GYPB

Summary

Gene Symbol: GYPB
Description: glycophorin B (MNS blood group)
Alias: CD235b, GPB, GYP, MNS, PAS-3, glycophorin-B, GYPB-A fusion, GYPB-A-B fusion, GYPB/GYPA fusion, SS-active sialoglycoprotein, Ss blood group, blood group system MNSs, Mur-like, blood group system MNSs, St(a) type E, blood group system MNSs, St(a) type F, glycophorin B blood group antigen, glycophorin B, blood group system Ss, S, Mit+, glycophorin B/glycophorin A fusion protein, glycophorin Hop, hybrid glycophorin Kip, sialoglycoprotein delta
Species: human
Products:     GYPB

Top Publications

  1. Blumenfeld O, Huang C. Molecular genetics of glycophorin MNS variants. Transfus Clin Biol. 1997;4:357-65 pubmed
    The antigens for the MNS blood group system are Glycophorins A and B (GPA,GPB), products of the GPA gene family. The existence of close to 40 variant phenotypes of this blood group system has been documented by serological analyses...
  2. Rearden A, Phan H, Dubnicoff T, Kudo S, Fukuda M. Identification of the crossing-over point of a hybrid gene encoding human glycophorin variant Sta. Similarity to the crossing-over point in haptoglobin-related genes. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:9259-63 pubmed
    ..Stones (Sta), has been shown to be the product of a hybrid gene of which the 5'-half derived from the glycophorin B (GPB) gene whereas the 3'-half derived from the glycophorin A (GPA) gene...
  3. Kudo S, Fukuda M. Structural organization of glycophorin A and B genes: glycophorin B gene evolved by homologous recombination at Alu repeat sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:4619-23 pubmed
    Glycophorins A (GPA) and B (GPB) are two major sialoglycoproteins of the human erythrocyte membrane...
  4. Wang H, Tang H, Shen C, Wu C. Rapidly evolving genes in human. I. The glycophorins and their possible role in evading malaria parasites. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:1795-804 pubmed
    ..In an attempt to identify all fast-evolving genes between human and other primates, we found three glycophorins, GPA, GPB, and GPE, to have the highest rate of nonsynonymous substitutions among the 280 genes surveyed...
  5. Storry J, Reid M, Fetics S, Huang C. Mutations in GYPB exon 5 drive the S-s-U+(var) phenotype in persons of African descent: implications for transfusion. Transfusion. 2003;43:1738-47 pubmed
    The S-s-U- phenotype in African Americans is due to a GYPB deletion, however the molecular basis for the S-s-U+var phenotype is poorly understood...
  6. Palacajornsuk P, Nathalang O, Tantimavanich S, Bejrachandra S, Reid M. Detection of MNS hybrid molecules in the Thai population using PCR-SSP technique. Transfus Med. 2007;17:169-74 pubmed
    ..The GYP(A-B) hybrids (GP. Hil and GP.JL), GYP(A-B-A) hybrids (GP.Nob, GP.Joh and GP.Dane), GYPA, GYPB and GYPE were not amplified by either set of primers...
  7. Omoto R, Reid M, Castilho L. Molecular analyses of GYPB in African Brazilians. Immunohematology. 2008;24:148-53 pubmed
    The molecular background of variant forms of GYPB is not well studied in Brazilians of African descent...
  8. Tarazona Santos E, Castilho L, Amaral D, Costa D, Furlani N, Zuccherato L, et al. Population genetics of GYPB and association study between GYPB*S/s polymorphism and susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in the Brazilian Amazon. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16123 pubmed publisher
    ..Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB) and/or other receptors...
  9. Hsu K, Lin Y, Chang Y, Chan Y, Chao H, Lee T, et al. A direct blood polymerase chain reaction approach for the determination of GP.Mur (Mi.III) and other Hil+ Miltenberger glycophorin variants. Transfusion. 2013;53:962-71 pubmed publisher
    GP.Mur (Mi.III) is a glycophorin B-A-B hybrid sialoglycoprotein expressing several potent immunogens, including Mi(a), Mur, and Hil. GP...

More Information

Publications131 found, 100 shown here

  1. Storry J, Reid M, Maclennan S, Lubenko A, Nortman P. The low-incidence MNS antigens M(v), s(D), and Mit arise from single amino acid substitutions on GPB. Transfusion. 2001;41:269-75 pubmed
    ..The GPB gene (GYPB) was sequenced after RT-PCR of RNA from four samples: two M(v)+, one s(D)+, and one Mit+...
  2. Mayer D, Cofie J, Jiang L, Hartl D, Tracy E, Kabat J, et al. Glycophorin B is the erythrocyte receptor of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding ligand, EBL-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:5348-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The high degree of polymorphism in glycophorin B found in malaria-endemic regions suggests that it also may be a receptor for Plasmodium, but, to date, none ..
  3. Ndila C, Uyoga S, Macharia A, Nyutu G, Peshu N, Ojal J, et al. Human candidate gene polymorphisms and risk of severe malaria in children in Kilifi, Kenya: a case-control association study. Lancet Haematol. 2018;5:e333-e345 pubmed publisher
    ..by linkage disequilibrium with a complex structural mutation within the glycophorin gene region (comprising GYPA, GYPB, and GYPE) that encodes for the rare Dantu blood group antigen...
  4. Karim S, Mirza Z, Chaudhary A, Abuzenadah A, Gari M, Al Qahtani M. Assessment of Radiation Induced Therapeutic Effect and Cytotoxicity in Cancer Patients Based on Transcriptomic Profiling. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:250 pubmed publisher
    ..synuclein alpha (SNCA), carbonic anhydrase I (CA1), X-linked Kx blood group (XK), glycophorin A and B (GYPA and GYPB), and hemogen (HEMGN), while downregulated ones were membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A member 1 (MS4A1), ..
  5. Beserra A, Vilegas W, Tangerina M, Ascencio S, Soares I, Pavan E, et al. Chemical characterisation and toxicity assessment in vitro and in vivo of the hydroethanolic extract of Terminalia argentea Mart. leaves. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018;227:56-68 pubmed publisher
    ..HETa showed no cytotoxic effect on CHO-K1 and AGS cells. In the MN assay, HETa increased the number of MNs and nuclear buds (NBUDs) in binucleate cells at the three concentrations tested and the nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs)..
  6. Ochola Oyier L, Wamae K, Omedo I, Ogola C, Matharu A, Musabyimana J, et al. Few Plasmodium falciparum merozoite ligand and erythrocyte receptor pairs show evidence of balancing selection. Infect Genet Evol. 2019;69:235-245 pubmed publisher
    ..EBA175, EBL1, EBA140, MSP1, Rh4 and Rh5, and their corresponding erythrocyte receptors, glycophorin (Gyp) A, GypB, GypC, band 3, complement receptor (CR) 1 and basigin, focusing on the regions involved in the ligand-receptor ..
  7. Salinas N, Paing M, Tolia N. Critical glycosylated residues in exon three of erythrocyte glycophorin A engage Plasmodium falciparum EBA-175 and define receptor specificity. MBio. 2014;5:e01606-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of exon 3 in GpB and GpE due to a splice site mutation confers specific recognition of GpA by PfEBA-175...
  8. Wei L, Lopez G, Ji Y, Condon J, Irwin D, Luo G, et al. Genotyping for Glycophorin GYP(B-A-B) Hybrid Genes Using a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-Based Algorithm by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Mol Biotechnol. 2016;58:665-671 pubmed publisher
    ..MNS system hybrid glycophorin blood group antigens results from rearrangement between the homologous GYPA and GYPB genes. Each hybrid glycophorin displays a characteristic profile of antigens...
  9. Vongsakulyanon A, Pipatpanukul C, Kitpoka P, Kunakorn M, Srikhirin T. Colorimetric Detection by Gold Nanoparticle DNA Probes for Miltenberger Series (GP.Mur, GP.Hop, and GP.Bun) Identification. J Clin Lab Anal. 2016;30:880-887 pubmed publisher
    Miltenberger (Mi) series are the collective glycophorin hybrids in the MNS blood group system. Mi series are composed of several subtypes, for examples, GP.Mur, GP.Hop, and GP.Bun...
  10. Shikata H, Matumoto T, Teraoka H, Kaneko M, Nakanishi M, Yoshino T. Myeloid sarcoma in essential thrombocythemia that transformed into acute myeloid leukemia. Int J Hematol. 2009;89:214-217 pubmed publisher
    ..We finally diagnosed the condition as myeloid sarcoma. Subsequently, the patient's ET transformed into acute myeloid leukemia. To our knowledge, this is an exceedingly rare event involving a patient with essential thrombocythemia. ..
  11. Algady W, Louzada S, Carpenter D, Brajer P, Farnert A, Rooth I, et al. The Malaria-Protective Human Glycophorin Structural Variant DUP4 Shows Somatic Mosaicism and Association with Hemoglobin Levels. Am J Hum Genet. 2018;103:769-776 pubmed publisher
    Glycophorin A and glycophorin B are red blood cell surface proteins and are both receptors for the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, which is the principal cause of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa...
  12. Bianchin A, Bell A, Chubb A, Doolan N, Leneghan D, Stavropoulos I, et al. Design and evaluation of antimalarial peptides derived from prediction of short linear motifs in proteins related to erythrocyte invasion. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0127383 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that proteome-wide computational screening of the intracellular regions of both host and pathogen adhesion proteins provides potential lead peptides for the development of anti-malarial compounds. ..
  13. Wang L, Wang Y, Fan X, Tang W, Hu J. Prevalence of Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Bloodstream Infection in Febrile Neutropenia Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single Center Retrospective Cohort Study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94:e1931 pubmed publisher
    ..Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) were the most common isolates (76, 70.3%) followed by gram-positive bacteria (GPB, 29, 26.9%) and fungus (3, 2.8%)...
  14. Hassan S, Thirumulu Ponnuraj K, Mohamad S, Hassan R, Wan Ab Rahman W. Molecular Detection of Glycophorins A and B Variant Phenotypes and their Clinical Relevance. Transfus Med Rev. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    Crossover or conversion between the homologous regions of glycophorin A (GYPA) and glycophorin B (GYPB) gives rise to several different hybrid glycophorin genes encoding a number of different glycophorin variant phenotypes which bear low ..
  15. Li K, Hala T, Seetharam S, Poulsen D, Wright M, Lepore A. GLT1 overexpression in SOD1(G93A) mouse cervical spinal cord does not preserve diaphragm function or extend disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2015;78:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In ALS, cellular abnormalities are not limited to MNs. For example, decreased levels and aberrant functioning of the major central nervous system (CNS) glutamate ..
  16. Duong H, Yin Y, Thambi T, Nguyen T, Giang Phan V, Lee M, et al. Smart vaccine delivery based on microneedle arrays decorated with ultra-pH-responsive copolymers for cancer immunotherapy. Biomaterials. 2018;185:13-24 pubmed publisher
    ..we report a smart DNA vaccine delivery system in which nanoengineered DNA vaccine was laden on microneedles (MNs) assembled with layer-by-layer coating of ultra-pH-responsive OSM-(PEG-PAEU) and immunostimulatory adjuvant poly(I:..
  17. Paluzzi J, Vanderveken M, O Donnell M. The heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone, GPA2/GPB5, regulates ion transport across the hindgut of the adult mosquito, Aedes aegypti. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86386 pubmed publisher
    ..old hormones is the glycoprotein cysteine knot-forming heterodimers consisting of alpha- (GPA) and beta-subunits (GPB), which assemble by noncovalent bonds...
  18. Martinez F, Pratt G, Van Nostrand E, Batra R, Huelga S, Kapeli K, et al. Protein-RNA Networks Regulated by Normal and ALS-Associated Mutant HNRNPA2B1 in the Nervous System. Neuron. 2016;92:780-795 pubmed publisher
    ..A2/B1 D290V mutant patient fibroblasts and motor neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-MNs) demonstrate abnormal splicing changes, likely due to increased nuclear-insoluble hnRNP A2/B1...
  19. Spejo A, Chiarotto G, Ferreira A, Gomes D, Ferreira R, Barraviera B, et al. Neuroprotection and immunomodulation following intraspinal axotomy of motoneurons by treatment with adult mesenchymal stem cells. J Neuroinflammation. 2018;15:230 pubmed publisher
    ..Fourteen days after injury, spinal alpha motor neurons (MNs), evidenced by Nissl staining (n = 5), were counted...
  20. Agius L. Role of glycogen phosphorylase in liver glycogen metabolism. Mol Aspects Med. 2015;46:34-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Only the phosphorylated form of liver phosphorylase (GPa) is catalytically active. Interconversion between GPa and GPb (unphosphorylated) is dependent on the activities of phosphorylase kinase and of phosphorylase phosphatase...
  21. Liu Y, Deng W. Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology. Brain Res. 2016;1638:30-41 pubmed publisher
    ..ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), culminating in muscle wasting and death from respiratory failure...
  22. Nardo G, Trolese M, De Vito G, Cecchi R, Riva N, Dina G, et al. Immune response in peripheral axons delays disease progression in SOD1G93A mice. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:261 pubmed
    ..Recently, we demonstrated that motor neurons (MNs) of C57SOD1G93A mice with slow disease progression activate molecules classically involved in the cross-..
  23. Cerveró C, Montull N, Tarabal O, Piedrafita L, Esquerda J, Calderó J. Chronic Treatment with the AMPK Agonist AICAR Prevents Skeletal Muscle Pathology but Fails to Improve Clinical Outcome in a Mouse Model of Severe Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Neurotherapeutics. 2016;13:198-216 pubmed publisher
    ..However, although AICAR prevented the loss of glutamatergic excitatory synapses on MNs, this compound was not able to mitigate MN loss or the microglial and astroglial reaction occurring in the spinal ..
  24. Netzahualcoyotzi C, Tapia R. Degeneration of spinal motor neurons by chronic AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in vivo and protection by energy substrates. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2015;3:27 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects correlate with the death of >80% of lumbar spinal MNs in the infused and the neighbor spinal cord segments, as well as with notable astrogliosis in the ventral horns, ..
  25. Petit F, Bailly P, Chiaroni J, Mazieres S. Sub-Saharan red cell antigen phenotypes and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency variants in French Guiana. Malar J. 2016;15:310 pubmed publisher
    ..were scrutinized for red cell surface antigens of six blood group systems (ABO, Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy and MNS) and G6PD genetic polymorphisms...
  26. Govoni A, Gagliardi D, Comi G, Corti S. Time Is Motor Neuron: Therapeutic Window and Its Correlation with Pathogenetic Mechanisms in Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:6307-6318 pubmed publisher
    ..SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by the degeneration of lower motor neurons (MNs) in the spinal cord and brain stem, which results in relentless muscle weakness and wasting, leading to premature ..
  27. Tapia O, Narcís J, Riancho J, Tarabal O, Piedrafita L, Caldero J, et al. Cellular bases of the RNA metabolism dysfunction in motor neurons of a murine model of spinal muscular atrophy: Role of Cajal bodies and the nucleolus. Neurobiol Dis. 2017;108:83-99 pubmed publisher
    ..motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene that leads to reduced levels of SMN protein resulting in degeneration of motor neurons (MNs). The best known functions of SMN is the biogenesis of spliceosomal snRNPs...
  28. Palandri A, Salvador V, Wojnacki J, Vivinetto A, Schnaar R, Lopez P. Myelin-associated glycoprotein modulates apoptosis of motoneurons during early postnatal development via NgR/p75(NTR) receptor-mediated activation of RhoA signaling pathways. Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e1876 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological activation of NgRs has a modulatory role on p75(NTR)-dependent postnatal apoptosis of motoneurons (MNs). However, it is not clear whether this reflects a physiological role of NgRs in MN development...
  29. Polin H, Pelc Klopotowska M, Danzer M, Suessner S, Gabriel C, Wilflingseder J, et al. Compound heterozygosity of two novel RHAG alleles leads to a considerable disruption of the Rh complex. Transfusion. 2016;56:950-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of a core comprising the Rh proteins (RhD/RhCE) and the Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG) with accessory chains (GPB, LW, CD47)...
  30. Wang Y, Bai L, Wen T, Yang L, Gou H, Xiao Y, et al. Giant Pressure-Driven Lattice Collapse Coupled with Intermetallic Bonding and Spin-State Transition in Manganese Chalcogenides. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2016;55:10350-3 pubmed publisher
    ..crystallography and electron spin-state study to probe the mechanism of the pressure-driven lattice collapse in MnS and MnSe is presented. Both materials exhibit a rocksalt-to-MnP phase transition under compression with ca...
  31. Errichelli L, Dini Modigliani S, Laneve P, Colantoni A, Legnini I, Capauto D, et al. FUS affects circular RNA expression in murine embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14741 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified circRNAs expressed in in vitro-derived mouse motor neurons (MNs) and determined that the production of a considerable number of these circRNAs is regulated by FUS...
  32. Jiang M, Elbasiouny S, COLLINS W, Heckman C. The transformation of synaptic to system plasticity in motor output from the sacral cord of the adult mouse. J Neurophysiol. 2015;114:1987-2004 pubmed publisher
    ..potentials (APs) in spinal ventral roots, which were generated simultaneously by the axons of many motoneurons (MNs). Synaptic plasticity was assessed from intracellular recordings of MNs...
  33. Xue J, Fu C, Cong Z, Peng L, Peng Z, Chen T, et al. Galectin-3 promotes caspase-independent cell death of HIV-1-infected macrophages. FEBS J. 2017;284:97-113 pubmed publisher
    ..whether galectin-3 could induce cell death in HIV-1-infected macrophages using HIV-1-infected THP1 monocytes (THP1-MNs) and THP1-derived macrophages (THP1-M?s) as in vitro cellular models...
  34. Jiang W, Ishino Y, Hashimoto H, Keino Masu K, Masu M, Uchimura K, et al. Sulfatase 2 Modulates Fate Change from Motor Neurons to Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells through Coordinated Regulation of Shh Signaling with Sulfatase 1. Dev Neurosci. 2017;39:361-374 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that Sulf2 also modulates the cell fate change from motor neurons (MNs) to oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) by regulating Shh signaling in the mouse ventral spinal cord in ..
  35. Chen L, Peng M, Li N, Song Q, Yao Y, Xu B, et al. Combined use of EpCAM and FRα enables the high-efficiency capture of circulating tumor cells in non-small cell lung cancer. Sci Rep. 2018;8:1188 pubmed publisher
    ..66% and 75.61% and the specificities were 100% and 90% for anti-EpCAM-MNs or a combination of anti-EpCAM-MNs and anti-FRα-MNs, respectively...
  36. Totani L, Amore C, Di Santo A, Dell Elba G, Piccoli A, Martelli N, et al. Roflumilast inhibits leukocyte-platelet interactions and prevents the prothrombotic functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. J Thromb Haemost. 2016;14:191-204 pubmed publisher
    ..PLT) interactions and prevents the prothrombotic functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes (MNs)...
  37. Majeed H, Liu F, Hategekimana J, Sharif H, Qi J, Ali B, et al. Bactericidal action mechanism of negatively charged food grade clove oil nanoemulsions. Food Chem. 2016;197:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Antimicrobial activity of the negatively charged CO nanoemulsion was determined against Gram positive GPB (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative GNB (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains using ..
  38. Fitzgibbon B, Kirkovski M, Fornito A, Paton B, Fitzgerald P, Enticott P. Emotion processing fails to modulate putative mirror neuron response to trained visuomotor associations. Neuropsychologia. 2016;84:7-13 pubmed publisher
    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that activation of the putative human mirror neuron system (MNS) can be elicited via visuomotor training...
  39. Katsumi H, Tanaka Y, Hitomi K, Liu S, Quan Y, Kamiyama F, et al. Efficient Transdermal Delivery of Alendronate, a Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonate, Using Tip-Loaded Self-Dissolving Microneedle Arrays for the Treatment of Osteoporosis. Pharmaceutics. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..safety of alendronate (ALN), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, we developed self-dissolving microneedle arrays (MNs), in which ALN is loaded only at the tip portion of micron-scale needles by a dip-coating method (ALN(TIP)-MN)...
  40. Pansarasa O, Bordoni M, Drufuca L, Diamanti L, Sproviero D, Trotti R, et al. Lymphoblastoid cell lines as a model to understand amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease mechanisms. Dis Model Mech. 2018;11: pubmed publisher
    ..Although LCLs are different from motor neurons (MNs), in LCLs we found some features typical of degenerating MNs in ALS, i.e...
  41. Iyer A, Jones K, Sanders V, Walker C. Temporospatial Analysis and New Players in the Immunology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: pubmed publisher
    ..There is a tremendous amount of knowledge on molecular mechanisms leading to loss of MNs and neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) as major determinants of disease onset, severity and progression in ALS...
  42. Woods D, Wyma J, Herron T, Yund E. An improved spatial span test of visuospatial memory. Memory. 2016;24:1142-55 pubmed publisher
    ..a computerized spatial span test (C-SST) that uses psychophysical procedures to quantify visuospatial mean span (MnS) with sub-digit precision...
  43. Almad A, Doreswamy A, Gross S, Richard J, Huo Y, Haughey N, et al. Connexin 43 in astrocytes contributes to motor neuron toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Glia. 2016;64:1154-69 pubmed publisher
    ..survival and observed that use of both a pan Cx43 blocker and Cx43 hemichannel blocker conferred neuroprotection to MNs cultured with SOD1(G93A) astrocytes...
  44. Thakur Singh R, Tekko I, McAvoy K, McMillan H, Jones D, Donnelly R. Minimally invasive microneedles for ocular drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2017;14:525-537 pubmed publisher
    ..Microneedles (MNs) has been recently introduced as a minimally invasive means for localizing drug formulation within the target ..
  45. Dahan A, Reiner M. Recognition of the semantics and kinematics of gestures: Neural responses to "what" and "how"?. Int J Psychophysiol. 2017;122:6-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The mirror neuron system (MNS) is known to respond to observed human actions, and overlaps with self-action...
  46. Lalancette Hébert M, Sharma A, Lyashchenko A, Shneider N. Gamma motor neurons survive and exacerbate alpha motor neuron degeneration in ALS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E8316-E8325 pubmed publisher
    ..TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), and fused in sarcoma (FUS), we demonstrate selective degeneration of alpha MNs (α-MNs) and complete sparing of gamma MNs (γ-MNs), which selectively innervate muscle spindles...
  47. Nijssen J, Comley L, Hedlund E. Motor neuron vulnerability and resistance in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2017;133:863-885 pubmed publisher
    In the fatal disease-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-upper (corticospinal) motor neurons (MNs) and lower somatic MNs, which innervate voluntary muscles, degenerate...
  48. O Hern P, do Carmo G Gonçalves I, Brecht J, López Soto E, Simon J, Chapkis N, et al. Decreased microRNA levels lead to deleterious increases in neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in Spinal Muscular Atrophy models. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that reduced SMN function impacts the action of a pertinent microRNA and its mRNA target in MNs. Loss of the C. elegans SMN ortholog, SMN-1, causes NMJ defects. We found that increased levels of the C...
  49. Smith C, Paton J, Chakrabarty S, Ichiyama R. Descending Systems Direct Development of Key Spinal Motor Circuits. J Neurosci. 2017;37:6372-6387 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the development of proprioceptive afferent input to motoneurons (MNs) and Renshaw cells (RCs) is disrupted by thoracic spinal cord transection at postnatal day 5 (P5TX)...
  50. Rizzo F, Ronchi D, Salani S, Nizzardo M, Fortunato F, Bordoni A, et al. Selective mitochondrial depletion, apoptosis resistance, and increased mitophagy in human Charcot-Marie-Tooth 2A motor neurons. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:4266-4281 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this question, we generated MNs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) obtained from the patients with CMT2A as an in vitro disease model...
  51. Rossi S, Lumpkin C, Harris A, Holbrook J, Gentillon C, McCahan S, et al. Identification of early gene expression changes in primary cultured neurons treated with topoisomerase I poisons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;479:319-324 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis was performed to identify differentially regulated transcripts in MNs in response to a brief exposure to CPT...
  52. Romer S, Deardorff A, Fyffe R. Activity-dependent redistribution of Kv2.1 ion channels on rat spinal motoneurons. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed
    ..As in these cellular systems, Kv2.1 channels in spinal motoneurons (MNs) localize within large somatic membrane clusters...
  53. BINDER E, Dovern A, Hesse M, Ebke M, Karbe H, Saliger J, et al. Lesion evidence for a human mirror neuron system. Cortex. 2017;90:125-137 pubmed publisher
    More than two decades ago, the mirror neuron system (MNS) was discovered in non-human primates: Single-cell recordings detected visuo-motor neurons that discharged not only when the monkey performed an action, but also when it observed ..
  54. Batbayar G, Pfeiffer M, von Tümpling W, Kappas M, Karthe D. Chemical water quality gradients in the Mongolian sub-catchments of the Selenga River basin. Environ Monit Assess. 2017;189:420 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, all taken water samples in 2014 and 2015 from the main channel of the Mongolian Selenga River complied with the Mongolian standard (MNS 1998) for the investigated parameters.
  55. Aihara T, Yamamoto S, Mori H, Kushiro K, Uehara S. Observation of interactive behavior increases corticospinal excitability in humans: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Brain Cogn. 2015;100:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..excitability (CSE), which is interpreted in the contexts of motor resonance and the "mirror neuron system" (MNS)...
  56. Yu Y, Wang Y, Sun X, Ma C, Zhang X, Guan X, et al. Prevalence and Specificity of Red Blood Cell Alloantibodies in Patients from China During 1994-2013. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2015;23:1734-41 pubmed publisher
    ..5%). A total of 644 alloantibodies contributing to HDFN come primarily from the Rhesus (93.1%) and MNS (6.0%) blood group systems. The postnatal Rh prophylaxis should become a routine procedure in mainland China...
  57. Li M, Xue X, Zhang S, Zhang X, Shi J. [The rate of morphologically normal sperm does not affect the clinical outcomes of conventional IVF in patients with one retrieved oocyte]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2016;22:143-6 pubmed
    To investigate the influence of the rate of morphologically normal sperm (MNS) on the clinical outcomes of conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) in patients with one retrieved oocyte...
  58. Salavatian S, Beaumont E, Longpré J, Armour J, Vinet A, Jacquemet V, et al. Vagal stimulation targets select populations of intrinsic cardiac neurons to control neurally induced atrial fibrillation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;311:H1311-H1320 pubmed publisher
    Mediastinal nerve stimulation (MNS) reproducibly evokes atrial fibrillation (AF) by excessive and heterogeneous activation of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons...
  59. Thakur R, Tekko I, Al Shammari F, Ali A, McCarthy H, Donnelly R. Rapidly dissolving polymeric microneedles for minimally invasive intraocular drug delivery. Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2016;6:800-815 pubmed
    In this study, dissolving microneedles (MNs) were used to enhance ocular drug delivery of macromolecules...
  60. Matsunaga T, Kohsaka H, Nose A. Gap Junction-Mediated Signaling from Motor Neurons Regulates Motor Generation in the Central Circuits of Larval Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2017;37:2045-2060 pubmed publisher
    ..We then investigated the effects of manipulating local activity of motor neurons (MNs) on fictive locomotion observed as waves of MN activity propagating along neuromeres...
  61. Pamornpathomkul B, Wongkajornsilp A, Laiwattanapaisal W, Rojanarata T, Opanasopit P, Ngawhirunpat T. A combined approach of hollow microneedles and nanocarriers for skin immunization with plasmid DNA encoding ovalbumin. Int J Nanomedicine. 2017;12:885-898 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of different types of microneedles (MNs) and nanocarriers for in vitro skin permeation and in vivo immunization of plasmid DNA encoding ovalbumin (pOVA)...
  62. Goto K, Imamura K, Komatsu K, Mitani K, Aiba K, Nakatsuji N, et al. Simple Derivation of Spinal Motor Neurons from ESCs/iPSCs Using Sendai Virus Vectors. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev. 2017;4:115-125 pubmed publisher
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder of motor neurons (MNs)...
  63. Chen M, Ling M, Kusuma S. Poly-γ-glutamic acid microneedles with a supporting structure design as a potential tool for transdermal delivery of insulin. Acta Biomater. 2015;24:106-16 pubmed publisher
    Incomplete insertion is a common problem associated with polymer microneedles (MNs) that results in a limited drug delivery efficiency and wastage of valuable medication...
  64. Calder E, Tchieu J, Steinbeck J, Tu E, Keros S, Ying S, et al. Retinoic Acid-Mediated Regulation of GLI3 Enables Efficient Motoneuron Derivation from Human ESCs in the Absence of Extrinsic SHH Activation. J Neurosci. 2015;35:11462-81 pubmed publisher
    The derivation of somatic motoneurons (MNs) from ES cells (ESCs) after exposure to sonic hedgehog (SHH) and retinoic acid (RA) is one of the best defined, directed differentiation strategies to specify fate in pluripotent lineages...
  65. Powis R, Gillingwater T. Selective loss of alpha motor neurons with sparing of gamma motor neurons and spinal cord cholinergic neurons in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy. J Anat. 2016;228:443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical analyses of late-symptomatic SMA mouse spinal cord revealed that numbers of α-MNs were significantly reduced at all levels of the spinal cord compared with controls, whereas numbers of γ-MNs ..
  66. Osborn M, Belanto J, Tolar J, Voytas D. Gene editing and its application for hematological diseases. Int J Hematol. 2016;104:18-28 pubmed publisher
    ..employed: zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), meganucleases (MNs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9...
  67. Cho C, Choi J, Jeong J, Chung T. Performance Analysis of Inter-Domain Handoff Scheme Based on Virtual Layer in PMIPv6 Networks for IP-Based Internet of Things. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0170566 pubmed publisher
    ..In the proposed scheme, MAGs eliminate global binding updates for MNs between LMA domains and significantly reduce the packet loss and latency by eliminating the handoff between LMAs...
  68. Nalluri B, Uppuluri C, Devineni J, Nayak A, Nair K, Whiteside B, et al. Effect of microneedles on transdermal permeation enhancement of amlodipine. Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2017;7:383-394 pubmed publisher
    ..AdminPatch® arrays (ADM) (0.6, 1.2 and 1.5 mm lengths) and laboratory-fabricated polymeric MNs (PM) of 0.6 mm length were employed...
  69. Zuo M, Zhen Q, Zhang X, Zou W, Yang X, Tian G, et al. High specificity of spot urinary free metanephrines in diagnosis and prognosis of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Clin Chim Acta. 2018;478:82-89 pubmed publisher
    The metanephrines (MNs) in plasma and urine were proposed as biomarkers for the diagnosis of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs)...
  70. Erb M, Lee B, Yeon Seo S, Lee J, Lee S, Lee S. The Isl1-Lhx3 Complex Promotes Motor Neuron Specification by Activating Transcriptional Pathways that Enhance Its Own Expression and Formation. Eneuro. 2017;4: pubmed publisher
    ..the Isl1-Lhx3 complex to activate the transcription of Isl1, Lhx3, and Lmo4 in embryonic MNs of chick and mouse...
  71. Ginebreda A, Sabater Liesa L, Rico A, Focks A, Barceló D. Reconciling monitoring and modeling: An appraisal of river monitoring networks based on a spatial autocorrelation approach - emerging pollutants in the Danube River as a case study. Sci Total Environ. 2018;618:323-335 pubmed publisher
    ..However, MNs are constrained by (a) the distribution of sampling sites, (b) the dynamics of the variable considered and (c) the ..
  72. Kudo S, Fukuda M. Identification of a novel human glycophorin, glycophorin E, by isolation of genomic clones and complementary DNA clones utilizing polymerase chain reaction. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:1102-10 pubmed
    ..This novel glycophorin, termed glycophorin E (GPE), has a similar genomic structure to that of the GPB gene, and its nucleotide sequence is almost identical to that of the GPB gene...
  73. Norante R, Massimino M, Lorenzon P, De Mario A, Peggion C, Vicario M, et al. Generation and validation of novel adeno-associated viral vectors for the analysis of Ca2+ homeostasis in motor neurons. Sci Rep. 2017;7:6521 pubmed publisher
    ..notion highlights the need for probes for the specific and precise analysis of local Ca2+ dynamics in MNs. Here, we generated and functionally validated adeno-associated viral vectors for the expression of gene-encoded ..
  74. Manousou S, Carlsson L, Eggertsen R, Hulthen L, Jacobson P, Landin Wilhelmsen K, et al. Iodine Status After Bariatric Surgery-a Prospective 10-Year Report from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Study. Obes Surg. 2018;28:349-357 pubmed publisher
    ..01), but similar to 24-UIE in MONICA-controls (137 μg/day). The 10-year-dietary iodine intake was similar in GPB-patients and OB-controls, but higher in VBG-patients. Iodine supplementation was taken by 0-9% in SOS-groups...
  75. Pamornpathomkul B, Niyomtham N, Yingyongnarongkul B, Prasitpuriprecha C, Rojanarata T, Ngawhirunpat T, et al. Cationic Niosomes for Enhanced Skin Immunization of Plasmid DNA-Encoding Ovalbumin via Hollow Microneedles. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2018;19:481-488 pubmed publisher
    ..The results revealed that using hollow MNs with cationic niosomes for pOVA penetration successfully induced both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses ..
  76. Khalki L, Sadlaoud K, Lerond J, Coq J, Brezun J, Vinay L, et al. Changes in innervation of lumbar motoneurons and organization of premotor network following training of transected adult rats. Exp Neurol. 2018;299:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined synaptic changes to identified gastrocnemius (GS) or tibialis anterior (TA) motoneurons (MNs) in SCT rats after a schedule of early exercise training and delayed 5-HT agonist treatment...
  77. Mukaigasa K, Sakuma C, Okada T, Homma S, Shimada T, Nishiyama K, et al. Motor neurons with limb-innervating character in the cervical spinal cord are sculpted by apoptosis based on the Hox code in chick embryo. Development. 2017;144:4645-4657 pubmed publisher
    In the developing chick embryo, a certain population of motor neurons (MNs) in the non-limb-innervating cervical spinal cord undergoes apoptosis between embryonic days 4 and 5...
  78. Huang C, Kikuchi M, McCreary J, Blumenfeld O. Gene conversion confined to a direct repeat of the acceptor splice site generates allelic diversity at human glycophorin (GYP) locus. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:3336-42 pubmed
    ..Southern blot analysis indicated that MiX gene derived its 5' and 3' portions from glycophorin B or delta gene but its internal part from glycophorin A or alpha gene...
  79. Ratliff J, Veneman S, Ward J, Lomas Francis C, Hue Roye K, Velliquette R, et al. An alloantibody to a high-prevalence MNS antigen in a person with a GP.JL/Mk phenotype. Immunohematology. 2007;23:146-9 pubmed
    The low-prevalence MNS blood group antigenTSEN is located at the junction of glycophorin A (GPA) to glycophorin B (GPB) in several hybrid glycophorin molecules...
  80. Peyrard T, Lam Y, Saison C, Arnaud L, Babinet J, Rouger P, et al. Anti-U-like as an alloantibody in S-s-U- and S-s-U+(var) black people. Transfusion. 2012;52:622-8 pubmed publisher
    S, s, and U antigens belong to the MNS system. They are carried by glycophorin B (GPB), encoded by GYPB. Black people with the low-prevalence S-s- phenotype, either U- or U+(var), can make a clinically significant anti-U...
  81. Huang H, Zhu C, Skuja L, Hayden D, Hart A. Genome-Wide Screen for Genes Involved in Caenorhabditis elegans Developmentally Timed Sleep. G3 (Bethesda). 2017;7:2907-2917 pubmed publisher
    ..elegans sleep. Another line carried a new allele of gpb-2, encoding a Gβ5 protein; Gβ5 proteins have not been previously implicated in sleep...
  82. Di Cesare G, Errante A, Marchi M, Cuccio V. Language for action: Motor resonance during the processing of human and robotic voices. Brain Cogn. 2017;118:118-127 pubmed publisher
    ..a human or a robotic voice in the imperative mood differently modulates the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNs). The study produced three results...
  83. Lee K, Chen W, Chen R, Lai K, Chung C. Lipoteichoic acid upregulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in parapneumonic effusions. Respirology. 2018;23:89-95 pubmed publisher
    Parapneumonic effusion (PPE) is commonly caused by Gram-positive bacteria (GPB) and often presents with pleural loculation, which is characterized by overproduction of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1...
  84. Berry S, Longo N, Diaz G, McCandless S, Smith W, Harding C, et al. Safety and efficacy of glycerol phenylbutyrate for management of urea cycle disorders in patients aged 2months to 2years. Mol Genet Metab. 2017;122:46-53 pubmed publisher
    Glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) is approved in the US for the management of patients 2months of age and older with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) that cannot be managed with protein restriction and/or amino acid supplementation alone...
  85. de Assis Aquino Gondim F, Bastante P, Gondim W, Filha J, Thomas F. Medical and neuropsychiatric phenomena depicted in two Spanish medieval texts of Marian miracles. Neurol Sci. 2018;39:565-569 pubmed publisher
    ..Mary, CSM), composed at the court of Alfonso X and the Milagros de Nuestra Señora (The Miracles of Our Lady, MNS), written by Gonzalo de Berceo...
  86. Wang J, Yi S, Li M, Wang L, Song C. Effects of sea level rise, land subsidence, bathymetric change and typhoon tracks on storm flooding in the coastal areas of Shanghai. Sci Total Environ. 2018;621:228-234 pubmed publisher
    ..in Shanghai (SHLD), in the north of Zhejiang (ZNLD) and moving northwards in the offshore area of Shanghai (MNS) under those scenarios...
  87. Patel D, Gaikwad S, Challagundla N, Nivsarkar M, Agrawal Rajput R. Spleen tyrosine kinase inhibition ameliorates airway inflammation through modulation of NLRP3 inflammosome and Th17/Treg axis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2018;54:375-384 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reports that 3,4 methylenedioxy-?-nitrostyrene (MNS), a potent SYK inhibitor, markedly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the ..
  88. Huang C, Spruell P, Moulds J, Blumenfeld O. Molecular basis for the human erythrocyte glycophorin specifying the Miltenberger class I (MiI) phenotype. Blood. 1992;80:257-63 pubmed
    ..Based on this relatedness, we propose an untemplated nucleotide replacement resulting from a gene conversion event as the molecular basis for the origin of HGpMil gene. ..
  89. Onda M, Fukuda M. Detailed physical mapping of the genes encoding glycophorins A, B and E, as revealed by P1 plasmids containing human genomic DNA. Gene. 1995;159:225-30 pubmed
    Human glycophorins A, B and E (GPA, GPB and GPE) are members of the glycophorin gene family encompassing a 330-kb genomic segment located on chromosome 4, band q31 [Onda et al., J. Biol. Chem., 269 (1994) 13013-13020]...
  90. Polin H, Danzer M, Proll J, Hofer K, Heilinger U, Zopf A, et al. Introduction of a real-time-based blood-group genotyping approach. Vox Sang. 2008;95:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The advantages of this real-time polymerase chain reaction method are its automation potential, the flexibility regarding hardware and the rapid cycling time. ..
  91. Chen T, Chen D, Wang W, Sun C. MNSs blood group glycophorin variants in Taiwan: a genotype-serotype correlation study of 'Mi(a)' and St(a) with report of two new alleles for St(a). PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e98166 pubmed publisher
    ..Although St(a) antigen has a high prevalence in Taiwan, routine screening for anti-St(a) is not warranted based on current evidence. ..
  92. Ono A, Ito S, Sakagami S, Asada H, Saito M, Quan Y, et al. Development of Novel Faster-Dissolving Microneedle Patches for Transcutaneous Vaccine Delivery. Pharmaceutics. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..In second-generation MN patches, the dissolving MNs release the loaded vaccine antigen into the skin...