Gene Symbol: GSTM2
Description: glutathione S-transferase mu 2
Alias: GST4, GSTM, GSTM2-2, GTHMUS, glutathione S-transferase Mu 2, GST class-mu 2, GST, muscle, S-(hydroxyalkyl)glutathione lyase M2, glutathione S-alkyltransferase M2, glutathione S-aralkyltransferase M2, glutathione S-aryltransferase M2, glutathione S-transferase 4, glutathione S-transferase M1, glutathione S-transferase M2 (muscle), glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (muscle)
Species: human
Products:     GSTM2

Top Publications

  1. Pearson W, Vorachek W, Xu S, Berger R, Hart I, Vannais D, et al. Identification of class-mu glutathione transferase genes GSTM1-GSTM5 on human chromosome 1p13. Am J Hum Genet. 1993;53:220-33 pubmed
    The GSTM1, GSTM2, GSTM3, GSTM4, and GSTM5 glutathione transferase genes have been mapped to human chromosome 1 by using locus-specific PCR primer pairs spanning exon 6, intron 6, and exon 7, as probes on DNA from human/hamster somatic ..
  2. Ross V, Board P. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of an alternatively spliced human Mu class glutathione S-transferase transcript. Biochem J. 1993;294 ( Pt 2):373-80 pubmed
    ..In general, the recombinant enzyme has relatively low activity when compared with all the previously described human Mu class GST isoenzymes. ..
  3. Abdellatif Y, Liu D, Gallant E, Gage P, Board P, Dulhunty A. The Mu class glutathione transferase is abundant in striated muscle and is an isoform-specific regulator of ryanodine receptor calcium channels. Cell Calcium. 2007;41:429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the major GST isoform expressed in muscle regulates Ca2+ signalling in skeletal and cardiac muscle and conserves Ca2+ stores in the sarcoplasmic reticulum...
  4. White D, Li D, Nurgalieva Z, El Serag H. Genetic variants of glutathione S-transferase as possible risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma: a HuGE systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167:377-89 pubmed
    ..Fifteen eligible studies were identified: 14 evaluated GSTM1; 13, GSTT1; three, GSTP1; and one each evaluated GSTM2, GSTM3, GSTA1, GSTA4, GSTO1, and GSTO2, respectively...
  5. Tang S, Wu M, Wong R, Liu Y, Tang L, Lai C, et al. Epigenetic mechanisms for silencing glutathione S-transferase m2 expression by hypermethylated specificity protein 1 binding in lung cancer. Cancer. 2011;117:3209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Epigenetic silencing of GST-M2 was distinguished from Sp1-mediated GST-M2 transcriptional expression. The authors concluded that this represents a mechanism that leads to decreased expression of GST-M2 in lung cancer cells. ..
  6. Han I, Jeong S, Lee H, Koh W, Lee H, Lee E, et al. Proteomic analysis of mesenchymal stem-like cells derived from ovarian teratoma: potential role of glutathione S-transferase M2 in ovarian teratoma. Proteomics. 2011;11:352-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, among them, GSTM2 was strongly expressed in teratoma MSCLCs...
  7. Esparham A, Smith T, Belmont J, Haden M, Wagner L, Evans R, et al. Nutritional and Metabolic Biomarkers in Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015;14:40-53 pubmed
    ..A majority had absent glutathione S-transferase (GSTM) at the 1p13.3 location, and 3 of 7 children were heterozygous for the glutathione S-transferase I105V (GSTP1)...
  8. Kopalli S, Cha K, Ryu J, Lee S, Jeong M, Hwang S, et al. Korean red ginseng improves testicular ineffectiveness in aging rats by modulating spermatogenesis-related molecules. Exp Gerontol. 2017;90:26-33 pubmed publisher
    ..hormone receptors [AR, LHR, and FSHR, respectively]), and antioxidant enzymes (glutathione S-transferase mu [GSTm]-5, glutathione peroxidase [GPx]-4, peroxiredoxin [PRx]-3), as well as histone deactylation (silent mating type ..
  9. Jia R, Lan C, Wang X, Gao C. Integrated analysis of gene expression and copy number variations in MET proto?oncogene?transformed human primary osteoblasts. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, cell cycle?associated genes including E2F1, E2F2, RB1 and CCND1, and cell adhesion?associated genes, such as CDH18 and LAMA1 may be used as diagnosis and/or therapeutic markers for patients with OS...

More Information

Publications119 found, 100 shown here

  1. Deng J, Zhao L, Zhang N, Karrow N, Krumm C, Qi D, et al. Aflatoxin B1 metabolism: Regulation by phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and chemoprotective agents. Mutat Res. 2018;778:79-89 pubmed publisher
    ..for detoxification of the AFB1 by catalyzing the conjugation of GSH to AFBO in humans, whereas GSTM2 in a nonhuman primate, GSTA3 in mice, GSTA5 in rats, and GSTA1, GSTA2, GSTA3 and GSTA4 in the turkey are important...
  2. Meng L, Rijntjes E, Swarts H, Bunschoten A, van der Stelt I, Keijer J, et al. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress. Biol Reprod. 2016;94:90 pubmed publisher
    ..and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression...
  3. da Silveira T, Zamberlan D, Arantes L, Machado M, da Silva T, Câmara D, et al. Quinolinic acid and glutamatergic neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans. Neurotoxicology. 2018;67:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, non-lethal doses of QUIN triggered neurodegeneration in glutamatergic neurons. Our findings indicate that C. elegans might be useful as a model for studies of QUIN as a glutamatergic neurotoxin in rodent models. ..
  4. Theis W, Andringa K, Millender Swain T, Dickinson D, Postlethwait E, Bailey S. Ozone inhalation modifies the rat liver proteome. Redox Biol. 2014;2:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that O3 inhalation may represent an important unrecognized factor that can modulate hepatic metabolic functions. ..
  5. Sun Z, Jiang Q, Wang L, Zhou Z, Wang M, Yi Q, et al. The comparative proteomics analysis revealed the modulation of inducible nitric oxide on the immune response of scallop Chlamys farreri. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014;40:584-94 pubmed publisher
  6. Lei L, Wu S, Lu S, Liu M, Song Y, Fu Z, et al. Microplastic particles cause intestinal damage and other adverse effects in zebrafish Danio rerio and nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Sci Total Environ. 2018;619-620:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that intestinal damage is a key effect of microplastics; and that the toxicity of microplastics is closely dependent on their size, rather than their composition. ..
  7. Madeira C, Leal M, Diniz M, Cabral H, Vinagre C. Thermal stress and energy metabolism in two circumtropical decapod crustaceans: Responses to acute temperature events. Mar Environ Res. 2018;141:148-158 pubmed publisher
  8. Ye L, Zhang G, Huang J, Li Y, Zheng G, Zhang D, et al. Are polymorphisms in metabolism protective or a risk for reduced white blood cell counts in a Chinese population with low occupational benzene exposures?. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2015;21:232-40 pubmed publisher
    ..White blood cell counts were also lower in workers with null-GSTT1 and null-GSTM after adjusting for age, gender, smoking, and alcohol consumption...
  9. Rathor L, Akhoon B, Pandey S, Srivastava S, Pandey R. Folic acid supplementation at lower doses increases oxidative stress resistance and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Age (Dordr). 2015;37:113 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study promotes the use of FA to mitigate abiotic stresses and other aging-related ailments. ..
  10. Lopez Moya F, Kowbel D, Nueda M, Palma Guerrero J, Glass N, Lopez Llorca L. Neurospora crassa transcriptomics reveals oxidative stress and plasma membrane homeostasis biology genes as key targets in response to chitosan. Mol Biosyst. 2016;12:391-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Both genes play a determinant role in N. crassa membrane homeostasis. Our results are of paramount importance for developing chitosan as an antifungal. ..
  11. Si X, Strappe P, Blanchard C, Zhou Z. Enhanced anti-obesity effects of complex of resistant starch and chitosan in high fat diet fed rats. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;157:834-841 pubmed publisher
    ..gene GAPDH, were significantly down-regulated, whilst lipid oxidation gene Acox1 and liver functional genes Gstm2, Gclc were up-regulated following CL consumption compared with single RS or CS treatment...
  12. Ganesan S, Keating A. Bisphenol A-Induced Ovotoxicity Involves DNA Damage Induction to Which the Ovary Mounts a Protective Response Indicated by Increased Expression of Proteins Involved in DNA Repair and Xenobiotic Biotransformation. Toxicol Sci. 2016;152:169-80 pubmed publisher
    ..05) after 1 day of BPA exposure. mRNA encoding Meh, Gstm, c-kit, Kitlg, and Akt were increased (P < ...
  13. Zacchi F, de Lima D, Flores Nunes F, Mattos J, Lüchmann K, de Miranda Gomes C, et al. Transcriptional changes in oysters Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to phenanthrene at different salinities. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;183:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher transcript levels of CAT-like, SOD-like, GSTm-like (96h) and GST?-like (24h) in oysters kept at salinity 10 compared to organisms at salinities 25 and/or 35 are ..
  14. Yang S, Kim B, Lee S, Kim H, Lee C, Yu J, et al. Prenatal Particulate Matter/Tobacco Smoke Increases Infants' Respiratory Infections: COCOA Study. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2015;7:573-82 pubmed publisher
    ..factor (Nrf2) (rs6726395), glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GSTP) 1 (rs1695), and glutathione-S-transferase-mu (GSTM) 1. Microarrays were used for genome-wide methylation analysis. Prenatal exposure to indoor PMâ‚‚...
  15. de Oliveira R, Figueiredo C, Santiago R, Yahouedehou S, Carvalho S, da Paz S, et al. Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Environmental Exposure to Polycyclic Derivatives in African Children. Dis Markers. 2018;2018:9078939 pubmed publisher
    ..Children with GSTT and GSTM null exhibited decreased WBC, neutrophil, basophil, and lymphocyte counts...
  16. Lavaris A, Gazouli M, Brouzas D, Moschos M. Polymorphism Analysis of GSTM1 and OPA1 Genes in Greek Patients with Primary Open-angle Glaucoma. In Vivo. 2016;30:473-7 pubmed
    ..The GSTM1 null genotype might be associated with increased risk of development of POAG in the Greek population. No significant correlation was found between OPA1 polymorphisms and POAG. ..
  17. Wang C, Tao Q, Wang X, Wang X, Zhang X. Impact of high-fat diet on liver genes expression profiles in mice model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;45:52-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Sult1e1, Cyp17a1, Cyp3a41a, Gstt3, Cyp51, Cyp2c54 and Cyp4f14, and the up-regulation of Asns, Past1, Cyp2c55, Gstm2, Cyp2e1 and Gsta?1...
  18. Chen D, Miao Z, Peng M, Xing H, Zhang H, Teng X. The co-expression of circRNA and mRNA in the thymuses of chickens exposed to ammonia. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019;176:146-152 pubmed publisher
    ..NH3 exposure decreased mRNA expression of antioxidant-related genes (GPx and GST4) and increased the mRNA expression of inflammation-related genes (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and iNOS) in chicken thymuses...
  19. Vauzour D, Buonfiglio M, Corona G, Chirafisi J, Vafeiadou K, Angeloni C, et al. Sulforaphane protects cortical neurons against 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine-induced toxicity through the activation of ERK1/2, Nrf-2 and the upregulation of detoxification enzymes. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that SFN stimulates the NF-E2-related factor-2 pathway of antioxidant gene expression in neurons and may protect against neuronal injury relevant to the aetiology of Parkinson's disease. ..
  20. Sun W, Pang Y, Liu Y, Hao H, Zhao X, Qin T, et al. Exogenous glutathione supplementation in culture medium improves the bovine embryo development after in vitro fertilization. Theriogenology. 2015;84:716-23 pubmed publisher
    ..regulator genes (OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4), GSH synthesis genes (GCLM, GCLC, and GSS), and GSH utilization genes (GSTP, GSTM, and GPX) showed that the GSH had no significant impact on these genes...
  21. Babelova A, Burckhardt B, Salinas Riester G, Pommerenke C, Burckhardt G, Henjakovic M. Next generation sequencing of sex-specific genes in the livers of obese ZSF1 rats. Genomics. 2015;106:204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..g. cytochrome P450 2c11 (Cyp2c11), Cyp4a2, glutathione S-transferases mu 2 (Gstm2), and Slc22a8 (organic anion transporter 3, Oat3)...
  22. Stavrinou P, Mavrogiorgou M, Polyzoidis K, Kreft Kerekes V, Timmer M, Marselos M, et al. Expression Profile of Genes Related to Drug Metabolism in Human Brain Tumors. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143285 pubmed publisher
    ..Meningeal tumors showed higher expression levels for AOX1, CYP1B1, GSTM3 and GSTP1. For AOX1, GSTM and GSTP1 this could be verified on a protein level as well...
  23. Tylee D, Chandler S, Nievergelt C, Liu X, Pazol J, Woelk C, et al. Blood-based gene-expression biomarkers of post-traumatic stress disorder among deployed marines: A pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015;51:472-94 pubmed publisher
    ..80% prediction accuracy in the test subset based on the expression of just two full-length transcripts (GSTM1 and GSTM2). A biomarker panel based on 20 exons attained an improved 90% accuracy in the test subset...
  24. Zhu K, Zhang C, Ma X, Hu J, Cai T, Zhang L. Analyzing the Interactions of mRNAs and ncRNAs to Predict Competing Endogenous RNA Networks in Osteosarcoma Chemo-Resistance. Mol Ther. 2019;27:518-530 pubmed publisher
    ..two constructed ceRNA regulatory pathways, lncRNAMEG3/hsa-miR-200b-3p/AKT2 and hsa_circ_0001258/hsa-miR-744-3p/GSTM2, were randomly selected and validated by real-time qPCR, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), RNA pull-down assay, and ..
  25. Wang H, Muhammad I, Li W, Sun X, Cheng P, Zhang X. Sensitivity of Arbor Acres broilers and chemoprevention of aflatoxin B1-induced liver injury by curcumin, a natural potent inducer of phase-II enzymes and Nrf2. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018;59:94-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Western blot analysis showed that Nrf2, GSTM2, and GSTA3 protein expression level was markedly (p?<?0.01) reduced in AFB1-fed group...
  26. Gueguen Y, Denis S, Adrien S, Kevin M, Pierre G, Solène B, et al. Response of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera to cadmium and chromium: Identification of molecular biomarkers. Mar Pollut Bull. 2017;118:420-426 pubmed publisher
    ..MT) was significantly up-regulated by Cd-Cr at both concentrations, while 7 others (SOD, CAT, GPX, GSTO, GSTM, CASP, MDR) were down-regulated...
  27. Zhang H, Song C, Xie J, Ge X, Liu B, Zhang Y, et al. Comparative proteomic analysis of hepatic mechanisms of Megalobrama amblycephala infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;82:339-349 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GSTm was up-regulated at protein level but down-regulated at the mRNA level. Consequently, these results revealed that A...
  28. Azarova I, Bushueva O, Konoplya A, Polonikov A. Glutathione S-transferase genes and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the role of sexual dimorphism, gene-gene and gene-smoking interactions in disease susceptibility. J Diabetes. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigated whether polymorphisms in the genes encoding glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), T1 (GSTT1) and P1 (GSTP1) jointly contribute to the risk of T2D...
  29. Song C, Liu B, Xu P, Xie J, Ge X, Zhou Q, et al. Oxidized fish oil injury stress in Megalobrama amblycephala: Evaluated by growth, intestinal physiology, and transcriptome-based PI3K-Akt/NF-κB/TCR inflammatory signaling. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;81:446-455 pubmed publisher RT-PCR, which revealed TLR2, PI3K, Akt, NF-κB, MHCII-β, TCR-α, TGF-β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, GPx1 and GSTm were all activated under 6OF stimulation...
  30. Kim S, Kang S, Chung J, Park H, Cho K, Park M. Genetic Polymorphisms of Glutathione-Related Enzymes (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) and Schizophrenia Risk: A Meta-Analysis. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:19602-11 pubmed publisher
    ..05 in each model). Further analyses based on ethnicity, GSTM polymorphism showed weak association with schizophrenia in East Asian population (OR = 1.314, 95% CI = 1.025-1...
  31. Massanella M, Singhania A, Beliakova Bethell N, Pier R, Lada S, White C, et al. Differential gene expression in HIV-infected individuals following ART. Antiviral Res. 2013;100:420-8 pubmed publisher
    ..g., ALOX12 and CYP2S1). Targets not confirmed by RT-qPCR (i.e., GSTM2 and RPL5) were significantly confirmed by droplet digital (ddPCR), which may represent a superior method when ..
  32. Saitou M, Satta Y, Gokcumen O. Complex Haplotypes of GSTM1 Gene Deletions Harbor Signatures of a Selective Sweep in East Asian Populations. G3 (Bethesda). 2018;8:2953-2966 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that the Tanuki haplogroup is significantly associated with the expression levels of other GSTM genes...
  33. Kwon E, Shin J, Kim B, Shah Kulkarni S, Park H, Kho Y, et al. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorinated Compounds Affects Birth Weight Through GSTM1 Polymorphism. J Occup Environ Med. 2016;58:e198-205 pubmed publisher
  34. Tang L, Luo J, Li Y, Ge R, Li Q. Hepatotoxicity and proteomic mechanism of Di-n-butyl-di-(4-chlorobenzohydroxamato)tin(IV) (DBDCT) in vivo. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;51:38-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, a considerable amount of the altered proteins, such as OAT, HPPD, M2GD, GSTM2, Glud1, GSTa, HS90? and PDIA3 participated in multi-metabolic pathways and oxidative stress reactions...
  35. Shawahna R, Uchida Y, Declèves X, Ohtsuki S, Yousif S, Dauchy S, et al. Transcriptomic and quantitative proteomic analysis of transporters and drug metabolizing enzymes in freshly isolated human brain microvessels. Mol Pharm. 2011;8:1332-41 pubmed publisher
    ..CYP1B1 and CYP2U1 were the only quantifiable CYPs. Finally, GSTP1, COMT, GSTM3, GSTO1 and GSTM2 proteins were the main phase II enzymes quantified; UGTs and NATs were not detected...
  36. Oz O, Aras Ates N, Tamer L, Yildirim O, Adiguzel U. Glutathione s-transferase m1, t1, and p1 gene polymorphism in exudative age-related macular degeneration: a preliminary report. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16:105-110 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate whether the gene polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, T1, and P1 are associated with the development of exudative age-related macular degeneration...
  37. Oz O, Aras Ates N, Tamer L, Yildirim O, Adiguzel U. Glutathione S-transferase M1, T1, and P1 gene polymorphism in exudative age-related macular degeneration: a preliminary report. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2006;16:105-10 pubmed
    ..To elucidate whether the gene polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, T1, and P1 are associated with the development of exudative age-related macular degeneration...
  38. Qu K, Liu S, Wang Z, Huang Z, Liu S, Chang H, et al. Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase genes and survival of resected hepatocellular carcinoma patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:4310-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Twelve tagging SNPs in GST genes (including GSTA1, GSTA4, GSTM2, GSTM3, GSTO1, GSTO2 and GSTP1) were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX genotyping method in a cohort of 214 ..
  39. Abo Shanab A, El Desouky M, Kholoussi N, El Kamah G, Helwa I, Fahmi A. The relation between glutathione S-Transferase M1 null-genotype and cardiac problems in beta-thalassemia. Acta Biochim Pol. 2016;63:267-71 pubmed publisher
    ..GSTM1 null genotype frequency has no role in β-thalassemia or cardiac complications appearance. ..
  40. Paiva P, Lockhart M, Girling J, Olshansky M, Woodrow N, Marino J, et al. Identification of genes differentially expressed in menstrual breakdown and repair. Mol Hum Reprod. 2016;22:898-912 pubmed
    ..evidence for a role for glutathione-mediated detoxification (glutathione-S-transferase mu 1 and 2; GSTM1 and GSTM2) during menstruation...
  41. Rauscher G, Kresovich J, Poulin M, Yan L, Macias V, Mahmoud A, et al. Exploring DNA methylation changes in promoter, intragenic, and intergenic regions as early and late events in breast cancer formation. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:816 pubmed publisher
    ..The DNA regions studied were promoters (BRCA1, CD44, ESR1, GSTM2, GSTP1, MAGEA1, MSI1, NFE2L3, RASSF1A, RUNX3, SIX3 and TFF1), far-upstream regions (EN1, PAX3, PITX2, and SGK1), ..
  42. Li C, Renaud H, Klaassen C, Cui J. Age-Specific Regulation of Drug-Processing Genes in Mouse Liver by Ligands of Xenobiotic-Sensing Transcription Factors. Drug Metab Dispos. 2016;44:1038-49 pubmed publisher
    ..low during neonatal age, but gradually increased to adult levels, whereas some DPGs (Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Gstm2, Gstm3, Papss2, and Oatp1a4) exhibited an adolescent-predominant expression pattern...
  43. Kubiszeski E, de Medeiros S, da Silva Seidel J, Barbosa J, Galera M, Galera B. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in Brazilian women with endometriosis. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2015;32:1531-5 pubmed publisher
    ..797) or controls (p = 0.052). GSTM1 null genotype frequency was similar between cases and controls. The GSTT1 null genotype was more frequent in the control group. ..
  44. Ibrahim A, Ahmed H, Alazizi N, Mansour M, Mansour S. Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Gene Polymorphisms and the Outcome of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Egyptian Patients. Ann Hum Genet. 2016;80:32-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we identified an association between the combined GSTM1/GSTT1 double-null genotype and advanced liver fibrosis and outcome of chronic HCV infection in Egyptian patients. ..
  45. Chbili C, Elouaer A, Fathallah N, Nouira M, Jrad B, Gaha L, et al. Effects of glutathione S-transferase M1 andT1 deletions on bipolar disorder risk among a Tunisian population. Gene. 2017;607:31-35 pubmed publisher
    ..96, 95% CI (1.26-7.03), p=0.005]. These genotyping finding revealed that the absence of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 activity could be a contributor factor for the development of BPD. ..
  46. CONKLIN D, Guo Y, Jagatheesan G, Kilfoil P, Haberzettl P, Hill B, et al. Genetic Deficiency of Glutathione S-Transferase P Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Circ Res. 2015;117:437-49 pubmed publisher
    ..mGstp1/2 deletion reduced total GST activity, but no compensatory increase in GSTA and GSTM or major antioxidant enzymes was observed...
  47. Yan S, Wang Z, Wang Z, Duan Q, Wang X, Li J, et al. Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype related to poor prognosis of colorectal cancer. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:10229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..GSTM1 null genotype is significantly associated with poor OS and DFS in patients with colorectal cancer, which suggests that GSTM1 null genotype confers poor effect on the prognosis of colorectal cancer. ..
  48. Chung J, Kwon S, Ahn H, Hwang H, Hong S, Oh S. Association between Dietary Patterns and Atopic Dermatitis in Relation to GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms in Young Children. Nutrients. 2015;7:9440-52 pubmed publisher
    ..63, 95% CI 0.39-1.03 vs. GSTM1/T1 double null group). These findings demonstrate that the present type of GSTM1 may increase susceptibility to the potential effect of the "traditional healthy" diet on AD. ..
  49. Saify K, Saadat I, Saadat M. Down-regulation of antioxidant genes in human SH-SY5Y cells after treatment with morphine. Life Sci. 2016;144:26-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the second group, the mRNA levels of SOD2, NQO1, GSTM2 and GSTO1 were initially increased and then decreased...
  50. Wang S, Huang C, Shen C, Lin L, Zhao P, Chen S, et al. Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Status of Glutathione S-Transferase Mu1 and Mu5 in Urothelial Carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0159102 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the correlation of BBN-decreased GSTM1 and GSTM gene CpG methylation status was analyzed in mice bladders...
  51. Nomani H, Hagh Nazari L, Aidy A, Vaisi raygani A, Kiani A, Rahimi Z, et al. Association between GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 variants and the risk of end stage renal disease. Ren Fail. 2016;38:1455-1461 pubmed
    ..8 times (p?<?0.001) and the increased risk of ESRD for GSTM-null (T1+-M1-) genotype was 3.04 times (p?=?0.002)...
  52. Zhang Y, den Braver Sewradj S, Vos J, Vermeulen N, Commandeur J. Human glutathione S-transferases- and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1-catalyzed inactivation of reactive quinoneimines of amodiaquine and N-desethylamodiaquine: Possible implications for susceptibility to amodiaquine-induced liver toxicity. Toxicol Lett. 2017;275:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that GSTP1-1, GSTA4-4, GSTM4-4, GSTM2-2 and GSTA2-2 (activity in decreasing order) were active isoforms in catalyzing GSH conjugation of reactive QIs of ..
  53. Gómez Martín A, Altakroni B, Lozano Paniagua D, Margison G, de Vocht F, Povey A, et al. Increased N7-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts after occupational exposure to pesticides and influence of genetic polymorphisms of paraoxonase-1 and glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2015;56:437-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:437-445, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  54. Wang D, Zhai J, Liu D. Glutathione S-transferase M1 polymorphisms and Parkinson's disease risk: a meta-analysis. Neurol Res. 2016;38:144-50 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no obvious publication biases in any of the comparisons. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype is not significantly associated with PD risk. ..
  55. Hewawasam R, Liu D, Casarotto M, Board P, Dulhunty A. The GSTM2 C-Terminal Domain Depresses Contractility and Ca2+ Transients in Neonatal Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocytes. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0162415 pubmed publisher
    ..The C-terminal half of GSTM2 (GSTM2C) is essential for RyR2 inhibition, and mutations F157A and Y160A within GSTM2C prevent the inhibitory ..
  56. Ruckerl R, Schneider A, Hampel R, Breitner S, Cyrys J, Kraus U, et al. Association of novel metrics of particulate matter with vascular markers of inflammation and coagulation in susceptible populations -results from a panel study. Environ Res. 2016;150:337-347 pubmed publisher
    ..These air pollution metrics might reflect harmful aerosol properties better than particulate mass or number concentration. They might therefore be important for epidemiological studies. ..
  57. Klarich D, Penprase J, Cintora P, Medrano O, Erwin D, Brasser S, et al. Effects of moderate alcohol consumption on gene expression related to colonic inflammation and antioxidant enzymes in rats. Alcohol. 2017;61:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that moderate alcohol may reduce the risk for colorectal cancer development, which was evidenced by reduced inflammation activity and lower DNA damage after alcohol exposure. ..
  58. Chbili C, Hassine A, Fathallah N, Nouira M, Naija S, Ben Ammou S, et al. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms and the risk of mild hepatotoxicity induced by carbamazepine in a tunisian population study. BMC Neurol. 2018;18:24 pubmed publisher
    ..Results related to GSTT (-) allele and elevation in AST levels should be considered with caution as AST may be elevated in other pathophysiological conditions. ..
  59. Hering D, Lecewicz M, Kordan W, Majewska A, Kaminski S. Missense mutation in glutathione-S-transferase M1 gene is associated with sperm motility and ATP content in frozen-thawed semen of Holstein-Friesian bulls. Anim Reprod Sci. 2015;159:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Rare variant C of GSTM1 was associated with significant decrease of sperm motility and ATP content. Our results demonstrate that C/G missense mutation within GSTM1 gene is involved in bull sperm quality. ..
  60. Yuan J, Murphy S, Stepanov I, Wang R, Carmella S, Nelson H, et al. 2-Phenethyl Isothiocyanate, Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 Polymorphisms, and Detoxification of Volatile Organic Carcinogens and Toxicants in Tobacco Smoke. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016;9:598-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 598-606. ©2016 AACR. ..
  61. Solak B, Karkucak M, Turan H, OcakoÄŸlu G, Özemri SaÄŸ Å, Uslu E, et al. Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and T1 Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Chronic Plaque-Type Psoriasis: A Case-Control Study. Med Princ Pract. 2016;25:155-8 pubmed publisher
    ..957). In this Turkish cohort of patients with psoriasis, neither GSTT1 nor GSTM1 polymorphisms were associated with disease susceptibility. Larger studies with a wider range of GST isoenzyme are needed. ..
  62. Fortes C, Mastroeni S, Bottà G, Boffetta P, Antonelli G, Venanzetti F. Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype, household pesticides exposure and cutaneous melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2016;26:625-630 pubmed
    ..78; 95% CI: 1.01-7.66) in comparison with participants with a low duration of exposure (<10 years) and active GSTM1. These findings suggest that the GSTM1 null genotype is a risk modifier for cutaneous melanoma. ..
  63. Saad A, O Connor P, Mostafa M, Metwalli N, Cooper D, Povey A, et al. Glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk in Egyptians. Int J Biol Markers. 2005;20:69-72 pubmed
    ..42; 95%CI 1.47-3.97). These results suggest that polymorphisms in the GST genes are associated with increased risk of bladder cancer among Egyptians...
  64. Liu D, Hewawasam R, Karunasekara Y, Casarotto M, Dulhunty A, Board P. The inhibitory glutathione transferase M2-2 binding site is located in divergent region 3 of the cardiac ryanodine receptor. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83:1523-9 pubmed publisher
    The muscle-specific glutathione transferase GSTM2-2 modulates the activity of ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium release channels: it inhibits the activity of cardiac RyR (RyR2) channels with high affinity and activates skeletal RyR (RyR1) ..
  65. Yuan L, Lv B, Zha J, Wang Z. Transcriptional expression analysis of ABC efflux transporters and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the Chinese rare minnow. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014;37:984-95 pubmed publisher
    ..the transcriptional effects on these ABC transporter genes and five xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme genes (CYP1A, GSTm, GSTp1, GCLC, and UGT1a) were determined in the rare minnow liver after 12 days of pyrene exposure...
  66. Taylor J, Oliver J, Sherrington R, Pemble S. Structure of human glutathione S-transferase class Mu genes. Biochem J. 1991;274 ( Pt 2):587-93 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that DNA repair by gene conversion may be a chemical immunity mechanism. which could result in acquired resistance to toxins and, in particular, drug resistance due to glutathione S-transferase in tumours. ..
  67. Patskovska L, Fedorov A, Patskovsky Y, Almo S, Listowsky I. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ligand-free human glutathione S-transferase M2-2. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1998;54:458-60 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of ligand-free mu-class GST crystals, and a comparison with liganded complexes will provide insight into the structural consequences of substrate binding which are thought to be important for catalysis. ..
  68. Coles B, Anderson K, Doerge D, Churchwell M, Lang N, Kadlubar F. Quantitative analysis of interindividual variation of glutathione S-transferase expression in human pancreas and the ambiguity of correlating genotype with phenotype. Cancer Res. 2000;60:573-9 pubmed
    ..Interindividual variation of GST expression is, therefore, a factor that should be taken account of in epidemiological studies. ..
  69. De Maria F, Pedersen J, Caccuri A, Antonini G, Turella P, Stella L, et al. The specific interaction of dinitrosyl-diglutathionyl-iron complex, a natural NO carrier, with the glutathione transferase superfamily: suggestion for an evolutionary pressure in the direction of the storage of nitric oxide. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42283-93 pubmed
    ..e. GSTA1-1, GSTM2-2, GSTP1-1, and GSTT2-2, has been investigated by means of pre-steady and steady state kinetics, fluorometry, ..
  70. Pedersen J, De Maria F, Turella P, Federici G, Mattei M, Fabrini R, et al. Glutathione transferases sequester toxic dinitrosyl-iron complexes in cells. A protection mechanism against excess nitric oxide. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:6364-71 pubmed
    ..Because Pi class GSTs may exert a similar role in other cell types, we suggest that specific sequestering of DNDGIC by GSTs is a physiological protective mechanism operating in conditions of excessive levels of nitric oxide. ..
  71. Norrgård M, Hellman U, Mannervik B. Cys-X scanning for expansion of active-site residues and modulation of catalytic functions in a glutathione transferase. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16871-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, the enzyme specificity profile could be changed among the alternative substrates. The procedure lends itself to large-scale production of Cys-X modified protein variants. ..
  72. Huenchuguala S, Munoz P, Graumann R, Paris I, Segura Aguilar J. DT-diaphorase protects astrocytes from aminochrome-induced toxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2016;55:10-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutathione transferase M2-2 (GSTM2) has been shown to protect astrocytes from aminochrome-induced toxicity, but astrocytes also express DT-diaphorase,..
  73. Xue C, He X, Zou D. Glutathione S-transferase M1 Polymorphism and Breast Cancer Risk: a Meta-Analysis in the Chinese Population. Clin Lab. 2016;62:2277-2284 pubmed publisher
    ..42, 95% CI = 1.12 - 1.81) and hospital-based studies (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.20 - 2.00). This meta-analysis suggests that the GSTM1 null genotype is a low-penetrant risk factor for developing breast cancer in the Chinese population. ..
  74. Ebbinghaus D, Bánfi G, Selinski S, Blaszkewicz M, Bürger H, Hengstler J, et al. Polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in bladder cancer patients of the Semmelweis University Budapest, Hungary. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2017;80:423-429 pubmed publisher
    ..Data indicate that GSTM1 is a susceptibility factor for environmentally triggered bladder cancer rather than for smoking-mediated bladder cancer. ..
  75. Vorachek W, Pearson W, Rule G. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a class-mu glutathione transferase from human muscle, the product of the GST4 locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:4443-7 pubmed
    A class-mu glutathione transferase cDNA clone, GTHMUS, was isolated from human myoblasts and its sequence was determined...
  76. Weng M, Hsiao Y, Chiou H, Yang S, Hsieh Y, Cheng Y, et al. Alleviation of benzo[a]pyrene-diolepoxide-DNA damage in human lung carcinoma by glutathione S-transferase M2. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:493-502 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, exogenously overexpressed GST-M2 was effective in reducing BPDE-induced DNA damage in H1355 cells. The catalytic activity of GST-M2 may play an important future role in lowering the incidence of BPDE-induced DNA damage. ..
  77. Hayek T, Stephens J, Hubbart C, Acharya J, Caslake M, Hawe E, et al. A common variant in the glutathione S transferase gene is associated with elevated markers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation in subjects with diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis. 2006;184:404-12 pubmed
    ..01). This study demonstrates an association between the GSTT1-1 variant and markers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Furthermore this variant interacts with smoking to increase lipid peroxidation. ..
  78. Norrg rd M, Ivarsson Y, Tars K, Mannervik B. Alternative mutations of a positively selected residue elicit gain or loss of functionalities in enzyme evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4876-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the diversity of cellular activities in which a single protein can be engaged, the selective transmutation of functional properties has general significance in molecular evolution...
  79. Andonova I, Justenhoven C, Winter S, Hamann U, Baisch C, Rabstein S, et al. No evidence for glutathione S-transferases GSTA2, GSTM2, GSTO1, GSTO2, and GSTZ1 in breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;121:497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..association with breast cancer risk but so far, sparse or even no data for a potential contribution of GSTA2, GSTM2, GSTO, and GSTZ to breast cancer risk are available...
  80. Shen Y, Chen S, Peng Y, Shi Y, Huang X, Yang G, et al. Quantitative assessment of the effect of glutathione S-transferase genes GSTM1 and GSTT1 on hepatocellular carcinoma risk. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:4007-15 pubmed publisher
  81. Cheng G, Zarth A, Upadhyaya P, Villalta P, Balbo S, Hecht S. Investigation of the presence in human urine of mercapturic acids derived from phenanthrene, a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;274:80-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a new pathway of PAH-mercapturic acid formation, but do not provide an explanation for the role of GSTM1 null status on Phe-tetraol formation. ..
  82. Stankovic M, Nikolic A, Nagorni Obradovic L, Petrovic Stanojevic N, Radojkovic D. Gene-Gene Interactions Between Glutathione S-Transferase M1 and Matrix Metalloproteinases 1, 9, and 12 in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Serbians. COPD. 2017;14:581-589 pubmed publisher
    ..019, OR = 4.83). To our best knowledge, this is the first study revealing several gene-gene interactions affecting oxidative stress and protease activity in the pathogenesis of COPD. ..
  83. Bogaards J, Van Ommen B, van Bladeren P. Purification and characterization of eight glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes of hamster. Comparison of subunit composition of enzymes from liver, kidney, testis, pancreas and trachea. Biochem J. 1992;286 ( Pt 2):383-8 pubmed
    ..Pancreas and trachea contained predominantly the Pi-class subunit, P1. GST in the testis was mostly of the Mu class. The major subunit was M4, and subunits M2 and M3 were exclusively detected in the testis. ..
  84. Anttila S, Hirvonen A, Vainio H, Husgafvel Pursiainen K, Hayes J, Ketterer B. Immunohistochemical localization of glutathione S-transferases in human lung. Cancer Res. 1993;53:5643-8 pubmed
    ..b>GSTM2, a striated muscle-specific isozyme, occurred minimally in the epithelium of the terminal airways, and GSTM3, an ..
  85. Xu S, Wang Y, Roe B, Pearson W. Characterization of the human class Mu glutathione S-transferase gene cluster and the GSTM1 deletion. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:3517-27 pubmed
    ..S-transferase genes in this cluster are spaced about 20 kilobase pairs (kb) apart, and arranged as 5'-GSTM4-GSTM2-GSTM1-GSTM5-3'. This map has been used to localize the end points of the polymorphic GSTM1 deletion...
  86. Malic Z, Topic A, Francuski D, Stankovic M, Nagorni Obradovic L, Markovic B, et al. Oxidative Stress and Genetic Variants of Xenobiotic-Metabolising Enzymes Associated with COPD Development and Severity in Serbian Adults. COPD. 2017;14:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, early identification of GSTM1*null or GSTT1*null genotypes in females, low mEH activity phenotype in heavy smokers and monitoring of oxidative stress level can be useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. ..
  87. Raghunathan S, Chandross R, Kretsinger R, Allison T, Penington C, Rule G. Crystal structure of human class mu glutathione transferase GSTM2-2. Effects of lattice packing on conformational heterogeneity. J Mol Biol. 1994;238:815-32 pubmed
    The structures of three crystal forms of the class mu human glutathione transferase GSTM2-2 have been determined...
  88. Baez S, Segura Aguilar J, Widersten M, Johansson A, Mannervik B. Glutathione transferases catalyse the detoxication of oxidized metabolites (o-quinones) of catecholamines and may serve as an antioxidant system preventing degenerative cellular processes. Biochem J. 1997;324 ( Pt 1):25-8 pubmed
    ..In particular, GST M2-2 has the capacity to provide protection relevant to the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  89. Seeley S, Poposki J, Maksimchuk J, Tebbe J, Gaudreau J, Mannervik B, et al. Metabolism of oxidized linoleic acid by glutathione transferases: peroxidase activity toward 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:1064-70 pubmed
    ..Finally, both 13-HODE and 13-OXO were shown to be inducers of GST activity in HT-29 and HCT-116 colon tumor cells. These data help to clarify the role of GST in the metabolic disposition of linoleic acid oxidation products. ..
  90. Delles C, Padmanabhan S, Lee W, Miller W, McBride M, McClure J, et al. Glutathione S-transferase variants and hypertension. J Hypertens. 2008;26:1343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified two major linkage disequilibrium blocks including GSTM4/GSTM2 and GSTM5/GSTM3 separated by the GSTM1 gene...
  91. Dulhunty A, Hewawasam R, Liu D, Casarotto M, Board P. Regulation of the cardiac muscle ryanodine receptor by glutathione transferases. Drug Metab Rev. 2011;43:236-52 pubmed publisher
    ..we compare functional and physical interactions between members of the GST family, including GSTO1-1, GSTA1-1, and GSTM2-2, with RyR2 and with the skeletal isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1)...
  92. Bhattacharjee P, Paul S, Banerjee M, Patra D, Banerjee P, Ghoshal N, et al. Functional compensation of glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null by another GST superfamily member, GSTM2. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2704 pubmed publisher
    ..Through the in silico approach, we identified maximum structural homology between GSTM1 and GSTM2. Total plasma GST enzymatic activity was similar in recruited individuals, irrespective of their GSTM1 genotype (..