Gene Symbol: GYS1
Description: glycogen synthase 1
Alias: GSY, GYS, glycogen [starch] synthase, muscle, glycogen synthase 1 (muscle)
Species: human
Products:     GYS1

Top Publications

  1. St Onge J, Joanisse D, Simoneau J. The stimulation-induced increase in skeletal muscle glycogen synthase content is impaired in carriers of the glycogen synthase XbaI gene polymorphism. Diabetes. 2001;50:195-8 pubmed
    Associations between glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) polymorphism and states of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have been reported...
  2. Douillard Guilloux G, Raben N, Takikita S, Ferry A, Vignaud A, Guillet Deniau I, et al. Restoration of muscle functionality by genetic suppression of glycogen synthesis in a murine model of Pompe disease. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:684-96 pubmed publisher
    ..GAA and glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) KO mice were inter-crossed to generate a new double-KO model...
  3. Højlund K, Birk J, Klein D, Levin K, Rose A, Hansen B, et al. Dysregulation of glycogen synthase COOH- and NH2-terminal phosphorylation by insulin in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:4547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, T2DM per se seems unrelated to defects in the glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulation of GS. ..
  4. Prats C, Helge J, Nordby P, Qvortrup K, Ploug T, Dela F, et al. Dual regulation of muscle glycogen synthase during exercise by activation and compartmentalization. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15692-700 pubmed publisher
    ..After overnight low muscle glycogen level and/or in response to exhausting exercise-induced glycogenolysis, GS is associated with spherical structures at the I-band of sarcomeres. ..
  5. Nielsen J, Derave W, Kristiansen S, Ralston E, Ploug T, Richter E. Glycogen synthase localization and activity in rat skeletal muscle is strongly dependent on glycogen content. J Physiol. 2001;531:757-69 pubmed
  6. Xu S, Wang G, Peng W, Xu Y, Zhang Y, Ge Y, et al. Corosolic acid isolated from Eriobotrya japonica leaves reduces glucose level in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, zebrafish and rats. Sci Rep. 2019;9:4388 pubmed publisher regulating some key enzymes in carbon metabolism including GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, LDHA, LDHB, GP, G6Pase, GYS1, and PFKFB3. In addition, insulin receptor signals were also involved in CA-regulated hypoglycemic action...
  7. Feng J, Chen J, Luo L, Lin S, Chen Y, Wang D. Molecular and metabolic adaption of glucose metabolism in the red and white muscle of the omnivorous GIFT tilapia Oreochromis niloticus to a glucose load. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA level of glycogen synthase 1 (gys1) and glycogen content increased at 2 and 6 h, respectively after the GTT in the red muscle, suggesting that ..
  8. Gyawali R, Ibrahim S. Addition of pectin and whey protein concentrate minimises the generation of acid whey in Greek-style yogurt. J Dairy Res. 2018;85:238-242 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of pectin and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the generation of acid whey during Greek-style yogurt (GSY) processing...
  9. Paredes Valencia A, Doyen A, Benoit S, Margni M, Pouliot Y. Effect of Ultrafiltration of Milk Prior to Fermentation on Mass Balance and Process Efficiency in Greek-Style Yogurt Manufacture. Foods. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    Ultrafiltration (UF) can be used to concentrate yogurt to produce Greek-style yogurt (GSY) (UF-YOG), but this generates acid whey permeate, which is an environmental issue...

More Information


  1. Kaczor P, Rakus D, Mozrzymas J. Neuron-astrocyte interaction enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes. Front Cell Neurosci. 2015;9:120 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, treatment of ANCC with inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase (Gys) (BAYU6751) or with selective inhibitor of astrocytic Krebs cycle, fluoroacetate, resulted in a marked reduction of ..
  2. Yan M, Han J, Xu X, Liu L, Gao C, Zheng H, et al. Gsy, a novel glucansucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, mediates the formation of cell aggregates in response to oxidative stress. Sci Rep. 2016;6:38122 pubmed publisher
    ..Another study showed that Gsy, a novel glucansucrase in the GH70 family that is induced by sucrose and up-regulated following exposure to oxygen, ..
  3. Tosi I, Art T, Cassart D, Farnir F, Ceusters J, Serteyn D, et al. Altered mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in horses suffering from polysaccharide storage myopathy. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2018;50:379-390 pubmed publisher
    ..horses with a history of recurrent exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis were tested for the glycogen synthase 1 gene (GYS1) mutation: 5 were tested positive (PSSM group) and 4 were tested negative (horses suffering from rhabdomyolysis of ..
  4. Hunter R, Zeqiraj E, Morrice N, Sicheri F, Sakamoto K. Expression and purification of functional human glycogen synthase-1:glycogenin-1 complex in insect cells. Protein Expr Purif. 2015;108:23-29 pubmed publisher
    We report the successful expression and purification of functional human muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) in complex with human glycogenin-1 (GN1)...
  5. Wang M, Zhang P, Shu Y, Yuan F, Zhang Y, Zhou Y, et al. Alternative splicing at GYNNGY 5' splice sites: more noise, less regulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:13969-80 pubmed publisher
    ..look into this issue, we studied the most common form of alternative 5' splice sites-GYNNGYs (Y = C/T), where both GYs can function as splice sites...
  6. Bustamante Lopez L, Nahas C, Nahas S, Marques C, Pinto R, Cotti G, et al. Pathologic complete response implies a fewer number of lymph nodes in specimen of rectal cancer patients treated by neoadjuvant therapy and total mesorectal excision. Int J Surg. 2018;56:283-287 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemotherapy consisted of 5-FU and leucovorin IV. Total dose of pelvic radiation was 5040 Gys. All patients were staged and restaged by digital rectal examination, proctoscopy, colonoscopy, CT of abdomen and ..
  7. Boon M, Bakker L, Haks M, Quinten E, Schaart G, van Beek L, et al. Short-term high-fat diet increases macrophage markers in skeletal muscle accompanied by impaired insulin signalling in healthy male subjects. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015;128:143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..8-fold, P<0.05) and MRC1 (1.7-fold, P<0.05). This was accompanied by down-regulation of SLC2A4 and GYS1 mRNA expression, and elevated plasma glucose (+4%, P<0.001) and insulin (+55%, P<0...
  8. Dickinson P, Calkins A, Stevens J. Related neuropeptides use different balances of unitary mechanisms to modulate the cardiac neuromuscular system in the American lobster, Homarus americanus. J Neurophysiol. 2015;113:856-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the role of two related neuropeptides, GYSDRNYLRFamide (GYS) and SGRNFLRFamide (SGRN), in modulating the neurogenic lobster heartbeat, which is controlled by the cardiac ..
  9. Furukawa F, Irachi S, Koyama M, Baba O, Akimoto H, Okumura S, et al. Changes in glycogen concentration and gene expression levels of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes in muscle and liver of developing masu salmon. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2018;225:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to estimate glycogen metabolism in the fish, the genes encoding homologs of glycogen synthase (gys1 and gys2) and glycogen phosphorylase (pygma, pygmb and pygl) were cloned, and their expression patterns were ..
  10. Maile C, Hingst J, Mahalingan K, O Reilly A, Cleasby M, Mickelson J, et al. A highly prevalent equine glycogen storage disease is explained by constitutive activation of a mutant glycogen synthase. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:3388-3398 pubmed publisher
    ..1 polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM1) is associated with a missense mutation (R309H) in the glycogen synthase (GYS1) gene, enhanced glycogen synthase (GS) activity and excessive glycogen and amylopectate inclusions in muscle...
  11. Seo Y, Kingsley S, Walker G, Mondoux M, Tissenbaum H. Metabolic shift from glycogen to trehalose promotes lifespan and healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:E2791-E2800 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreasing the amount of glycogen storage by modulating the C. elegans glycogen synthase, gsy-1, a key enzyme in glycogen synthesis, can extend lifespan, prolong healthspan, and limit the detrimental ..
  12. Mir Coll J, Duran J, Slebe F, García Rocha M, Gomis R, Gasa R, et al. Genetic models rule out a major role of beta cell glycogen in the control of glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia. 2016;59:1012-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditional deletion of the Gys1 gene and overexpression of protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) was accomplished by Cre-lox recombination using ..
  13. Ding H, Chen K, Song B, Deng C, Li W, Niu L, et al. Synthesis and Smo Activity of Some Novel Benzamide Derivatives. Molecules. 2017;23: pubmed publisher
    ..benzamides compounds bearing piperidine groups were synthesized and the Gli-luc luciferase activity was screened by Gys-luc luciferase gene detection method...
  14. Meletharayil G, Metzger L, Patel H. Influence of hydrodynamic cavitation on the rheological properties and microstructure of formulated Greek-style yogurts. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:8537-8548 pubmed publisher
    ..used as sources of protein to fortify skim milk to 9% (wt/wt) protein for the manufacture of Greek-style yogurts (GSY). The GSY bases were inoculated and fermented with frozen direct vat set yogurt culture to a pH of 4.6...
  15. Laforet P. What have we learned about glycogenosis in recent years?. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2016;172:541-545 pubmed publisher
    ..Described here are the clinical and pathological features of four recently described muscle glycogenoses caused by GYS1, GYG1, RBCK1 and PGM1 gene mutations...
  16. Mahmassani Z, Son K, Pincu Y, Munroe M, Drnevich J, Chen J, et al. α7β1 Integrin regulation of gene transcription in skeletal muscle following an acute bout of eccentric exercise. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;312:C638-C650 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeted analyses verified increased transcription of Rpl13a, Nosip, Ang, Scl7a5, Gys1, Ndrg2, Hspa5, and Hsp40 as a result of integrin overexpression alone or in combination ..
  17. Hedberg Oldfors C, Oldfors A. Polyglucosan storage myopathies. Mol Aspects Med. 2015;46:85-100 pubmed publisher
    ..There is also a common equine polysaccharide storage myopathy belonging to this group of diseases involving the GYS1 gene...
  18. Mangini G, Gadaleta A, Colasuonno P, Marcotuli I, Signorile A, Simeone R, et al. Genetic dissection of the relationships between grain yield components by genome-wide association mapping in a collection of tetraploid wheats. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0190162 pubmed publisher
    ..with a 90K SNP assay to identify major and stable quantitative trait loci (QTL) for grain yield per spike (GYS), kernel number per spike (KNS) and thousand-kernel weight (TKW), and to analyse the genetic relationships between ..
  19. Bramer S, Macedo A, Klein C. Hexokinase 2 drives glycogen accumulation in equine endometrium at day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2017;15:4 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA expression of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes (HK1, HK2, GSK3B, GYS1, PEPCK, PKM, PYGM) in endometrial samples were compared among mares in anestrus, estrus, and at Day 12 of diestrus ..
  20. Druml T, Grilz Seger G, Neuditschko M, Brem G. Association between population structure and allele frequencies of the glycogen synthase 1 mutation in the Austrian Noriker draft horse. Anim Genet. 2017;48:108-112 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the allele frequency of the glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) mutation associated with polysaccharide storage myopathy type 1 in the Austrian Noriker horse...
  21. Nakano K, Takeshita S, Kawasaki N, Miyanaga W, Okamatsu Y, Dohi M, et al. AJS1669, a novel small-molecule muscle glycogen synthase activator, improves glucose metabolism and reduces body fat mass in mice. Int J Mol Med. 2017;39:841-850 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, we performed a glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) activation assay for screening GS activators and identified that the activity of AJS1669 was further potentiated ..
  22. Chanda M, Srikuea R, Cherdchutam W, Chairoungdua A, Piyachaturawat P. Modulating effects of exercise training regimen on skeletal muscle properties in female polo ponies. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:245 pubmed
    ..succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), phosphofructokinase (PFK), glycogen phosphorylase (PYG), and glycogen synthase (GYS) were also measured...
  23. Xirouchaki C, Mangiafico S, Bate K, Ruan Z, Huang A, Tedjosiswoyo B, et al. Impaired glucose metabolism and exercise capacity with muscle-specific glycogen synthase 1 (gys1) deletion in adult mice. Mol Metab. 2016;5:221-232 pubmed publisher
    Muscle glucose storage and muscle glycogen synthase (gys1) defects have been associated with insulin resistance. As there are multiple mechanisms for insulin resistance, the specific role of glucose storage defects is not clear...
  24. Das B, Sen D, Chattopadhyay K. Implications of boron doping on electrocatalytic activities of graphyne and graphdiyne families: a first principles study. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2016;18:2949-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Even though oxygen adsorption is found to be energetically favorable on all of these and all Gys and Gdy are found to distinctly favor the four electron pathways for ORR, a reaction scheme with monotonically ..
  25. Wang Y, Wang Y, Zhong T, Guo J, Li L, Zhang H, et al. Transcriptional regulation of pig GYS1 gene by glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?). Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;424:203-208 pubmed publisher
    ..GSK3? can directly regulate the glycogen synthase activity, yet little is known about the regulation of GSK3? on GYS1 gene transcription. Here, we show that overexpression of GSK3? decreased the mRNA expression level of GYS1...
  26. Glintborg D, Højlund K, Andersen N, Hansen B, Beck Nielsen H, Wojtaszewski J. Impaired insulin activation and dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase in skeletal muscle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome is reversed by pioglitazone treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3618-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of pioglitazone to enhance insulin sensitivity, in part, involves improved insulin action on GS activity and dephosphorylation at NH2-terminal sites. ..
  27. Kuznetsova L, Chistiakova O. [The regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen synthase activities by insulin superfamily peptides in myometrium of pregnant women and its impairments under different types of diabetes mellitus]. Biomed Khim. 2009;55:663-72 pubmed
    ..This fact suggests that relaxin exhibits replacement functions under conditions of attenuated insulin action. ..
  28. Wang G, Li Q, Niu T, Chen C, Xu X. Association of GYS1 and beta(3)-AR gene with postprandial hyperglycemia and serum uric acid in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chin Med J (Engl). 2002;115:1308-11 pubmed
    To determine the relationships of Met416Val and XbaI polymorphism of muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1) gene and Trg64Arg variant of the beta(3)-adrenergic-receptor (beta(3)-AR) gene with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its intermediate ..
  29. Lehto M, Stoffel M, Groop L, Espinosa R, Le Beau M, Bell G. Assignment of the gene encoding glycogen synthase (GYS) to human chromosome 19, band q13.3. Genomics. 1993;15:460-1 pubmed
  30. Cameron J, Levandovskiy V, Mackay N, Utgikar R, Ackerley C, Chiasson D, et al. Identification of a novel mutation in GYS1 (muscle-specific glycogen synthase) resulting in sudden cardiac death, that is diagnosable from skin fibroblasts. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;98:378-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A homozygous two base pair deletion was identified in exon 2 of GYS1, and the parents and sibling were confirmed as heterozygous carriers of the deletion...
  31. Wilson W, Skurat A, Probst B, de Paoli Roach A, Roach P, Rutter J. Control of mammalian glycogen synthase by PAS kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16596-601 pubmed
    ..This mode of regulation provides a mechanism for metabolic status to impinge directly on the cellular decision of whether to store or use available energy. ..
  32. Bhanot H, Reddy M, Nonami A, Weisberg E, Bonal D, Kirschmeier P, et al. Pathological glycogenesis through glycogen synthase 1 and suppression of excessive AMP kinase activity in myeloid leukemia cells. Leukemia. 2015;29:1555-1563 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting the rate-limiting glycogen synthase 1 (GYS1) not only decreased glycolytic flux but also increased activation of the glycogen-responsive AMP kinase (AMPK), ..
  33. Chen Z, Tao S, Gao Y, Zhang J, Hu Y, Mo L, et al. Genome-wide association study of sex hormones, gonadotropins and sex hormone-binding protein in Chinese men. J Med Genet. 2013;50:794-801 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, the confirmation of the genetic loci for testosterone and SHBG suggests common genetic components shared among different ethnicities. ..
  34. Stokoe D, Caudwell B, Cohen P, Cohen P. The substrate specificity and structure of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-activated protein kinase-2. Biochem J. 1993;296 ( Pt 3):843-9 pubmed
    ..The threonine residue phosphorylated by MAP kinase lies immediately C-terminal to the catalytic domain and is followed by a nuclear localization signal, Lys-Lys-(Xaa)10-Lys-Arg-Arg-Lys-Lys, near the C-terminus. ..
  35. Falantes J, Trujillo P, Piruat J, Calderón C, Márquez Malaver F, Martín Antonio B, et al. Overexpression of GYS1, MIF, and MYC is associated with adverse outcome and poor response to azacitidine in myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2015;15:236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..03). In the current study we identified a specific gene expression profile as prognostic factors for response to azacitidine and survival in MDS and AML. ..
  36. Cid E, Gomis R, Geremia R, Guinovart J, Ferrer J. Identification of two essential glutamic acid residues in glycogen synthase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:33614-21 pubmed
    ..We propose that Glu-510 may function as the nucleophile and Glu-518 as the general acid/base catalyst. ..
  37. Rylatt D, Aitken A, Bilham T, Condon G, Embi N, Cohen P. Glycogen synthase from rabbit skeletal muscle. Amino acid sequence at the sites phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase-3, and extension of the N-terminal sequence containing the site phosphorylated by phosphorylase kinase. Eur J Biochem. 1980;107:529-37 pubmed
    ..The relationship of glycogen synthase kinase-3 to glycogen synthase kinases that have been described by other laboratories is discussed. ..
  38. Voss T, Vendelbo M, Kampmann U, Hingst J, Wojtaszewski J, Svart M, et al. Acute Hypoglycemia in Healthy Humans Impairs Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake and Glycogen Synthase in Skeletal Muscle: A Randomized Clinical Study. Diabetes. 2017;66:2483-2494 pubmed publisher
  39. Baranowska Bosiacka I, Falkowska A, Gutowska I, Gassowska M, Kolasa Wołosiuk A, Tarnowski M, et al. Glycogen metabolism in brain and neurons - astrocytes metabolic cooperation can be altered by pre- and neonatal lead (Pb) exposure. Toxicology. 2017;390:146-158 pubmed publisher
    ..brain, as well as the expression of the key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in brain: glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM, an isoform active in astrocytes; and PYGB, an isoform active in neurons) and ..
  40. Motoyama K, Emoto M, Tahara H, Komatsu M, Shoji T, Inaba M, et al. Association of muscle glycogen synthase polymorphism with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Metabolism. 2003;52:895-9 pubmed
    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether Met416Val (M416V) polymorphism of glycogen synthase (GYS1) gene is associated with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes...
  41. . The Met416-->Val variant in the glycogen synthase gene: the prevalence and the association with diabetes in a large number of Japanese individuals. Study Group for the Identification of Type 2 Diabetes Genes in Japanese. Diabetes Care. 2000;23:1709-10 pubmed
  42. Zeng L, Wang Y, Baba O, Zheng P, Liu Y, Liu Y. Laforin is required for the functional activation of malin in endoplasmic reticulum stress resistance in neuronal cells. FEBS J. 2012;279:2467-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that a functional laforin-malin complex plays a critical role in disrupting Lafora bodies and relieving ER stress, implying that a causative pathogenic mechanism underlies their deficiency in Lafora disease. ..
  43. Friedrichsen M, Birk J, Richter E, Ribel Madsen R, Pehmøller C, Hansen B, et al. Akt2 influences glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle through regulation of NH?-terminal (sites 2 + 2a) phosphorylation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E631-9 pubmed publisher
  44. New L, Jiang Y, Zhao M, Liu K, Zhu W, Flood L, et al. PRAK, a novel protein kinase regulated by the p38 MAP kinase. EMBO J. 1998;17:3372-84 pubmed
    ..An in-gel kinase assay demonstrated that PRAK is a major stress-activated kinase that can phosphorylate small heat shock protein, suggesting a potential role for PRAK in mediating stress-induced HSP27 phosphorylation in vivo. ..
  45. Lohi H, Ianzano L, Zhao X, Chan E, Turnbull J, Scherer S, et al. Novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 and ubiquitination pathways in progressive myoclonus epilepsy. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2727-36 pubmed
  46. Kollberg G, Tulinius M, Gilljam T, Ostman Smith I, Forsander G, Jotorp P, et al. Cardiomyopathy and exercise intolerance in muscle glycogen storage disease 0. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1507-14 pubmed
    ..In muscle-biopsy specimens obtained from the two younger siblings, there was lack of glycogen, predominance of oxidative fibers, and mitochondrial proliferation. Glucose tolerance was normal. ..
  47. Gatica R, Bertinat R, Silva P, Kairath P, Slebe F, Pardo F, et al. Over-expression of muscle glycogen synthase in human diabetic nephropathy. Histochem Cell Biol. 2015;143:313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that glucose, but not insulin, is the main modulator of MGS activity in HK2 cells, suggesting that blood glucose control is the best approach to modulate renal glycogen-induced damage during long-term diabetes. ..
  48. Qi X, Wildey G, Howe P. Evidence that Ser87 of BimEL is phosphorylated by Akt and regulates BimEL apoptotic function. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:813-23 pubmed
    ..We propose that Ser(87) of Bim(EL) is an important regulatory site that is targeted by Akt to attenuate the pro-apoptotic function of Bim(EL), thereby promoting cell survival. ..
  49. Browner M, Nakano K, Bang A, Fletterick R. Human muscle glycogen synthase cDNA sequence: a negatively charged protein with an asymmetric charge distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:1443-7 pubmed
    ..Overall the unphosphorylated protein has a charge of -13, while the fully phosphorylated inactive protein has a net charge of -31. The importance of the asymmetrical charge distribution is discussed. ..
  50. Löfman M, Yki Jarvinen H, Parkkonen M, Lindstrom J, Koranyi L, Schalin Jantti C, et al. Increased concentrations of glycogen synthase protein in skeletal muscle of patients with NIDDM. Am J Physiol. 1995;269:E27-32 pubmed
    ..The increase in the glycogen synthase protein may serve to compensate for a functional defect in the activation of the enzyme by insulin...
  51. Harris G, Schuler L, Shapiro S. Characterization of human endometrial glycogen synthase. Fertil Steril. 1994;62:514-20 pubmed
    ..The mechanism for P induction of endometrial glycogen does not require change in the concentration of glycogen synthase transcripts. ..
  52. Pederson B, Chen H, Schroeder J, Shou W, DePaoli Roach A, Roach P. Abnormal cardiac development in the absence of heart glycogen. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7179-87 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking this glucose reserve in muscle, heart, and several other tissues were generated by disruption of the GYS1 gene, which encodes an isoform of glycogen synthase...
  53. Poulsen P, Wojtaszewski J, Petersen I, Christensen K, Richter E, Beck Nielsen H, et al. Impact of genetic versus environmental factors on the control of muscle glycogen synthase activation in twins. Diabetes. 2005;54:1289-96 pubmed
    ..Moreover, GS activity was intact with increasing age, despite a significant reduction in nonoxidative glucose metabolism. ..
  54. Cid E, Cifuentes D, Baqué S, Ferrer J, Guinovart J. Determinants of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of muscle glycogen synthase. FEBS J. 2005;272:3197-213 pubmed
    ..The subnuclear distribution of MGS is altered by incubation with transcription inhibitors. These observations suggest that, in addition to its metabolic function, MGS may participate in nuclear processes. ..
  55. Flotow H, Graves P, Wang A, Fiol C, Roeske R, Roach P. Phosphate groups as substrate determinants for casein kinase I action. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:14264-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, casein kinase I may be involved in hierarchal substrate phosphorylation schemes in which its activity is controlled by the phosphorylation state of its substrates. ..
  56. Kawakami F, Suzuki M, Shimada N, Kagiya G, Ohta E, Tamura K, et al. Stimulatory effect of ?-synuclein on the tau-phosphorylation by GSK-3?. FEBS J. 2011;278:4895-904 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the cellular level of Hsp70 may be a novel therapeutic target to counteract ?-SN-mediated tau phosphorylation in the initial stage of neurodegenerative disease. ..
  57. Skurat A, Dietrich A, Roach P. Interaction between glycogenin and glycogen synthase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;456:93-7 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the COOH-terminal fragment of glycogenin can be used as an effective high affinity reagent for the purification of glycogen synthase from skeletal muscle and liver. ..
  58. Kawakami F, Shimada N, Ohta E, Kagiya G, Kawashima R, Maekawa T, et al. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 regulates tau phosphorylation through direct activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3?. FEBS J. 2014;281:3-13 pubmed publisher
  59. Orho M, Nikula Ijäs P, Schalin Jantti C, Permutt M, Groop L. Isolation and characterization of the human muscle glycogen synthase gene. Diabetes. 1995;44:1099-105 pubmed
    ..The characterization of the genomic structure of the human muscle GS gene will facilitate studies of its role in the development of insulin resistance and NIDDM. ..
  60. Biensø R, Ringholm S, Kiilerich K, Aachmann Andersen N, Krogh Madsen R, Guerra B, et al. GLUT4 and glycogen synthase are key players in bed rest-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2012;61:1090-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings demonstrate that physical inactivity-induced insulin resistance in muscle is associated with lower content/activity of key proteins in glucose transport/phosphorylation and storage. ..
  61. Fredriksson J, Anevski D, Almgren P, Sjögren M, Lyssenko V, Carlson J, et al. Variation in GYS1 interacts with exercise and gender to predict cardiovascular mortality. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e285 pubmed
    The muscle glycogen synthase gene (GYS1) has been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the metabolic syndrome (MetS), male myocardial infarction and a defective increase in muscle glycogen synthase protein in response to exercise...
  62. Kokubo Y, Tomoike H, Tanaka C, Banno M, Okuda T, Inamoto N, et al. Association of sixty-one non-synonymous polymorphisms in forty-one hypertension candidate genes with blood pressure variation and hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2006;29:611-9 pubmed
    ..and antihypertensive medication revealed that 17 polymorphisms in 16 genes (APOB, CAST, CLCNKB, CTNS, GHR, GYS1, HF1, IKBKAP, KCNJ11, LIPC, LPL, P2RY2, PON2, SLC4A1, TRH, VWF) were significantly associated with blood pressure ..
  63. ter Haar E, Coll J, Austen D, Hsiao H, Swenson L, Jain J. Structure of GSK3beta reveals a primed phosphorylation mechanism. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:593-6 pubmed
    ..The structure explains the unique primed phosphorylation mechanism of GSK3beta and how GSK3beta relies on a phosphoserine in the substrate for the alignment of the beta- and alpha-helical domains. ..
  64. Thomas G, Frame S, Goedert M, Nathke I, Polakis P, Cohen P. A GSK3-binding peptide from FRAT1 selectively inhibits the GSK3-catalysed phosphorylation of axin and beta-catenin. FEBS Lett. 1999;458:247-51 pubmed
    ..This may explain how the essential cellular functions of GSK3 can continue, despite the suppression of beta-catenin phosphorylation. ..
  65. Dickinson E, Johnson A, Ellers O, Dickinson P. Forces generated during stretch in the heart of the lobster Homarus americanus are anisotropic and are altered by neuromodulators. J Exp Biol. 2016;219:1187-202 pubmed publisher
    ..length-tension curves, we also performed these tests in the presence of SGRNFLRFamide (SGRN) and GYSNRNYLRFamide (GYS). In uniaxial and biaxial tests, both passive and active forces increased with stretch along both measurement axes...
  66. Mu J, Skurat A, Roach P. Glycogenin-2, a novel self-glucosylating protein involved in liver glycogen biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:27589-97 pubmed
    ..H4IIEC3 cells also expressed the muscle form of glycogenin (glycogenin-1), which was attached to a chromatographically separable glycogen fraction. ..
  67. Su X, Schuler L, Shapiro S. Cloning and characterization of a glycogen synthase cDNA from human endometrium. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1996;59:459-65 pubmed
    ..0-kb GS messenger RNA (mRNA) in the endometrium and myometrium. Our results establish that the GS of human Mullerian tissues is, essentially, identical to that reported for human striated muscle. ..
  68. Pescador N, Villar D, Cifuentes D, Garcia Rocha M, Ortiz Barahona A, Vazquez S, et al. Hypoxia promotes glycogen accumulation through hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated induction of glycogen synthase 1. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9644 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that oxygen regulates the expression of the muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1). Hypoxic GYS1 induction requires HIF activity and a Hypoxia Response Element within its promoter...
  69. Palm D, Rohwer J, Hofmeyr J. Regulation of glycogen synthase from mammalian skeletal muscle--a unifying view of allosteric and covalent regulation. FEBS J. 2013;280:2-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The model we propose may prove useful in this regard. ..
  70. Tagliabracci V, Heiss C, Karthik C, Contreras C, Glushka J, Ishihara M, et al. Phosphate incorporation during glycogen synthesis and Lafora disease. Cell Metab. 2011;13:274-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the phosphate in glycogen is present as C2 and C3 phosphomonoesters. Since hyperphosphorylation of glycogen causes Lafora disease, phosphate removal by laforin may thus be considered a repair or damage control mechanism. ..
  71. Gaster M, Brusgaard K, Handberg A, Højlund K, Wojtaszewski J, Beck Nielsen H. The primary defect in glycogen synthase activity is not based on increased glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha activity in diabetic myotubes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;319:1235-40 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, myotubes with a primary defect in GS activity express insulin responsive GSK-3alpha, suggesting that failure of insulin to decrease GS phosphorylation involves abnormal activity of another kinase or phosphatase. ..