Gene Symbol: GSTT2
Description: glutathione S-transferase theta 2 (gene/pseudogene)
Alias: glutathione S-transferase theta-2, GST class-theta-2
Species: human
Products:     GSTT2

Top Publications

  1. Tan K, Webb G, Baker R, Board P. Molecular cloning of a cDNA and chromosomal localization of a human theta-class glutathione S-transferase gene (GSTT2) to chromosome 22. Genomics. 1995;25:381-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we describe the molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a second human Theta-class GST (GSTT2) from a lambda gt11 human liver 5'-stretch cDNA library. The encoded protein contains 244 amino acids and has 78...
  2. Hussey A, Hayes J. Characterization of a human class-Theta glutathione S-transferase with activity towards 1-menaphthyl sulphate. Biochem J. 1992;286 ( Pt 3):929-35 pubmed
  3. Rossjohn J, McKinstry W, Oakley A, Verger D, Flanagan J, Chelvanayagam G, et al. Human theta class glutathione transferase: the crystal structure reveals a sulfate-binding pocket within a buried active site. Structure. 1998;6:309-22 pubmed
    ..A narrow tunnel leading from the active site to the surface may provide a pathway for the entry of substrates and the release of products. The results suggest a molecular basis for the unique sulfatase activity of this GST. ..
  4. Coggan M, Whitbread L, Whittington A, Board P. Structure and organization of the human theta-class glutathione S-transferase and D-dopachrome tautomerase gene complex. Biochem J. 1998;334 ( Pt 3):617-23 pubmed
    ..GSTT1 and GSTT2 are separated by approx. 50 kb...
  5. Sprenger R, Schlagenhaufer R, Kerb R, Bruhn C, Brockmoller J, Roots I, et al. Characterization of the glutathione S-transferase GSTT1 deletion: discrimination of all genotypes by polymerase chain reaction indicates a trimodular genotype-phenotype correlation. Pharmacogenetics. 2000;10:557-65 pubmed
    ..0001, anova). ..
  6. Wang C, Shu L, Zhang C, Li W, Wu R, Guo Y, et al. Histone Methyltransferase Setd7 Regulates Nrf2 Signaling Pathway by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate and Ursolic Acid in Human Prostate Cancer Cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018;62:e1700840 pubmed publisher
    ..downstream Nrf2 targets, such as NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and glutathione S-transferase theta 2 (Gstt2). Downregulation of Setd7 decreases soft agar colony formation ability of PCa cells...
  7. Ferrer Torres D, Nancarrow D, Steinberg H, Wang Z, Kuick R, Weh K, et al. Constitutively Higher Level of GSTT2 in Esophageal Tissues From African Americans Protects Cells Against DNA Damage. Gastroenterology. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..We found significantly higher levels of glutathione S-transferase theta 2 (GSTT2) mRNA in squamous mucosa from African Americans compared with European Americans and associated these with ..
  8. Aquilino M, Sánchez Argüello P, Novo M, Martínez Guitarte J. Effects on tadpole snail gene expression after exposure to vinclozolin. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019;170:568-577 pubmed publisher
    ..the identification of several genes related to detoxification mechanisms (Cyp2u1, Cyp3a7, Cyp4f22, GSTo1, GSTt2, and MRP1), stress response (Hsp20.4, Hsp17, Hsp16...
  9. Alfarano M, Pastore D, Fogliano V, Schalkwijk C, Oliviero T. The Effect of Sulforaphane on Glyoxalase I Expression and Activity in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. Nutrients. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    ..GSTP1 expression slightly increased after 24 h incubation (1.08-fold) while the expressions of isoform GSTT2 and GSTM2 were below the limit of detection...

More Information


  1. Sueblinvong V, Tseng V, Smith T, Saghafi R, Mills S, Neujahr D, et al. TGFβ1 mediates alcohol-induced Nrf2 suppression in lung fibroblasts. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014;38:2731-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Nrf2-ARE activity, and the expression of the Nrf2-ARE-dependent antioxidants glutathione s-transferase theta 2 (GSTT2) and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC)...
  2. Zhang Y, Wijaya L, Dekker S, Vermeulen N, Commandeur J. High-performance liquid chromatography-based assay for glutathione transferase theta 2 activity: Application to characterize interindividual variability in human liver fractions. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2018;156:181-188 pubmed publisher
    Human glutathione transferase T2-2 (GSTT2-2) is one of the enzymes considered to play a role in inactivation of toxicants and carcinogens...
  3. Chambers J, Zhang W, Sehmi J, Li X, Wass M, van der Harst P, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma. Nat Genet. 2011;43:1131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and immunity (CD276, CDH6, GCKR, HNF1A, HPR, ITGA1, RORA and STAT4) and glutathione metabolism (GSTT1, GSTT2 and GGT), as well as several genes of uncertain or unknown function (including ABHD12, EFHD1, EFNA1, EPHA2, MICAL3 ..
  4. Jin X, Xu Z, Cao J, Shao P, Zhou M, Qin Z, et al. Proteomics analysis of human placenta reveals glutathione metabolism dysfunction as the underlying pathogenesis for preeclampsia. Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2017;1865:1207-1214 pubmed publisher
    ..Especially, the glutamine metabolic process related molecules, GPX1, GPX3, SMS, GGCT, GSTK1, NF?B, GSTT2, SOD1 and GCLM, are involved in the switching process from oxidized glutathione (GSSG) conversion to the reduced ..
  5. Parada H, Sun X, Fleming J, Williams Devane C, Kirk E, Olsson L, et al. Race-associated biological differences among luminal A and basal-like breast cancers in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. Breast Cancer Res. 2017;19:131 pubmed publisher
    ..found to be differentially expressed by race and associated with breast cancer survival: ACOX2, MUC1, FAM177A1, GSTT2, PSPH, PSPHL, SQLE, and TYMS...
  6. Naseer M, Chaudhary A, Rasool M, Kalamegam G, Ashgan F, Assidi M, et al. Copy number variations in Saudi family with intellectual disability and epilepsy. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:757 pubmed
    ..0.6.6 softwear. Copy number gain were observed in the chromosome 1, 16 and 22 with LCE3C, HPR, GSTT2, GSTTP2, DDT and DDTL genes respectively whereas the deletions observed in the chromosomal regions 8p23-p21 (..
  7. Canova C, Richiardi L, Merletti F, Pentenero M, Gervasio C, Tanturri G, et al. Alcohol, tobacco and genetic susceptibility in relation to cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in northern Italy. Tumori. 2010;96:1-10 pubmed
    ..The study of single nucleotide polymorphisms in upper aerodigestive tract cancer etiology may help to identify high-risk subgroups and to better understand the pathways leading to the development of these cancers...
  8. Whittington A, Webb G, Baker R, Board P. Characterization of a cDNA and gene encoding the mouse theta class glutathione transferase mGSTT2 and its localization to chromosome 10B5-C1. Genomics. 1996;33:105-11 pubmed
    ..The encoded protein shares amino acid sequence identities of 92, 77, 51, and 55% with rat subunit Yrs, human subunit GSTT2, rat subunit 5, and human subunit GSTT1, respectively.
  9. Webb G, Vaska V, Coggan M, Board P. Chromosomal localization of the gene for the human theta class glutathione transferase (GSTT1). Genomics. 1996;33:121-3 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization studies have localized the GSTT1 gene to 22q11.2. This is the same band to which we previously localized the GSTT2 gene. This finding confirms the trend for human GST genes to be found in class-specific clusters.
  10. Mainwaring G, Williams S, Foster J, Tugwood J, Green T. The distribution of theta-class glutathione S-transferases in the liver and lung of mouse, rat and human. Biochem J. 1996;318 ( Pt 1):297-303 pubmed
    ..The mRNA distribution was compared with that of enzyme protein determined with an antibody to rat GSTT2-2. Both the antibody and the oligonucleotide probes gave the same distribution patterns...
  11. Butler M, Hackett N, Salit J, Strulovici Barel Y, Omberg L, Mezey J, et al. Glutathione S-transferase copy number variation alters lung gene expression. Eur Respir J. 2011;38:15-28 pubmed publisher
  12. Zienolddiny S, Campa D, Lind H, Ryberg D, Skaug V, Stangeland L, et al. A comprehensive analysis of phase I and phase II metabolism gene polymorphisms and risk of non-small cell lung cancer in smokers. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:1164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..associations with multiple SNPs in the phase II genes ALDH2, COMT, EPHX1, SOD2, NAT1, NAT2, GSTM3, GSTP1, GSTT2 and MPO were also found...
  13. Hashimoto T, Hashimoto K, Miyatake R, Matsuzawa D, Sekine Y, Inada T, et al. Association study between polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes and methamphetamine use disorder in a Japanese population. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:1040-6 pubmed publisher
    ..among glutathione (GSH)-related enzymes; glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) such as GSTT1 (Non-deletion/Null), GSTT2 (Met139Ile), GSTA1 (-69C/T), and GSTO1 (Ala140Asp); glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) (Pro198Leu); and glutamate-..
  14. Liu Y, Yoshimura K, Hanaoka T, Ohnami S, Ohnami S, Kohno T, et al. Association of habitual smoking and drinking with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in 40 candidate genes: data from random population-based Japanese samples. J Hum Genet. 2005;50:62-8 pubmed
    ..The P values of odds ratios to habitual smoking for CYP17A1, ESR1, EPHX1, GSTT2, ALDH2, NOS2A, OGG1, and SLC6A4 and those of odds ratios to habitual drinking for CYP1B1, ESR1, HSD17B3, GSTM3, ..
  15. Tatemichi M, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S. Association between polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase Mu3 and IgG titer levels in serum against Helicobacter pylori. J Hum Genet. 2009;54:557-63 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori. GST-M3 activity is possibly involved in protection against mucosal atrophy caused by H. pylori as the levels of IgG titer and PGI are linked to mucosal status. ..
  16. Gemignani F, Neri M, Bottari F, Barale R, Canessa P, Canzian F, et al. Risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma and polymorphisms in genes involved in the genome stability and xenobiotics metabolism. Mutat Res. 2009;671:76-83 pubmed publisher
    ..54; 95% CI 1.75-7.16; p=0.0002), reinforcing existing evidences that describe genetic polymorphisms of NAT2 possibly involved in the etiology of the MPM. ..
  17. Wang S, Chanock S, Tang D, Li Z, Edwards S, Jedrychowski W, et al. Effect of gene-environment Interactions on mental development in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian mothers and newborns. Ann Hum Genet. 2010;74:46-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The strongest and most consistent effect observed was between PAH and haplotype ACCGGC of the CYP1B1 gene. ..
  18. de Bruin W, Wagenmans M, Peters W. Expression of glutathione S-transferase alpha, P1-1 and T1-1 in the human gastrointestinal tract. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2000;91:310-6 pubmed
    ..The common expression of GSTalpha, GSTT1-1 and GSTP1-1 in many cell types along the human gastrointestinal tract suggests an important role in the protection against carcinogens and other xenobiotics. ..
  19. Rodriguez Santiago B, Brunet A, Sobrino B, Serra Juhé C, Flores R, Armengol L, et al. Association of common copy number variants at the glutathione S-transferase genes and rare novel genomic changes with schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:1023-33 pubmed publisher
    ..3) and GSTT2 (glutathione S-transferase theta 2) (22q11...
  20. Miene C, Weise A, Glei M. Impact of polyphenol metabolites produced by colonic microbiota on expression of COX-2 and GSTT2 in human colon cells (LT97). Nutr Cancer. 2011;63:653-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of glutathione S-transferase T2 (GSTT2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was measured by real-time PCR and Western blot...
  21. Zhao Y, Marotta M, Eichler E, Eng C, Tanaka H. Linkage disequilibrium between two high-frequency deletion polymorphisms: implications for association studies involving the glutathione-S transferase (GST) genes. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000472 pubmed publisher
    ..GSTT2B is a duplicated copy of GSTT2, the only paralogue of GSTT1 in humans...
  22. Matsuzawa D, Hashimoto K, Hashimoto T, Shimizu E, Watanabe H, Fujita Y, et al. Association study between the genetic polymorphisms of glutathione-related enzymes and schizophrenia in a Japanese population. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B:86-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we performed association studies between GSH-related genes (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTO1, GSTT1, GSTT2, GPX1, and GCLM) and schizophrenia in a Japanese population...
  23. Schlörmann W, Lamberty J, Ludwig D, Lorkowski S, Glei M. In vitro-fermented raw and roasted walnuts induce expression of CAT and GSTT2 genes, growth inhibition, and apoptosis in LT97 colon adenoma cells. Nutr Res. 2017;47:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..of LT97 colon adenoma cells with fermentation supernatants (FSs), expression of CAT, SOD2, GPx1, GSTP1, and GSTT2 genes as well as cell growth and apoptosis was examined...
  24. de Bruin W, Wagenmans M, Board P, Peters W. Expression of glutathione S-transferase theta class isoenzymes in human colorectal and gastric cancers. Carcinogenesis. 1999;20:1453-7 pubmed
    ..In humans, two theta class isoenzymes, GSTT1-1 and GSTT2-2, have been described so far. Both enzymes were claimed to have an important role in human carcinogenesis...
  25. Wang S, Zheng T, Chanock S, Jedrychowski W, Perera F. Methods for detecting interactions between genetic polymorphisms and prenatal environment exposure with a mother-child design. Genet Epidemiol. 2010;34:125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The application on a real mother-child pair data from a study conducted in Krakow, Poland, suggested four significant gene-environment interactions after multiple comparisons adjustment. ..
  26. De Maria F, Pedersen J, Caccuri A, Antonini G, Turella P, Stella L, et al. The specific interaction of dinitrosyl-diglutathionyl-iron complex, a natural NO carrier, with the glutathione transferase superfamily: suggestion for an evolutionary pressure in the direction of the storage of nitric oxide. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42283-93 pubmed
    ..e. GSTA1-1, GSTM2-2, GSTP1-1, and GSTT2-2, has been investigated by means of pre-steady and steady state kinetics, fluorometry, electron paramagnetic ..
  27. Jang S, Kim I, Kang H, Park H, Ahn S, Yoon H, et al. GSTT2 promoter polymorphisms and colorectal cancer risk. BMC Cancer. 2007;7:16 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we sought to determine whether GSTT2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with colorectal cancer risk...
  28. Chelvanayagam G, Wilce M, Parker M, Tan K, Board P. Homology model for the human GSTT2 Theta class glutathione transferase. Proteins. 1997;27:118-30 pubmed
    A tertiary model of the human GSTT2 Theta class glutathione transferase is presented based on the recently solved crystal structure of a related thetalike isoenzyme from Lucilia cuprina...
  29. Fledrich R, Mannil M, Leha A, Ehbrecht C, Solari A, Pelayo Negro A, et al. Biomarkers predict outcome in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017;88:941-952 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with CMT1A, from whom a second skin biopsy was taken after 2-3 years, the cutaneous mRNA expression of GSTT2, CTSA, PPARG, CDA, ENPP1 and NRG1-Iis changing over time and correlates with disease progression...
  30. Wang S, Chanock S, Tang D, Li Z, Jedrychowski W, Perera F. Assessment of interactions between PAH exposure and genetic polymorphisms on PAH-DNA adducts in African American, Dominican, and Caucasian mothers and newborns. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..including the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes GSTM1, and GSTT2. Genetic variation in these genes could influence susceptibility to adverse effects of PAHs in polluted air...