Gene Symbol: GTF2E1
Description: general transcription factor IIE subunit 1
Alias: TF2E1, TFIIE-A, general transcription factor IIE subunit 1, TFIIE alpha subunit, TFIIE-alpha, general transcription factor IIE 56 kDa subunit, general transcription factor IIE, polypeptide 1, alpha 56kDa, transcription initiation factor IIE subunit alpha
Species: human
Products:     GTF2E1

Top Publications

  1. Purrello M, Di Pietro C, Rapisarda A, Motta S, Pavone L, Grzeschik K, et al. Localization of the human genes encoding the two subunits of general transcription factor TFIIE. Genomics. 1994;23:253-5 pubmed
    ..A TaqI RFLP (heterozygosity index of 0.07) was detected at the locus for the 56-kDa subunit. ..
  2. Peterson M, Inostroza J, Maxon M, Flores O, Admon A, Reinberg D, et al. Structure and functional properties of human general transcription factor IIE. Nature. 1991;354:369-73 pubmed
    ..Analysis of their predicted amino-acid sequences reveals several intriguing structural motifs that could provide insight into the role of TFIIE in transcription initiation. ..
  3. Ohkuma Y, Sumimoto H, Horikoshi M, Roeder R. Factors involved in specific transcription by mammalian RNA polymerase II: purification and characterization of general transcription factor TFIIE. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:9163-7 pubmed
    ..Functional studies with the purified TFIIE demonstrated that it is a general initiation factor, required for all of the genes tested, but it failed to show any DNA-dependent ATPase activity. ..
  4. Di Lello P, Miller Jenkins L, Mas C, Langlois C, Malitskaya E, Fradet Turcotte A, et al. p53 and TFIIEalpha share a common binding site on the Tfb1/p62 subunit of TFIIH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:106-11 pubmed
    ..These results point to an important interplay between the general transcription factor TFIIEalpha and the tumor suppressor protein p53 in regulating transcriptional activation that may be modulated by the phosphorylation status of p53. ..
  5. Jawhari A, Uhring M, De Carlo S, Crucifix C, Tocchini Valentini G, Moras D, et al. Structure and oligomeric state of human transcription factor TFIIE. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:500-5 pubmed
    ..Finally, a model for the quaternary architecture of the complex is proposed that provides a structural framework to discuss the function of TFIIE in the context of RNA polymerase II transcription initiation. ..
  6. Okuda M, Tanaka A, Arai Y, Satoh M, Okamura H, Nagadoi A, et al. A novel zinc finger structure in the large subunit of human general transcription factor TFIIE. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51395-403 pubmed
  7. Watanabe T, Hayashi K, Tanaka A, Furumoto T, Hanaoka F, Ohkuma Y. The carboxy terminus of the small subunit of TFIIE regulates the transition from transcription initiation to elongation by RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2914-26 pubmed
    ..This is an important clue for elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition stage. ..
  8. Drapkin R, Reardon J, Ansari A, Huang J, Zawel L, Ahn K, et al. Dual role of TFIIH in DNA excision repair and in transcription by RNA polymerase II. Nature. 1994;368:769-72 pubmed
    ..We found that the general transcription factor IIE negatively modulates the helicase activity of TFIIH through a direct interaction between TFIIE and the ERCC3 subunit of TFIIH. ..
  9. Yamamoto S, Watanabe Y, van der Spek P, Watanabe T, Fujimoto H, Hanaoka F, et al. Studies of nematode TFIIE function reveal a link between Ser-5 phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II and the transition from transcription initiation to elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1-15 pubmed
    ..These observations provide evidence of TFIIE involvement in the transition and suggest that Ser-5 phosphorylation is essential for Pol II to be in the processive elongation form. ..

More Information


  1. Ohkuma Y, Sumimoto H, Hoffmann A, Shimasaki S, Horikoshi M, Roeder R. Structural motifs and potential sigma homologies in the large subunit of human general transcription factor TFIIE. Nature. 1991;354:398-401 pubmed
  2. Okamoto T, Yamamoto S, Watanabe Y, Ohta T, Hanaoka F, Roeder R, et al. Analysis of the role of TFIIE in transcriptional regulation through structure-function studies of the TFIIEbeta subunit. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:19866-76 pubmed
    ..Both responsible regions also mapped within the essential 227-amino acid region. Our results suggest that TFIIE engages in communication with both transcription factors and promoter DNA via the TFIIEbeta subunit. ..
  3. Gonçalves E, Fragoulis A, Garcia Alonso L, Cramer T, Saez Rodriguez J, Beltrao P. Widespread Post-transcriptional Attenuation of Genomic Copy-Number Variation in Cancer. Cell Syst. 2017;5:386-398.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions and experimentally confirmed our predictions on the interactions of AP3B1 with AP3M1 and GTF2E2 with GTF2E1. This study highlights the importance of post-transcriptional mechanisms in cancer that allow cells to cope with ..
  4. Miwa K, Kojima R, Obita T, Ohkuma Y, Tamura Y, Mizuguchi M. Crystal Structure of Human General Transcription Factor TFIIE at Atomic Resolution. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:4258-4266 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a structural basis for understanding the functional mechanisms of TFIIE in the context of pre-initiation complex formation and transcription initiation. ..
  5. Larochelle S, Amat R, Glover Cutter K, Sansó M, Zhang C, Allen J, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase control of the initiation-to-elongation switch of RNA polymerase II. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:1108-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, cyclin-dependent kinases govern Pol II handoff from initiation to elongation factors and cotranscriptional RNA maturation. ..
  6. Scully R, Anderson S, Chao D, Wei W, Ye L, Young R, et al. BRCA1 is a component of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:5605-10 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with recent data identifying transcription activation domains in the BRCA1 protein and link the BRCA1 tumor suppressor protein with the transcription process as a holoenzyme-bound protein. ..
  7. Ohkuma Y, Hashimoto S, Roeder R, Horikoshi M. Identification of two large subdomains in TFIIE-alpha on the basis of homology between Xenopus and human sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992;20:5838 pubmed
  8. Thut C, Goodrich J, Tjian R. Repression of p53-mediated transcription by MDM2: a dual mechanism. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1974-86 pubmed
  9. Bao L, Xia J. Global analysis of transcriptome sequences highlights accelerated evolution of immune genes in Danio choprae and Danio albolineatus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;66:390-397 pubmed publisher
    ..referring to immune functions under positive selection were identified by branch site model analysis, such as REL, GTF2E1, STAT6, MPG in Danio choprae and CYP17A1, ADORA2A, MYCN in Danio albolineatus...
  10. Inostroza J, Flores O, Reinberg D. Factors involved in specific transcription by mammalian RNA polymerase II. Purification and functional analysis of general transcription factor IIE. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:9304-8 pubmed
    ..Consistent with previous studies demonstrating an interaction of TFIIE with RNA polymerase II, we found that the entry of TFIIE into the transcription cycle was subsequent to the entry of RNA polymerase II. ..
  11. Okuda M, Higo J, Komatsu T, Konuma T, Sugase K, Nishimura Y. Dynamics of the Extended String-Like Interaction of TFIIE with the p62 Subunit of TFIIH. Biophys J. 2016;111:950-62 pubmed publisher
  12. Tanaka A, Akimoto Y, Kobayashi S, Hisatake K, Hanaoka F, Ohkuma Y. Association of the winged helix motif of the TFIIEα subunit of TFIIE with either the TFIIEβ subunit or TFIIB distinguishes its functions in transcription. Genes Cells. 2015;20:203-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, TFIIEα-WH bound to the TFIIH XPB subunit at a third distinct region. Therefore, these results provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying RNA polymerase II activation at the initial stages of transcription. ..
  13. Dziuba N, Ferguson M, O Brien W, Sanchez A, Prussia A, McDonald N, et al. Identification of cellular proteins required for replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012;28:1329-39 pubmed
    ..Several genes regulating diverse pathways were found to be required for HIV-1 replication, including DHX8, DNAJA1, GTF2E1, GTF2E2, HAP1, KALRN, UBA3, UBE2E3, and VMP1...
  14. Pan G, Aso T, Greenblatt J. Interaction of elongation factors TFIIS and elongin A with a human RNA polymerase II holoenzyme capable of promoter-specific initiation and responsive to transcriptional activators. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:24563-71 pubmed
    ..The transcriptional activators GAL4-VP16 and GAL4-Sp1 activated transcription in vitro by purified holoenzyme in the absence of any additional factors. ..
  15. Archambault J, Pan G, Dahmus G, Cartier M, Marshall N, Zhang S, et al. FCP1, the RAP74-interacting subunit of a human protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase IIO. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27593-601 pubmed
    ..FCP1 is also a stoichiometric component of a human RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complex. ..
  16. Yankulov K, Todorov I, Romanowski P, Licatalosi D, Cilli K, McCracken S, et al. MCM proteins are associated with RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:6154-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a new function for MCM proteins as components of the Pol II transcriptional apparatus. ..
  17. Heng H, Xiao H, Shi X, Greenblatt J, Tsui L. Genes encoding general initiation factors for RNA polymerase II transcription are dispersed in the human genome. Hum Mol Genet. 1994;3:61-4 pubmed situ hybridization (FISH), we show here that the genes encoding the TATA-box binding protein (TBP), TFIIB, TFIIE alpha, TFIIE beta, RAP30, RAP74 and the 62 kDa subunit, of TFIIH are located at the human chromosomal bands 6q26-27, ..
  18. Liu L, Ishihara K, Ichimura T, Fujita N, Hino S, Tomita S, et al. MCAF1/AM is involved in Sp1-mediated maintenance of cancer-associated telomerase activity. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5165-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that transcriptional function of MCAF1 facilitates telomerase expression by Sp1, which may be a common mechanism in proliferative cancer cells. ..
  19. Ikeda K, Halle J, Stelzer G, Meisterernst M, Kawakami K. Involvement of negative cofactor NC2 in active repression by zinc finger-homeodomain transcription factor AREB6. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:10-8 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrated interactions between the AREB6 repression domain and NC2alpha in yeast two-hybrid assay. Our findings suggest a mechanism of transcriptional repression that is mediated by the general cofactor NC2. ..
  20. Fraser R, Heard D, Adam S, Lavigne A, Le Douarin B, Tora L, et al. The putative cofactor TIF1alpha is a protein kinase that is hyperphosphorylated upon interaction with liganded nuclear receptors. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:16199-204 pubmed
    ..These latter results raise the possibility that TIF1alpha may act, at least in part, by phosphorylating and modifying the activity of components of the transcriptional machinery. ..
  21. He Y, Yan C, Fang J, Inouye C, Tjian R, Ivanov I, et al. Near-atomic resolution visualization of human transcription promoter opening. Nature. 2016;533:359-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This analysis illustrates the key role of TFIIB in transcription bubble stabilization and provides strong structural support for a translocase activity of XPB. ..
  22. Reinberg D, Roeder R. Factors involved in specific transcription by mammalian RNA polymerase II. Purification and functional analysis of initiation factors IIB and IIE. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:3310-21 pubmed
    ..Transcription factors IIB and IIE were also shown to be required for specific initiation of transcription from several cellular and viral class II promoters. ..
  23. Kogan M, Rappaport J. HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr: relevance in the pathogenesis of HIV and potential for therapeutic intervention. Retrovirology. 2011;8:25 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the pivotal functions of Vpr in virus infection, replication, and persistence of infection, this protein represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  24. Okuda M, Tanaka A, Satoh M, Mizuta S, Takazawa M, Ohkuma Y, et al. Structural insight into the TFIIE-TFIIH interaction: TFIIE and p53 share the binding region on TFIIH. EMBO J. 2008;27:1161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..From our in vitro studies, we demonstrate that this interaction could be a switch to replace p53 with TFIIE on TFIIH in transcription. ..
  25. Tong X, Drapkin R, Yalamanchili R, Mosialos G, Kieff E. The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 acidic domain forms a complex with a novel cellular coactivator that can interact with TFIIE. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4735-44 pubmed
    ..p100 also appears to be essential for normal cell growth, since cell viability was reduced by antisense p100 RNA and restored by sense p100 RNA expression. ..
  26. Hisatake K, Ohta T, Takada R, Guermah M, Horikoshi M, Nakatani Y, et al. Evolutionary conservation of human TATA-binding-polypeptide-associated factors TAFII31 and TAFII80 and interactions of TAFII80 with other TAFs and with general transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:8195-9 pubmed
    ..Similar assays showed that TAFII80 interacted with TFIIE alpha and with TFIIF alpha (RAP74) but not with TFIIB, TFIIE beta, or TFIIF beta (RAP30)...
  27. Kim T, Ebright R, Reinberg D. Mechanism of ATP-dependent promoter melting by transcription factor IIH. Science. 2000;288:1418-22 pubmed
    ..We propose that IIH functions as a molecular wrench: rotating downstream DNA relative to fixed upstream protein-DNA interactions, thereby generating torque on, and melting, the intervening DNA. ..
  28. Maxon M, Goodrich J, Tjian R. Transcription factor IIE binds preferentially to RNA polymerase IIa and recruits TFIIH: a model for promoter clearance. Genes Dev. 1994;8:515-24 pubmed
    ..These multiple interactions between TFIIE, Pol II and TFIIH support a model in which TFIIE plays a role in promoter clearance as well as in the recruitment of proteins required for transcription-coupled DNA repair. ..
  29. Langelier M, Forget D, Rojas A, Porlier Y, Burton Z, Coulombe B. Structural and functional interactions of transcription factor (TF) IIA with TFIIE and TFIIF in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:38652-7 pubmed
    ..These results provide novel insights into mechanisms of TFIIA function. ..
  30. Yu X, Li P, Roeder R, Wang Z. Inhibition of androgen receptor-mediated transcription by amino-terminal enhancer of split. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4614-25 pubmed
    ..These observations implicate AES as a selective repressor of ligand-dependent AR-mediated transcription that acts by directly interacting with AR and by targeting the basal transcription machinery. ..
  31. Sabbah M, Kang K, Tora L, Redeuilh G. Oestrogen receptor facilitates the formation of preinitiation complex assembly: involvement of the general transcription factor TFIIB. Biochem J. 1998;336 ( Pt 3):639-46 pubmed
  32. Moisan A, Larochelle C, Guillemette B, Gaudreau L. BRCA1 can modulate RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain phosphorylation levels. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6947-56 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that BRCA1 could play its ascribed roles, at least in part, by modulating CTD kinase components. ..