HAMP

Summary

Gene Symbol: HAMP
Description: hepcidin antimicrobial peptide
Alias: HEPC, HFE2B, LEAP1, PLTR, hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 1
Species: human
Products:     HAMP

Top Publications

  1. Stoian I, Manolescu B, Atanasiu V, Lupescu O, Busu C. IL-6 - STAT-3 - hepcidin: linking inflammation to the iron metabolism. Rom J Intern Med. 2007;45:305-9 pubmed
    Recently discovered peptide hormone hepcidin is the key regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Iron metabolism is regulated in response to variations in hepcidin plasma levels...
  2. Kono S, Yoshida K, Tomosugi N, Terada T, Hamaya Y, Kanaoka S, et al. Biological effects of mutant ceruloplasmin on hepcidin-mediated internalization of ferroportin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:968-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Ferroportin is posttranslationally regulated through internalization triggered by hepcidin binding...
  3. Valenti L, Dongiovanni P, Motta B, Swinkels D, Bonara P, Rametta R, et al. Serum hepcidin and macrophage iron correlate with MCP-1 release and vascular damage in patients with metabolic syndrome alterations. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:683-90 pubmed publisher
    Increased body iron stores and hepcidin have been hypothesized to promote atherosclerosis by inducing macrophage iron accumulation and release of cytokines, but direct demonstration in human cells is lacking...
  4. Ohtake T, Saito H, Hosoki Y, Inoue M, Miyoshi S, Suzuki Y, et al. Hepcidin is down-regulated in alcohol loading. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:S2-8 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanism of hepatic iron uptake in ALD is still obscure. Recently, a novel iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin was found that suppresses the absorption of iron from the small intestine and the release of iron from ..
  5. Valore E, Ganz T. Posttranslational processing of hepcidin in human hepatocytes is mediated by the prohormone convertase furin. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2008;40:132-8 pubmed
    b>Hepcidin is encoded as an 84 amino acid prepropeptide containing a typical N-terminal 24 amino acid endoplasmic reticulum targeting signal sequence, and a 35 amino acid proregion (pro) with a consensus furin cleavage site immediately ..
  6. de Mast Q, Nadjm B, Reyburn H, Kemna E, Amos B, Laarakkers C, et al. Assessment of urinary concentrations of hepcidin provides novel insight into disturbances in iron homeostasis during malarial infection. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..explanation for observed alterations in iron distribution, we studied the course of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin in anemic Tanzanian children with febrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria...
  7. Robson Ansley P, Walshe I, Ward D. The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on plasma interleukin-6, hepcidin and iron concentrations following prolonged exercise. Cytokine. 2011;53:196-200 pubmed publisher
    The aim of our study was twofold, firstly to examine the relationship between plasma concentrations of IL-6, hepcidin and iron following prolonged exercise and secondly, to assess the effect of carbohydrate ingestion on circulating ..
  8. Valenti L, Girelli D, Valenti G, Castagna A, Como G, Campostrini N, et al. HFE mutations modulate the effect of iron on serum hepcidin-25 in chronic hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4:1331-7 pubmed publisher
    Increased serum hepcidin has been reported in patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, and hypothesized to contribute to the alterations of iron metabolism of end-stage renal disease...
  9. Burté F, Brown B, Orimadegun A, Ajetunmobi W, Afolabi N, Akinkunmi F, et al. Circulatory hepcidin is associated with the anti-inflammatory response but not with iron or anemic status in childhood malaria. Blood. 2013;121:3016-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased levels of hepcidin have been associated with UM, but its level and role in severe malarial disease remains to be investigated...

More Information

Publications80

  1. Kemna E, Kartikasari A, van Tits L, Pickkers P, Tjalsma H, Swinkels D. Regulation of hepcidin: insights from biochemical analyses on human serum samples. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2008;40:339-46 pubmed
    Knowledge of hepcidin regulation is foremost gained by in vitro studies. We aimed to translate this knowledge into the human in vivo situation...
  2. Kanda J, Mizumoto C, Kawabata H, Tsuchida H, Tomosugi N, Matsuo K, et al. Serum hepcidin level and erythropoietic activity after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Haematologica. 2008;93:1550-4 pubmed publisher
    The relationship between serum hepcidin, a key regulator of body iron homeostasis, and erythropoiesis was investigated before and after stem cell transplantation in 31 patients with hematopoietic malignancies...
  3. Merryweather Clarke A, Cadet E, Bomford A, Capron D, Viprakasit V, Miller A, et al. Digenic inheritance of mutations in HAMP and HFE results in different types of haemochromatosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:2241-7 pubmed
    ..of C282Y heterozygotes and homozygotes may be modified by heterozygosity for mutations which disrupt the function of hepcidin in iron homeostasis, with the severity of iron overload corresponding to the severity of the HAMP mutation.
  4. Malyszko J, Malyszko J, Pawlak K, Mysliwiec M. Hepcidin, an acute-phase protein and a marker of inflammation in kidney transplant recipients with and without coronary artery disease. Transplant Proc. 2006;38:2895-8 pubmed
    ..Iron metabolism is disturbed in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Hepcidin, the liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide, LEAP-1, is an acute-phase reactant produced in the liver that ..
  5. Miura K, Taura K, Kodama Y, Schnabl B, Brenner D. Hepatitis C virus-induced oxidative stress suppresses hepcidin expression through increased histone deacetylase activity. Hepatology. 2008;48:1420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) regulates iron metabolism is poorly understood. Hepcidin plays a pivotal role as a negative regulator of iron absorption...
  6. Nemeth E, Valore E, Territo M, Schiller G, Lichtenstein A, Ganz T. Hepcidin, a putative mediator of anemia of inflammation, is a type II acute-phase protein. Blood. 2003;101:2461-3 pubmed
    b>Hepcidin is a liver-made peptide proposed to be a central regulator of intestinal iron absorption and iron recycling by macrophages...
  7. Verga Falzacappa M, Casanovas G, Hentze M, Muckenthaler M. A bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-responsive element in the hepcidin promoter controls HFE2-mediated hepatic hepcidin expression and its response to IL-6 in cultured cells. J Mol Med (Berl). 2008;86:531-40 pubmed publisher
    The precise regulation of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is essential to maintain body iron homeostasis: Hepcidin deficiency induces iron overload, and hepcidin excess results in anaemia...
  8. Andreani M, Radio F, Testi M, De Bernardo C, Troiano M, Majore S, et al. Association of hepcidin promoter c.-582 A>G variant and iron overload in thalassemia major. Haematologica. 2009;94:1293-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin is a 25-amino acid peptide, derived from cleavage of an 84 amino acid pro-peptide produced predominantly by hepatocytes...
  9. del Giudice E, Santoro N, Amato A, Brienza C, Calabro P, Wiegerinck E, et al. Hepcidin in obese children as a potential mediator of the association between obesity and iron deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:5102-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Several studies found higher rates of iron deficiency in obese than in normal-weight children. Hepcidin represents the main inhibitor of intestinal iron absorption, and its expression is increased in adipose tissue of ..
  10. Masaisa F, Breman C, Gahutu J, Mukiibi J, Delanghe J, Philippe J. Ferroportin (SLC40A1) Q248H mutation is associated with lower circulating serum hepcidin levels in Rwandese HIV-positive women. Ann Hematol. 2012;91:911-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This mutation has been associated with resistance to hepcidin and therefore we hypothesized that iron-related parameters and the prevalence of opportunistic infections in HIV ..
  11. Wrighting D, Andrews N. Interleukin-6 induces hepcidin expression through STAT3. Blood. 2006;108:3204-9 pubmed
    Iron homeostasis is maintained through meticulous regulation of circulating hepcidin levels. Hepcidin levels that are inappropriately low or high result in iron overload or iron deficiency, respectively...
  12. Strnad P, Schwarz P, Rasenack M, Kucukoglu O, Habib R, Heuberger D, et al. Hepcidin is an antibacterial, stress-inducible peptide of the biliary system. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16454 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin (gene name HAMP), an IL-6-inducible acute phase peptide with antimicrobial properties, is the key negative regulator of iron metabolism...
  13. Qiao B, Sugianto P, Fung E, del Castillo Rueda A, Morán Jiménez M, Ganz T, et al. Hepcidin-induced endocytosis of ferroportin is dependent on ferroportin ubiquitination. Cell Metab. 2012;15:918-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The hormone hepcidin controls cellular iron export and plasma iron concentrations by binding to ferroportin and causing its ..
  14. Zhang X, Rovin B. Hepcidin expression by human monocytes in response to adhesion and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:1262-7 pubmed publisher
    A previous urine proteomic analysis from our laboratory suggested that hepcidin may be a biomarker for lupus nephritis flare...
  15. Ganz T. Iron in innate immunity: starve the invaders. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009;21:63-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Specialized inflammation-regulated proteins chelate iron, trap siderophores, and transport iron or modulate its transport to alter its tissue distribution during infections. ..
  16. Nemeth E, Rivera S, Gabayan V, Keller C, Taudorf S, Pedersen B, et al. IL-6 mediates hypoferremia of inflammation by inducing the synthesis of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:1271-6 pubmed
    ..In mouse models, the development of hypoferremia during inflammation requires hepcidin, an iron regulatory peptide hormone produced in the liver, but the inflammatory signals that regulate hepcidin ..
  17. Zaritsky J, Young B, Gales B, Wang H, Rastogi A, Westerman M, et al. Reduction of serum hepcidin by hemodialysis in pediatric and adult patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:1010-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin, the principal regulator of iron homeostasis, may play a critical role in the response of patients with anemia to iron and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy; however, the contribution of hepcidin to iron maldistribution ..
  18. Pigeon C, Ilyin G, Courselaud B, Leroyer P, Turlin B, Brissot P, et al. A new mouse liver-specific gene, encoding a protein homologous to human antimicrobial peptide hepcidin, is overexpressed during iron overload. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7811-9 pubmed
    ..an 83-amino acid protein presenting a strong homology in its C-terminal region to the human antimicrobial peptide hepcidin. In addition, we cloned the corresponding rat and human orthologue cDNAs...
  19. Ho J, Lucy M, Krokhin O, HayGlass K, Pascoe E, Darroch G, et al. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of urine in acute kidney injury following cardiopulmonary bypass: a nested case-control study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;53:584-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2.78-kDa protein was identified as the active 25-amino acid form of hepcidin (hepcidin-25), a key regulator of iron homeostasis...
  20. Park C, Valore E, Waring A, Ganz T. Hepcidin, a urinary antimicrobial peptide synthesized in the liver. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7806-10 pubmed
    ..we characterized a cysteine-rich peptide with three forms differing by amino-terminal truncation, and we named it hepcidin (Hepc) because of its origin in the liver and its antimicrobial properties...
  21. Gehrke S, Kulaksiz H, Herrmann T, Riedel H, Bents K, Veltkamp C, et al. Expression of hepcidin in hereditary hemochromatosis: evidence for a regulation in response to the serum transferrin saturation and to non-transferrin-bound iron. Blood. 2003;102:371-6 pubmed
    Experimental data suggest the antimicrobial peptide hepcidin as a central regulator in iron homeostasis...
  22. Roy C, Andrews N. Anemia of inflammation: the hepcidin link. Curr Opin Hematol. 2005;12:107-11 pubmed
    ..Recently hepcidin antimicrobial peptide has emerged as the hormone that links the type II acute phase response to iron handling and ..
  23. Aguilar Martinez P, Giansily Blaizot M, Bismuth M, Cunat S, Igual H, Schved J. HAMP promoter mutation nc.-153C>T in non p.C282Y homozygous patients with iron overload. Haematologica. 2010;95:687-8 pubmed publisher
  24. Harrison Findik D, Schafer D, Klein E, Timchenko N, Kulaksiz H, Clemens D, et al. Alcohol metabolism-mediated oxidative stress down-regulates hepcidin transcription and leads to increased duodenal iron transporter expression. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22974-82 pubmed
    ..b>Hepcidin, a circulatory peptide synthesized in the liver, is a key mediator of iron metabolism...
  25. Koca S, Isik A, Ustundag B, Metin K, Aksoy K. Serum pro-hepcidin levels in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Inflammation. 2008;31:146-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin is a principal iron regulatory hormone and its expression is stimulated by cytokines...
  26. Tanno T, Porayette P, Sripichai O, Noh S, Byrnes C, Bhupatiraju A, et al. Identification of TWSG1 as a second novel erythroid regulator of hepcidin expression in murine and human cells. Blood. 2009;114:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..molecules are thought to cause inappropriate suppression of a small peptide produced by hepatocytes named hepcidin. Previously, it was reported that the erythrokine GDF15 is expressed at very high levels in thalassemia and ..
  27. Auersperger I, Knap B, Jerin A, Blagus R, Lainscak M, Skitek M, et al. The effects of 8 weeks of endurance running on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in female runners. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012;22:55-63 pubmed
    ..The authors investigated the effects of long-term endurance exercise on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters, and iron status in moderately trained female long-distance runners...
  28. Chung B, Matak P, McKie A, Sharp P. Leptin increases the expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin in HuH7 human hepatoma cells. J Nutr. 2007;137:2366-70 pubmed
    ..of chronic disease via its stimulatory actions on the production and release of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. To test this hypothesis, we exposed HuH7 human hepatoma cells to leptin and measured hepcidin mRNA expression by ..
  29. Prentice A, Doherty C, Abrams S, Cox S, Atkinson S, Verhoef H, et al. Hepcidin is the major predictor of erythrocyte iron incorporation in anemic African children. Blood. 2012;119:1922-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated how the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin and other inflammatory/iron-related indices, all measured on the day of isotope administration, correlated with ..
  30. Tanno T, Bhanu N, Oneal P, Goh S, Staker P, Lee Y, et al. High levels of GDF15 in thalassemia suppress expression of the iron regulatory protein hepcidin. Nat Med. 2007;13:1096-101 pubmed
    ..in the absence of blood transfusions may result from inappropriate suppression of the iron-regulating peptide hepcidin by an erythropoietic mechanism...
  31. Ross S, Tran L, Winters A, Lee K, Plewa C, Foltz I, et al. Molecular mechanism of hepcidin-mediated ferroportin internalization requires ferroportin lysines, not tyrosines or JAK-STAT. Cell Metab. 2012;15:905-17 pubmed publisher
    Ferroportin is the primary means of cellular iron efflux and a key component of iron metabolism. Hepcidin regulates Fpn activity by inducing its internalization and degradation...
  32. Jordan J, Poppe L, Haniu M, Arvedson T, Syed R, Li V, et al. Hepcidin revisited, disulfide connectivity, dynamics, and structure. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:24155-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin is a tightly folded 25-residue peptide hormone containing four disulfide bonds, which has been shown to act as the principal regulator of iron homeostasis in vertebrates...
  33. Armitage A, Eddowes L, Gileadi U, Cole S, Spottiswoode N, Selvakumar T, et al. Hepcidin regulation by innate immune and infectious stimuli. Blood. 2011;118:4129-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin controls the levels and distribution of iron, an element whose availability can influence the outcome of infections...
  34. Weinstein D, Roy C, Fleming M, Loda M, Wolfsdorf J, Andrews N. Inappropriate expression of hepcidin is associated with iron refractory anemia: implications for the anemia of chronic disease. Blood. 2002;100:3776-81 pubmed
    ..role of the adenomas in the pathogenesis of the anemia and found that they produce inappropriately high levels of hepcidin mRNA. Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that has been implicated in controlling the release of iron from cells...
  35. Piperno A, Galimberti S, Mariani R, Pelucchi S, Ravasi G, Lombardi C, et al. Modulation of hepcidin production during hypoxia-induced erythropoiesis in humans in vivo: data from the HIGHCARE project. Blood. 2011;117:2953-9 pubmed publisher
    ..in hematocrit, serum iron indices, erythropoietin, markers of erythropoietic activity, interleukin-6, and serum hepcidin. Hepcidin decreased within 40 hours after acute hypoxia exposure (P < ...
  36. Ward D, Roberts K, Brookes M, Joy H, Martin A, Ismail T, et al. Increased hepcidin expression in colorectal carcinogenesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1339-45 pubmed
    To investigate whether the iron stores regulator hepcidin is implicated in colon cancer-associated anaemia and whether it might have a role in colorectal carcinogenesis...
  37. Schranz M, Bakry R, Creus M, Bonn G, Vogel W, Zoller H. Activation and inactivation of the iron hormone hepcidin: Biochemical characterization of prohepcidin cleavage and sequential degradation to N-terminally truncated hepcidin isoforms. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2009;43:169-79 pubmed publisher
    The hormone hepcidin is produced mainly in the liver in response to iron loading and inflammation and secreted into the circulation as a 25-amino acid peptide...
  38. Luque Ramírez M, Alvarez Blasco F, Alpañés M, Escobar Morreale H. Role of decreased circulating hepcidin concentrations in the iron excess of women with the polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:846-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin inhibits the intestinal absorption of iron and its deficiency causes juvenile hemochromatosis...
  39. Ho J, Reslerova M, Gali B, Gao A, Bestland J, Rush D, et al. Urinary hepcidin-25 and risk of acute kidney injury following cardiopulmonary bypass. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6:2340-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Urinary hepcidin-25 has been shown to be elevated in patients who do not develop AKI after CPB using semiquantitative mass ..
  40. Roetto A, Papanikolaou G, Politou M, Alberti F, Girelli D, Christakis J, et al. Mutant antimicrobial peptide hepcidin is associated with severe juvenile hemochromatosis. Nat Genet. 2003;33:21-2 pubmed
    Animal models indicate that the antimicrobial peptide hepcidin (HAMP; OMIM 606464) is probably a key regulator of iron absorption in mammals...
  41. Suzuki H, Toba K, Kato K, Ozawa T, Tomosugi N, Higuchi M, et al. Serum hepcidin-20 is elevated during the acute phase of myocardial infarction. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2009;218:93-8 pubmed
    b>Hepcidin, a key iron-regulator secreted from the liver, consists of 25 amino acids (hepcidin-25), blocks iron release from macrophages via internalization and degradation of cellular iron exporter ferroportin, and restrains the use of ..
  42. Nemeth E, Ganz T. The role of hepcidin in iron metabolism. Acta Haematol. 2009;122:78-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin is the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Dysregulation of hepcidin production results in a variety of iron disorders...
  43. Bachman E, Feng R, Travison T, Li M, Olbina G, Ostland V, et al. Testosterone suppresses hepcidin in men: a potential mechanism for testosterone-induced erythrocytosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4743-7 pubmed publisher
    ..that testosterone-induced increase in hematocrit is associated with suppression of the iron regulatory peptide hepcidin. Healthy younger men (ages 19-35 yr; n = 53) and older men (ages 59-75 yr; n = 56) were studied...
  44. Krause A, Neitz S, Mägert H, Schulz A, Forssmann W, Schulz Knappe P, et al. LEAP-1, a novel highly disulfide-bonded human peptide, exhibits antimicrobial activity. FEBS Lett. 2000;480:147-50 pubmed
    ..The discovery of LEAP-1 extends the known families of mammalian peptides with antimicrobial activity by its novel disulfide motif and distinct expression pattern. ..
  45. Vokurka M, Lacinova Z, Kremen J, Kopecky P, Blaha J, Pelinkova K, et al. Hepcidin expression in adipose tissue increases during cardiac surgery. Physiol Res. 2010;59:393-400 pubmed
    b>Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of anemia of chronic disease...
  46. Drakesmith H, Schimanski L, Ormerod E, Merryweather Clarke A, Viprakasit V, Edwards J, et al. Resistance to hepcidin is conferred by hemochromatosis-associated mutations of ferroportin. Blood. 2005;106:1092-7 pubmed
    ..The peptide hormone hepcidin inhibits FPN as part of a homeostatic negative feedback loop...
  47. Ganz T. Hepcidin and iron regulation, 10 years later. Blood. 2011;117:4425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin, first described 10 years ago, and its receptor and iron channel ferroportin control the dietary absorption, ..
  48. Andriopoulos B, Corradini E, Xia Y, Faasse S, Chen S, Grgurevic L, et al. BMP6 is a key endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression and iron metabolism. Nat Genet. 2009;41:482-7 pubmed publisher
    ..is an iron-overload disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the major iron regulatory hormone hepcidin (HAMP) and hemojuvelin (HFE2)...
  49. Villarroel P, Le Blanc S, Arredondo M. Interleukin-6 and lipopolysaccharide modulate hepcidin mRNA expression by HepG2 cells. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;150:496-501 pubmed publisher
    Iron homeostasis is controlled by hepcidin (Hpc) as well as other ways. Hpc expression is regulated by iron (Fe) storage and by inflammation, but the joint effect of both stimuli remains unclear...
  50. Kijima H, Sawada T, Tomosugi N, Kubota K. Expression of hepcidin mRNA is uniformly suppressed in hepatocellular carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:167 pubmed publisher
    The present study evaluated the expression of hepcidin mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Samples of cancerous and non-cancerous liver tissue were taken from 40 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy...
  51. Preza G, Pinon R, Ganz T, Nemeth E. Cellular catabolism of the iron-regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58934 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin, a 25-amino acid peptide hormone, is the principal regulator of plasma iron concentrations...
  52. Ganz T. Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism and mediator of anemia of inflammation. Blood. 2003;102:783-8 pubmed
    Human hepcidin, a 25-amino acid peptide made by hepatocytes, may be a new mediator of innate immunity and the long-sought iron-regulatory hormone. The synthesis of hepcidin is greatly stimulated by inflammation or by iron overload...
  53. Jacolot S, Le Gac G, Scotet V, Quere I, Mura C, Ferec C. HAMP as a modifier gene that increases the phenotypic expression of the HFE pC282Y homozygous genotype. Blood. 2004;103:2835-40 pubmed
    ..The non-HFE hereditary hemochromatosis forms include a juvenile onset form associated with mutations in HAMP. From a cohort of 392 C282Y homozygous patients, we found 5 carriers of an additional HAMP mutation at the ..
  54. Bartolomei G, Cevik R, Marcello A. Modulation of hepatitis C virus replication by iron and hepcidin in Huh7 hepatocytes. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2072-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of the key Fe modulator hepcidin increased intracellular ferritin and inhibited HCV replication...
  55. Girelli D, Pasino M, Goodnough J, Nemeth E, Guido M, Castagna A, et al. Reduced serum hepcidin levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2009;51:845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The hepatic hormone hepcidin is the major regulator of iron metabolism and inhibits iron absorption and recycling from erythrophagocytosis...
  56. Huang Y, Chuang J, Yang Y, Huang C, Wu C, Chen C. Cholestasis downregulate hepcidin expression through inhibiting IL-6-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling. Lab Invest. 2009;89:1128-39 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin is downregulated during progressive cholestasis in biliary atresia, but the mechanism is unknown...
  57. Gao J, Chen J, Kramer M, Tsukamoto H, Zhang A, Enns C. Interaction of the hereditary hemochromatosis protein HFE with transferrin receptor 2 is required for transferrin-induced hepcidin expression. Cell Metab. 2009;9:217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..They have lower levels of hepcidin than unaffected individuals...
  58. Oliveras Vergés A, Espel Masferrer E. Elevated basal hepcidin levels in the liver may inhibit the development of malaria infection: another piece towards solving the malaria puzzle?. Med Hypotheses. 2008;70:630-4 pubmed
    ..IL-6 controls systemic iron homeostasis through hepcidin, which is produced mainly by hepatocytes...
  59. Raha A, VAISHNAV R, FRIEDLAND R, Bomford A, Raha Chowdhury R. The systemic iron-regulatory proteins hepcidin and ferroportin are reduced in the brain in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2013;1:55 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein levels of hepcidin, the iron-homeostatic peptide, and ferroportin, the iron exporter, were significantly reduced in hippocampal ..
  60. Papanikolaou G, Tzilianos M, Christakis J, Bogdanos D, Tsimirika K, MacFarlane J, et al. Hepcidin in iron overload disorders. Blood. 2005;105:4103-5 pubmed
    b>Hepcidin is the principal regulator of iron absorption in humans. The peptide inhibits cellular iron efflux by binding to the iron export channel ferroportin and inducing its internalization and degradation...
  61. Verga Falzacappa M, Vujic Spasic M, Kessler R, Stolte J, Hentze M, Muckenthaler M. STAT3 mediates hepatic hepcidin expression and its inflammatory stimulation. Blood. 2007;109:353-8 pubmed
    b>Hepcidin is a key iron-regulatory hormone produced by the liver...
  62. Barisani D, Pelucchi S, Mariani R, Galimberti S, Trombini P, Fumagalli D, et al. Hepcidin and iron-related gene expression in subjects with Dysmetabolic Hepatic Iron Overload. J Hepatol. 2008;49:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Urinary hepcidin was measured by immunoblotting...
  63. Rice A, Mendez M, Hokanson C, Rees D, Bjorkman P. Investigation of the biophysical and cell biological properties of ferroportin, a multipass integral membrane protein iron exporter. J Mol Biol. 2009;386:717-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Ferroportin-mediated iron export is controlled by the hormone hepcidin, which binds ferroportin, causing its internalization and degradation...
  64. Lee S, Jeong S, Park Y, Hwang J, Kim J, Kim N, et al. Serum prohepcidin levels in chronic hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Korean J Hepatol. 2010;16:288-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Prohepcidin is an easily measurable precursor of hepcidin, which is a key regulator of iron homeostasis...
  65. Bekri S, Gual P, Anty R, Luciani N, Dahman M, Ramesh B, et al. Increased adipose tissue expression of hepcidin in severe obesity is independent from diabetes and NASH. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:788-96 pubmed
    b>Hepcidin is an acute-phase response peptide. We have investigated the possible involvement of hepcidin in massive obesity, a state of chronic low-grade inflammation...
  66. Mena N, Esparza A, Tapia V, Valdés P, Nunez M. Hepcidin inhibits apical iron uptake in intestinal cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G192-8 pubmed
    b>Hepcidin (Hepc) is considered a key mediator in iron trafficking. Although the mechanism of Hepc action in macrophages is fairly well established, much less is known about its action in intestinal cells, one of the main targets of Hepc...
  67. Nemeth E, Tuttle M, Powelson J, Vaughn M, Donovan A, Ward D, et al. Hepcidin regulates cellular iron efflux by binding to ferroportin and inducing its internalization. Science. 2004;306:2090-3 pubmed
    b>Hepcidin is a peptide hormone secreted by the liver in response to iron loading and inflammation. Decreased hepcidin leads to tissue iron overload, whereas hepcidin overproduction leads to hypoferremia and the anemia of inflammation...
  68. Jaeggi T, Moretti D, Kvalsvig J, Holding P, Tjalsma H, Kortman G, et al. Iron status and systemic inflammation, but not gut inflammation, strongly predict gender-specific concentrations of serum hepcidin in infants in rural Kenya. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57513 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin regulation by competing stimuli such as infection and iron deficiency has not been studied in infants and it's yet unknown whether hepcidin regulatory pathways are fully functional in infants...
  69. Nemeth E, Ganz T. Hepcidin and iron-loading anemias. Haematologica. 2006;91:727-32 pubmed
  70. Xu M, Kashanchi F, Foster A, Rotimi J, Turner W, Gordeuk V, et al. Hepcidin induces HIV-1 transcription inhibited by ferroportin. Retrovirology. 2010;7:104 pubmed publisher
    ..by the membrane protein, ferroportin, the expression of which is induced by iron and negatively modulated by hepcidin. We previously showed that iron chelation is associated with decreased HIV-1 transcription...
  71. Tussing Humphreys L, Nemeth E, Fantuzzi G, Freels S, Guzman G, Holterman A, et al. Elevated systemic hepcidin and iron depletion in obese premenopausal females. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18:1449-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Hepcidin, the body's main regulator of systemic iron homeostasis, is upregulated in response to inflammation and is thought to play a role in the manifestation of iron deficiency (ID) observed in obese populations...