymphocytes...
  42. Sammour R, Nakhoul F, Levy A, Miller Lotan R, Nakhoul N, Awad H, et al. Haptoglobin phenotype in women with preeclampsia. Endocrine. 2010;38:303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-oxidative protein Haptoglobin has three phenotypes: 1-1, 1-2, and 2-2. Haptoglobin 1-1 is a more potent antioxidant...
  43. Alayash A. Haptoglobin: old protein with new functions. Clin Chim Acta. 2011;412:493-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Chief amongst them is haptoglobin (Hp) which chaperones Hb subunits to the macrophages for safe degradation...
  44. Levy A, Larson M, Corey D, Lotan R, Vita J, Benjamin E. Haptoglobin phenotype and prevalent coronary heart disease in the Framingham offspring cohort. Atherosclerosis. 2004;172:361-5 pubmed
    The haptoglobin (Hp) locus is polymorphic with two major alleles denoted 1 and 2...
  45. Tseng C, Huang H, Yang Y, Mao S. Purification of human haptoglobin 1-1, 2-1, and 2-2 using monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography. Protein Expr Purif. 2004;33:265-73 pubmed
    Similar to blood type, human plasma haptoglobin (Hp) is classified as 3 phenotypes: Hp 1-1, 2-1, or 2-2...
  46. Wicher K, Fries E. Prohaptoglobin is proteolytically cleaved in the endoplasmic reticulum by the complement C1r-like protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14390-5 pubmed
    ..b>Haptoglobin (Hp) is unusual in that it is cleaved in the endoplasmic reticulum before it enters the Golgi...
  47. Levy A, Purushothaman K, Levy N, Purushothaman M, Strauss M, Asleh R, et al. Downregulation of the hemoglobin scavenger receptor in individuals with diabetes and the Hp 2-2 genotype: implications for the response to intraplaque hemorrhage and plaque vulnerability. Circ Res. 2007;101:106-10 pubmed
    In individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM), the haptoglobin (Hp) genotype is a major determinant of susceptibility to myocardial infarction...
  48. Suleiman M, Kapeliovich M, Roguin A, Aronson D, Meisel S, Shochat M, et al. Haptoglobin type and 30-day mortality in diabetic individuals presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Diabetes Care. 2003;26:2699-700 pubmed
  49. Costacou T, Ferrell R, Ellis D, Orchard T. Haptoglobin genotype and renal function decline in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2009;58:2904-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Haptoglobin (Hp) binds free Hb, inhibiting Hb-induced oxidative damage...
  50. Cox S, Doherty C, Atkinson S, Nweneka C, Fulford A, Ghattas H, et al. Haplotype association between haptoglobin (Hp2) and Hp promoter SNP (A-61C) may explain previous controversy of haptoglobin and malaria protection. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e362 pubmed
    ..We report for the first time that the major haplotype for the A-61C mutant allele in the promoter of haptoglobin (Hp)-an acute phase protein that clears haemoglobin released from haemolysis of red cells-is associated with ..
  51. Kasvosve I, Speeckaert M, Speeckaert R, Masukume G, Delanghe J. Haptoglobin polymorphism and infection. Adv Clin Chem. 2010;50:23-46 pubmed
    The haptoglobin gene is highly polymorphic in humans with strong evidence of functionally distinct biochemical phenotypes...
  52. Froguel P, Ndiaye N, Bonnefond A, Bouatia Naji N, Dechaume A, Siest G, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies rs2000999 as a strong genetic determinant of circulating haptoglobin levels. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32327 pubmed publisher
    b>Haptoglobin is an acute phase inflammatory marker. Its main function is to bind hemoglobin released from erythrocytes to aid its elimination, and thereby haptoglobin prevents the generation of reactive oxygen species in the blood...
  53. Atkinson S, Mwangi T, Uyoga S, Ogada E, Macharia A, Marsh K, et al. The haptoglobin 2-2 genotype is associated with a reduced incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children on the coast of Kenya. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:802-9 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin (Hp) genotype determines the efficiency of hemoglobin clearance after malaria-induced hemolysis and alters antioxidant and immune functions...
  54. Atkinson S, Rockett K, Sirugo G, Bejon P, Fulford A, O Connell M, et al. Seasonal childhood anaemia in West Africa is associated with the haptoglobin 2-2 genotype. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e172 pubmed
    Anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for children in Africa. The plasma protein haptoglobin (Hp) binds avidly to free haemoglobin released following malaria-induced haemolysis...
  55. Fowkes F, Imrie H, Migot Nabias F, Michon P, Justice A, Deloron P, et al. Association of haptoglobin levels with age, parasite density, and haptoglobin genotype in a malaria-endemic area of Gabon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:26-30 pubmed
    b>Haptoglobin (Hp) levels were investigated in relation to host genotype in a malaria-endemic area in Gabon...
  56. Carlsson M, Cederfur C, Schaar V, Balog C, Lepur A, Touret F, et al. Galectin-1-binding glycoforms of haptoglobin with altered intracellular trafficking, and increase in metastatic breast cancer patients. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26560 pubmed publisher
    ..The major bound glycoproteins were ?-2-macroglobulin, IgM and haptoglobin. Both the IgM and haptoglobin concentrations were similar in cancer compared to control sera, but the ..
  57. Bamm V, Tsemakhovich V, Shaklai M, Shaklai N. Haptoglobin phenotypes differ in their ability to inhibit heme transfer from hemoglobin to LDL. Biochemistry. 2004;43:3899-906 pubmed
    ..Excellular hemoglobin (Hb) is a trigger of LDL oxidation. By virtue of its ability to bind hemoglobin, haptoglobin (Hp) serves as an antioxidant...
  58. Salvatore A, Cigliano L, Carlucci A, Bucci E, Abrescia P. Haptoglobin binds apolipoprotein E and influences cholesterol esterification in the cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurochem. 2009;110:255-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Haptoglobin (Hpt) binds the apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I domain, which is involved in stimulating the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) for cholesterol esterification...
  59. Nakhoul F, Zoabi R, Kanter Y, Zoabi M, Skorecki K, Hochberg I, et al. Haptoglobin phenotype and diabetic nephropathy. Diabetologia. 2001;44:602-4 pubmed
    To determine if the haptoglobin 2 allele is associated with an increased risk for the development of diabetic nephropathy...
  60. Suleiman M, Aronson D, Asleh R, Kapeliovich M, Roguin A, Meisel S, et al. Haptoglobin polymorphism predicts 30-day mortality and heart failure in patients with diabetes and acute myocardial infarction. Diabetes. 2005;54:2802-6 pubmed
    ..Patients with diabetes homozygous for the haptoglobin (Hp) 1 allele (Hp 1-1) develop fewer vascular complications...
  61. De Bacquer D, De Backer G, Langlois M, Delanghe J, Kesteloot H, Kornitzer M. Haptoglobin polymorphism as a risk factor for coronary heart disease mortality. Atherosclerosis. 2001;157:161-6 pubmed
    the aim of our study was to evaluate the independent role of the haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality...
  62. Cahill L, El Sohemy A. Haptoglobin genotype modifies the association between dietary vitamin C and serum ascorbic acid deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1494-500 pubmed publisher
    b>Haptoglobin (which is encoded by the Hp gene) is a hemoglobin-binding protein that has antioxidant properties and a common polymorphism that consists of 2 structurally different alleles: Hp1 and Hp2...
  63. Moreno P, Purushothaman K, Purushothaman M, Muntner P, Levy N, Fuster V, et al. Haptoglobin genotype is a major determinant of the amount of iron in the human atherosclerotic plaque. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:1049-51 pubmed publisher
    We sought to test the hypothesis that haptoglobin (Hp) genotype is a determinant of the amount of iron in the atherosclerotic plaque...
  64. Narisada M, Kawamoto S, Kuwamoto K, Moriwaki K, Nakagawa T, Matsumoto H, et al. Identification of an inducible factor secreted by pancreatic cancer cell lines that stimulates the production of fucosylated haptoglobin in hepatoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:792-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, fucosylated haptoglobin was identified as a possible tumor marker for pancreatic cancer...
  65. Bai S, Liu S, Guo X, Qin Z, Wang B, Li X, et al. Proteome analysis of haptoglobin in cerebrospinal fluid of neuromyelitis optica. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:1619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification made by mass spectrometry revealed that the most significant protein was haptoglobin, which was increased in the NMO gels...
  66. Koda Y, Soejima M, Yoshioka N, Kimura H. The haptoglobin-gene deletion responsible for anhaptoglobinemia. Am J Hum Genet. 1998;62:245-52 pubmed
    We have found an allelic deletion of the haptoglobin (Hp) gene from an individual with anhaptoglobinemia...