Gene Symbol: GST
Description: glutathione S-transferase alpha 1
Alias: GST-epsilon, GST2, GSTA1-1, GTH1, glutathione S-transferase A1, GST HA subunit 1, GST class-alpha member 1, S-(hydroxyalkyl)glutathione lyase A1, glutathione S-alkyltransferase A1, glutathione S-aryltransferase A1, glutathione S-transferase 2, glutathione S-transferase Ha subunit 1, testicular tissue protein Li 80
Species: human
Products:     GST

Top Publications

  1. Pettersson P, Mannervik B. The role of glutathione in the isomerization of delta 5-androstene-3,17-dione catalyzed by human glutathione transferase A1-1. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:11698-704 pubmed
    Human glutathione transferase (GST) A1-1 efficiently catalyzes the isomerization of Delta(5)-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) into Delta(4)-androstene-3,17-dione...
  2. Coles B, Chen G, Kadlubar F, Radominska Pandya A. Interindividual variation and organ-specific patterns of glutathione S-transferase alpha, mu, and pi expression in gastrointestinal tract mucosa of normal individuals. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;403:270-6 pubmed
    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) protein in gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of 16 organ donors, from whom all or substantial portions of the GI tract (stomach-colon) were available, was quantitated by HPLC and examined for interindividual ..
  3. Lyon R, Atkins W. Kinetic characterization of native and cysteine 112-modified glutathione S-transferase A1-1: reassessment of nonsubstrate ligand binding. Biochemistry. 2002;41:10920-7 pubmed
    We have prepared human glutathione S-transferase isoform A1-1 (GST A1-1) which has been chemically modified at cysteine 112...
  4. Zhang D, Lu H, Li J, Shi X, Huang C. Essential roles of ERKs and p38K in up-regulation of GST A1 expression by Maotai content in human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;293:161-71 pubmed
    ..We found that exposure of Hep3B cells to Maotai residue without ethanol (MRWE) resulted in the increased GST A1 anti-oxidant responsive element (ARE) transcriptional expression, while MRWE treatment did not affect Nrf-2-..
  5. Ng L, Nichols K, O Rourke K, Maslen A, Kirby G. Repression of human GSTA1 by interleukin-1beta is mediated by variant hepatic nuclear factor-1C. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:201-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that IL-1beta represses GSTA1 transcription via a mechanism involving overexpression of vHNF-1C. ..
  6. Ladero J, Martinez C, Fernández J, Martín F, Garcia Martin E, Ropero P, et al. Glutathione S-transferases pi 1, alpha 1 and M3 genetic polymorphisms and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Pharmacogenomics. 2007;8:895-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the studied polymorphisms affecting GSTP1, GSTA1 and GSTM3 genes are probably not related to the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in the studied population. ..
  7. Economopoulos K, Sergentanis T. GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, GSTA1 and colorectal cancer risk: a comprehensive meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46:1617-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Controversy exists about whether GST polymorphisms (GSTM1 null/present genotype, GSTT1 null/present genotype, GSTP1 Ile105Val and GSTA1 *A/*B) represent ..
  8. Adnan H, Antenos M, Kirby G. The effect of menadione on glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1): c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) complex dissociation in human colonic adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Toxicol Lett. 2012;214:53-62 pubmed publisher
  9. Karpusas M, Axarli I, Chiniadis L, Papakyriakou A, Bethanis K, Scopelitou K, et al. The interaction of the chemotherapeutic drug chlorambucil with human glutathione transferase A1-1: kinetic and structural analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56337 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are indicative of a structural communication between the subunits on the basis of mutually exclusive modification of Cys112, indicating that the two enzyme active sites are presumably coordinated. ..

More Information

Publications153 found, 100 shown here

  1. Honaker M, Acchione M, Zhang W, Mannervik B, Atkins W. Enzymatic detoxication, conformational selection, and the role of molten globule active sites. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:18599-611 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetic liability of the conformational breadth is minimized by a smooth landscape. We propose that "local" molten globule behavior optimizes detoxication enzymes. ..
  2. Matic M, Pekmezovic T, Djukic T, Mimic Oka J, Dragicevic D, Krivic B, et al. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to smoking-related bladder cancer: a case-control study. Urol Oncol. 2013;31:1184-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of gene-smoking interaction analyses indicated a significant combined effect of smoking and all common GST polymorphisms tested (P for trend = 0.001)...
  3. Cameron A, Sinning I, L Hermite G, Olin B, Board P, Mannervik B, et al. Structural analysis of human alpha-class glutathione transferase A1-1 in the apo-form and in complexes with ethacrynic acid and its glutathione conjugate. Structure. 1995;3:717-27 pubmed
    ..We have solved structures of a human alpha-class GST, isoenzyme A1-1, both in the unliganded form and in complexes with the inhibitor ethacrynic acid and its ..
  4. Knapen M, van Der Wildt B, Sijtsma E, Peters W, Roelofs H, Steegers E. Glutathione S-transferase Alpha 1-1 and aminotransferases in umbilical cord blood. Early Hum Dev. 1999;54:129-35 pubmed
    ..Umbilical cord GSTA1-1 may provide a valuable indicator of neonatal condition immediately after birth, the clinical relevance of which needs to be further established. ..
  5. Coles B, Nowell S, MacLeod S, Sweeney C, Lang N, Kadlubar F. The role of human glutathione S-transferases (hGSTs) in the detoxification of the food-derived carcinogen metabolite N-acetoxy-PhIP, and the effect of a polymorphism in hGSTA1 on colorectal cancer risk. Mutat Res. 2001;482:3-10 pubmed
  6. Coles B, Morel F, Rauch C, Huber W, Yang M, Teitel C, et al. Effect of polymorphism in the human glutathione S-transferase A1 promoter on hepatic GSTA1 and GSTA2 expression. Pharmacogenetics. 2001;11:663-9 pubmed
  7. Le Trong I, Stenkamp R, Ibarra C, Atkins W, Adman E. 1.3-A resolution structure of human glutathione S-transferase with S-hexyl glutathione bound reveals possible extended ligandin binding site. Proteins. 2002;48:618-27 pubmed
    ..Finally, detailed comparison of the structures reported here with previously published X-ray structures reveal a possible reaction coordinate for ligand-dependent conformational changes in the active site and the C-terminus. ..
  8. van der Logt E, Bergevoet S, Roelofs H, van Hooijdonk Z, te Morsche R, Wobbes T, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and glutathione S-transferases and colorectal cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:2407-15 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the data suggest that the presence of variant UGT1A6 and UGT1A7 genotypes with expected reduced enzyme activities, might enhance susceptibility to CRC. ..
  9. Kuhnert D, Sayed Y, Mosebi S, Sayed M, Sewell T, Dirr H. Tertiary interactions stabilise the C-terminal region of human glutathione transferase A1-1: a crystallographic and calorimetric study. J Mol Biol. 2005;349:825-38 pubmed
  10. Misquitta S, Colman R. Communication between the two active sites of glutathione S-transferase A1-1, probed using wild-type-mutant heterodimers. Biochemistry. 2005;44:8608-19 pubmed
    ..Modeling studies show that key amino acid residues and water molecules connect the two active sites. This connectivity is responsible for the cross-talk between the active sites. ..
  11. Ping J, Wang H, Huang M, Liu Z. Genetic analysis of glutathione S-transferase A1 polymorphism in the Chinese population and the influence of genotype on enzymatic properties. Toxicol Sci. 2006;89:438-43 pubmed
    ..This variant is also associated with a decrease in hGSTA1 activity toward preferred substrates. This altered activity, however, is accompanied by significant individual variation in the variant population. ..
  12. Tijhuis M, Wark P, Aarts J, Visker M, Nagengast F, Kok F, et al. GSTP1 and GSTA1 polymorphisms interact with cruciferous vegetable intake in colorectal adenoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:2943-51 pubmed
    ..interplay between cruciferous vegetable consumption, functional genetic variations in glutathione S-transferases (GST) M1, T1, P1, and A1, and colorectal adenomas, was investigated in a Dutch case-control study...
  13. Oniki K, Umemoto Y, Nagata R, Hori M, Mihara S, Marubayashi T, et al. Glutathione S-transferase A1 polymorphism as a risk factor for smoking-related type 2 diabetes among Japanese. Toxicol Lett. 2008;178:143-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The GSTP1 genotype alone or in combination with the smoking status did not affect the risk for diabetes. This is the first report to show that the GSTA1*B allele is a potential risk factor for smoking-related type 2 diabetes. ..
  14. Nguyen T, Janssen M, van Oijen M, Bergevoet S, Te Morsche R, van Asten H, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTP1, GSTT1, and GSTM1 and gastric cancer risk in a Vietnamese population. Oncol Res. 2010;18:349-55 pubmed
    ..Previous epidemiologic studies have associated dysfunction of these GST genes with a higher risk of cancer, but this is still controversial...
  15. Rousseau M, Sant K, Borden L, Franks D, Hahn M, Timme Laragy A. Regulation of Ahr signaling by Nrf2 during development: Effects of Nrf2a deficiency on PCB126 embryotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2015;167:157-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study elucidates the interaction between two important transcription factor pathways in the developmental toxicity of co-planar PCBs. ..
  16. Yan X, Kang H, Feng J, Yang Y, Tang K, Zhu R, et al. Identification of Toxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids and Their Common Hepatotoxicity Mechanism. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:318 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, all the strategies developed here could be extended to studies on toxicity mechanism of other toxins. ..
  17. Ghadiri S, Spalenza V, Dellafiora L, Badino P, Barbarossa A, Dall Asta C, et al. Modulation of aflatoxin B1 cytotoxicity and aflatoxin M1 synthesis by natural antioxidants in a bovine mammary epithelial cell line. Toxicol In Vitro. 2019;57:174-183 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that quercetin exerts its beneficial effects by depressing the bio-transformation of AFB1 and counterbalancing its pro-oxidant effects. ..
  18. Falvo E, Strigari L, Citro G, Giordano C, Arcangeli S, Soriani A, et al. Dose and polymorphic genes xrcc1, xrcc3, gst play a role in the risk of articledeveloping erythema in breast cancer patients following single shot partial breast irradiation after conservative surgery. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:291 pubmed publisher
  19. Ercegovac M, Jovic N, Sokic D, Savic Radojevic A, Coric V, Radic T, et al. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in progressive myoclonus epilepsy: A Serbian case-control study. Seizure. 2015;32:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to assess a possible association between GST polymorphism and PME, as well as, correlation between GST genotypes and oxidative phenotype in PME patients...
  20. Korashy H, Ansari M, Maayah Z, Imam F, Raish M, Attafi I, et al. Differential Effects of Sunitinib on the Expression Profiles of Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in Rat Liver and Kidneys. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016;119:173-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, SUN can serve as XME and transporters modulator, which potentially may counteract the efficacy of the treatment, adverse reactions and drug interactions in SUN treatment. ..
  21. Mücher G, Becker J, Knapp M, Buttner R, Moser M, Rudnik Schoneborn S, et al. Fine mapping of the autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease locus (PKHD1) and the genes MUT, RDS, CSNK2 beta, and GSTA1 at 6p21.1-p12. Genomics. 1998;48:40-5 pubmed
    ..These genetic data, combined with our YAC-based physical map of the 6p21-p12 region, will facilitate efforts to positionally clone the PKHD1 gene. ..
  22. Komiya Y, Tsukino H, Nakao H, Kuroda Y, Imai H, Katoh T. Human glutathion S-transferase A1 polymorphism and susceptibility to urothelial cancer in the Japanese population. Cancer Lett. 2005;221:55-9 pubmed
    ..2%) compared with the controls (19.9%) (OR=1.73; 95%CI 1.01-2.97). This study suggests that exposure to food-derived PhIP could be one of the risk factors in the incidence of urothelial cancer in never smokers. ..
  23. Matsumura T, Imamichi Y, Mizutani T, Ju Y, Yazawa T, Kawabe S, et al. Human glutathione S-transferase A (GSTA) family genes are regulated by steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) and are involved in steroidogenesis. FASEB J. 2013;27:3198-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, hGSTA1 and hGSTA3 gene products are new members of steroidogenesis working as ?(5)-?(4) isomerases. ..
  24. Anttila S, Hirvonen A, Vainio H, Husgafvel Pursiainen K, Hayes J, Ketterer B. Immunohistochemical localization of glutathione S-transferases in human lung. Cancer Res. 1993;53:5643-8 pubmed
    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) detoxify a number of carcinogenic electrophiles including diol-epoxide metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...
  25. Bonola Gallardo I, Irigoyen Camacho M, Vera Robles L, Campero A, Gòmez Quiroz L. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017;176:40-47 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different ..
  26. Khrunin A, Moisseev A, Gorbunova V, Limborska S. Genetic polymorphisms and the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. Pharmacogenomics J. 2010;10:54-61 pubmed publisher
    ..A higher risk of nephrotoxicity was noted for patients with the heterozygous ERCC1 19007 T/C and 8092 C/A genotypes. No correlations were found between genotypes and complete tumor responses. ..
  27. Schisler J, Grevengoed T, Pascual F, Cooper D, Ellis J, Paul D, et al. Cardiac energy dependence on glucose increases metabolites related to glutathione and activates metabolic genes controlled by mechanistic target of rapamycin. J Am Heart Assoc. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..The hypertrophy, oxidative stress, and metabolic changes that occur within the heart when glucose supplants FA as a major energy source suggest that substrate switching to glucose is not entirely benign. ..
  28. Gross Davis C, Heavner K, Frank A, Newschaffer C, Klotz J, Santella R, et al. The role of genotypes that modify the toxicity of chemical mutagens in the risk for myeloproliferative neoplasms. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12:2465-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposures, such as to aromatic compounds, whose toxicity is modified by genotypes associated with outcome in our analysis may play a role in the environmental etiology of MPNs. ..
  29. Li J, Bruns A, Hou B, Rode B, Webster P, Bailey M, et al. Orai3 Surface Accumulation and Calcium Entry Evoked by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35:1987-94 pubmed publisher
    ..VEGF signaling via arachidonic acid and arachidonic acid metabolism causes Orai3 to accumulate at the cell surface to mediate Ca(2+) entry and downstream endothelial cell remodeling. ..
  30. Khrunin A, Khokhrin D, Limborskaia S. [Glutathione-S-transferase gene polymorphism in Russian populations of European Russia]. Genetika. 2008;44:1429-34 pubmed
    ..The significance of these differences has been confirmed by tests for heterogeneity of the entire pool of Russian populations. ..
  31. Wang H, Zhu X, Zhu Y, Xie Q, Lai L, Zhao M, et al. The GSTA1 polymorphism and cyclophosphamide therapy outcomes in lupus nephritis patients. Clin Immunol. 2015;160:342-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical remission was significantly related to higher exposure of 4OHCTX (P=0.038). In conclusion, LN patients with GSTA1*A heterozygous genotypes had poor CTX treatment remission due to less exposure to activated metabolites of CTX. ..
  32. Sinning I, Kleywegt G, Cowan S, Reinemer P, Dirr H, Huber R, et al. Structure determination and refinement of human alpha class glutathione transferase A1-1, and a comparison with the Mu and Pi class enzymes. J Mol Biol. 1993;232:192-212 pubmed
    ..The main difference concerns the extended C terminus of the alpha class enzyme which forms an extra alpha-helix that blocks one entrance to the active site and makes up part of the substrate binding site. ..
  33. Manini P, De Palma G, Andreoli R, Mozzoni P, Poli D, Goldoni M, et al. Occupational exposure to low levels of benzene: Biomarkers of exposure and nucleic acid oxidation and their modulation by polymorphic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Toxicol Lett. 2010;193:229-35 pubmed publisher
    ..010), GSTT1 (p=0.023) and GSTA1 (p=0.048) polymorphisms on S-PMA excretion, with a significant interaction between GSTM1 and both GSTT1 and GSTA1 (p=0.006 and p=0.037, respectively). ..
  34. Eriksen K, Sørensen M, Autrup H, Vogel U, Overvad K, Tjønneland A, et al. Lifestyle, environmental, and genetic predictors of bulky DNA adducts in a study population nested within a prospective Danish cohort. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73:583-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study showed only few associations between dietary, environmental, and genetic factors and levels of bulky DNA adducts measured in peripheral leukocytes in a general Danish population. ..
  35. Balchin D, Fanucchi S, Achilonu I, Adamson R, Burke J, Fernandes M, et al. Stability of the domain interface contributes towards the catalytic function at the H-site of class alpha glutathione transferase A1-1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:2228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrates that the stability of the domain-domain interface plays a role in mediating the catalytic functionality of the active site, particularly the H-site, of class alpha GSTs. ..
  36. Piacentini S, Verrotti A, Polimanti R, Giannini C, Saccucci P, Manfellotto D, et al. Functional polymorphisms of GSTA1 and GSTO2 genes associated with asthma in Italian children. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;50:311-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Confirming our previous study, these findings suggest that the GSTA1 and the GSTO2 are asthma susceptible genes involved in increasing the risk of asthma development in the Italian population. ..
  37. Mikstacki A, Skrzypczak Zielinska M, Zakerska Banaszak O, Tamowicz B, Skibinska M, Molińska Glura M, et al. Impact of CYP2E1, GSTA1 and GSTP1 gene variants on serum alpha glutathione S-transferase level in patients undergoing anaesthesia. BMC Med Genet. 2016;17:40 pubmed publisher
    The serum glutathione S-transferase alpha (α-GST) concentration has been used as a marker of hepatic condition. After sevoflurane anaesthesia a mild impairment of hepatocellular integrity was observed...
  38. Matic M, Coric V, Savic Radojevic A, Bulat P, Pljesa Ercegovac M, Dragicevic D, et al. Does occupational exposure to solvents and pesticides in association with glutathione S-transferase A1, M1, P1, and T1 polymorphisms increase the risk of bladder cancer? The Belgrade case-control study. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99448 pubmed publisher
  39. van Gisbergen M, Cebula M, Zhang J, Ottosson Wadlund A, Dubois L, Lambin P, et al. Chemical Reactivity Window Determines Prodrug Efficiency toward Glutathione Transferase Overexpressing Cancer Cells. Mol Pharm. 2016;13:2010-25 pubmed publisher
    ..When cleaved by GSTs, the prodrug releases the cytostatic moiety predominantly in GST overexpressing cells, thus sparing normal cells with moderate enzyme levels...
  40. Tijhuis M, Visker M, Aarts J, Peters W, Roelofs H, den Camp L, et al. Glutathione S-transferase phenotypes in relation to genetic variation and fruit and vegetable consumption in an endoscopy-based population. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:848-57 pubmed
    High glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity may contribute to colorectal cancer prevention. Functional polymorphisms are known in the GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTA1 and GSTP1 genes...
  41. Balogh L, Le Trong I, Kripps K, Shireman L, Stenkamp R, Zhang W, et al. Substrate specificity combined with stereopromiscuity in glutathione transferase A4-4-dependent metabolism of 4-hydroxynonenal. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results reveal an evolutionary strategy for achieving biologically useful stereopromiscuity toward a toxic racemate, concomitant with high catalytic efficiency and substrate specificity toward an endogenously formed toxin. ..
  42. Afsar N, Haenisch S, Mateen A, Usman A, Ufer M, Ahmed K, et al. Genotype frequencies of selected drug metabolizing enzymes and ABC drug transporters among breast cancer patients on FAC chemotherapy. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2010;107:570-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Though carriers of CYP2C19*2 were higher than in Caucasian and Hispanics, they did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.05)...
  43. Ma X, Liu F, Li M, Li Z, Lin Y, Li R, et al. Expression of glutathione S-transferase A1, a phase II drug-metabolizing enzyme in acute hepatic injury on mice. Exp Ther Med. 2017;14:3798-3804 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GSTA1 may be released by the liver and serve as an antioxidant in the prevention of liver damage...
  44. Hayes J, Kerr L, Cronshaw A. Evidence that glutathione S-transferases B1B1 and B2B2 are the products of separate genes and that their expression in human liver is subject to inter-individual variation. Molecular relationships between the B1 and B2 subunits and other Alpha class . Biochem J. 1989;264:437-45 pubmed
    ..The relationship between the B1 and B2 subunits and the cloned GTH1 and GTH2 cDNA sequences [Rhoads, Zarlengo & Tu (1987) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 145, 474-481] is discussed. ..
  45. Sayed Y, Hornby J, Lopez M, Dirr H. Thermodynamics of the ligandin function of human class Alpha glutathione transferase A1-1: energetics of organic anion ligand binding. Biochem J. 2002;363:341-6 pubmed
    ..of the binding of the non-substrate ligand 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulphonate (ANS) to wild-type human class Alpha GST with two type-1 subunits (hGSTA1-1) and its DeltaPhe-222 deletion mutant were studied by isothermal titration ..
  46. Oniki K, Hori M, Takata K, Yokoyama T, Mihara S, Marubayashi T, et al. Association between glutathione S-transferase A1, M1 and T1 polymorphisms and hypertension. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:275-7 pubmed publisher
    ..between the incidence of hypertension and a super family of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST)A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1, polymorphisms was investigated in 468 Japanese participants in a health screening program...
  47. Jönsson L, Littorin M, Axmon A, Jonsson B, Broberg K. Lung function in relation to 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and genetic effect modification among rubber workers in Sweden. J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50:1006-12 pubmed publisher
    ..GSTM1 had an influence on lung function among unexposed workers. There may be a risk of impaired lung function in contemporary rubber workers. Gene-modifying effects may be considered in risk assessments. ..
  48. Fabrini R, Bocedi A, Dawood K, Turella P, Stella L, Parker M, et al. The extended catalysis of glutathione transferase. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:341-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Even with typical substrates, the astonishing concentration of glutathione transferase present in hepatocytes, causes an unusual "inverted" kinetics whereby the classical trends of v versus E and v versus S are reversed. ..
  49. Yu Y, Li X, Liang C, Tang J, Qin Z, Wang C, et al. The relationship between GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms and bladder cancer susceptibility: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016;95:e4900 pubmed publisher
    ..96-1.27). This study suggested that GSTM1 null genotype and GSTT1 null genotype might be related to higher BCa risk, respectively. However, no associations were observed between GSTA1 or GSTP1 polymorphisms and BCa susceptibility. ..
  50. Shi C, Lin Y, Liu F, Chang Y, Li R, Li C, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extracts from Folium Syringae against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. J Chin Med Assoc. 2017;80:623-629 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, GSTA1 could be used as an indicator assessing the extents of hepatic injury, which is more sensitive than transaminases. ..
  51. Broberg K, Bjork J, Paulsson K, Hoglund M, Albin M. Constitutional short telomeres are strong genetic susceptibility markers for bladder cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1263-71 pubmed
    ..9-150). However, no significant interaction for cancer risk could be proven for telomere length, smoking and susceptibility genotypes of metabolizing and DNA-repairing genes. ..
  52. Alves C, Kuhnert D, Sayed Y, Dirr H. The intersubunit lock-and-key motif in human glutathione transferase A1-1: role of the key residues Met51 and Phe52 in function and dimer stability. Biochem J. 2006;393:523-8 pubmed
    ..In hGSTA1-1 (human class Alpha GST with two type-1 subunits), the key consists of two residues, Met51 and Phe52, that fit into a hydrophobic cavity (..
  53. Marquardt J, Seo D, Gómez Quiroz L, Uchida K, Gillen M, Kitade M, et al. Loss of c-Met accelerates development of liver fibrosis in response to CCl(4) exposure through deregulation of multiple molecular pathways. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822:942-51 pubmed publisher
  54. Yang G, Zhou Z, Cen Y, Gui X, Zeng Q, Ao Y, et al. Death receptor and mitochondria-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis underlies liver dysfunction in rats exposed to organic pollutants from drinking water. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015;9:4719-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The results provide evidence and molecular mechanisms for organic pollutants in drinking water-induced liver dysfunction, which may help prevent and treat organic extraction-induced liver injury. ..
  55. Ansari M, Curtis P, Uppugunduri C, Rezgui M, Nava T, Mlakar V, et al. GSTA1 diplotypes affect busulfan clearance and toxicity in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a multicenter study. Oncotarget. 2017;8:90852-90867 pubmed publisher
    ..Particularly, promoter haplotypes of the glutathione S transferase A1 (GSTA1) were evaluated in vitro, with reporter gene assays and clinically, in a pediatric ..
  56. Komiya Y, Tsukino H, Nakao H, Kuroda Y, Imai H, Katoh T. Human glutathione S-transferase A1, T1, M1, and P1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to prostate cancer in the Japanese population. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2005;131:238-42 pubmed
    ..Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1, T1, M1, and P1 are phase II enzymes that are important for activation and detoxification of chemical ..
  57. Ekhart C, Doodeman V, Rodenhuis S, Smits P, Beijnen J, Huitema A. Polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes (GST, CYP2B6 and CYP3A) affect the pharmacokinetics of thiotepa and tepa. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;67:50-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients homozygous for the GSTP1 C341T allele may have enhanced exposure to thiotepa and tepa. ..
  58. Yri O, Ekstrøm P, Hilden V, Gaudernack G, Liestøl K, Smeland E, et al. Polymorphisms in genes encoding interleukin-10 and drug metabolizing enzymes GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTA1 and UGT1A1 influence risk and outcome in Hodgkin lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012;53:1934-44 pubmed publisher
    ..AG, OR 0.64 [0.42-0.99], p = 0.04; GG vs. AG/AA combined genotypes, OR 0.70 [0.47-1.04], p = 0.07), and the GSTT1 deleted genotype increased the risk for HL (OR 3.17 [1.97-5.09], p < 0.001) regardless of age. ..
  59. Chang S, Su Y, Sun Y, Meng X, Shi B, Shan A. Response of the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR and their target gene mRNA expression in female piglets exposed to zearalenone. Toxicon. 2018;151:111-118 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding shows that the nuclear receptor signaling system plays an important role in the defense against ZEN. ..
  60. Kotnala S, Tyagi A, Muyal J. rHuKGF ameliorates protease/anti-protease imbalance in emphysematous mice. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2017;45:124-135 pubmed publisher
    ..rHuKGF is therapeutically potent in maintaining pulmonary tissue integrity by amelioration of protease/antiprotease imbalance and TGFβ-1 pathway in emphysema. ..
  61. Ahn J, Gammon M, Santella R, Gaudet M, Britton J, Teitelbaum S, et al. Effects of glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) genotype and potential modifiers on breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1876-82 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that GSTA1 genotypes related to reduced GSTA1 expression are associated with increased breast cancer primarily among women with lower consumption of cruciferous vegetables and among current smokers. ..
  62. Olsen A, Autrup H, Sørensen M, Overvad K, Tjønneland A. Polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase A1 and O1 and breast cancer among postmenopausal Danish women. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2008;17:225-9 pubmed publisher
    The glutathione S-transferase (GST) family of enzymes is involved in the protection of the cell against foreign compounds and may consequently play a role in the development of cancer...
  63. Chang Y, Liu F, Ma X, Li M, Li R, Li C, et al. Glutathione S-transferase A1 - a sensitive marker of alcoholic injury on primary hepatocytes. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2017;36:386-394 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GSTA1 can be detected at the early stage of low concentration ethanol exposure and that GSTA1 is more sensitive and reliable marker in ethanol-induced hepatic injury. ..
  64. Akhdar H, El Shamieh S, Musso O, Désert R, Joumaa W, Guyader D, et al. The rs3957357C>T SNP in GSTA1 Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Occurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in European Individuals. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0167543 pubmed publisher
    ..Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GST genes have been suggested to affect GST functions and thus to increase the risk of human hepatocellular carcinoma (..
  65. Dura P, Salomon J, Te Morsche R, Roelofs H, Kristinsson J, Wobbes T, et al. No role for glutathione S-transferase genotypes in Caucasian esophageal squamous cell or adenocarcinoma etiology: an European case-control study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013;13:97 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that altered enzyme activity GST genotypes influence the susceptibility for esophageal adeno- (EAC) and squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Caucasians...
  66. Hederos S, Broo K, Jakobsson E, Kleywegt G, Mannervik B, Baltzer L. Incorporation of a single His residue by rational design enables thiol-ester hydrolysis by human glutathione transferase A1-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13163-7 pubmed
    ..The protein catalyst has the hallmarks of a native enzyme and is expected to catalyze various hydrolytic, as well as transesterification, reactions. ..
  67. Polimanti R, Piacentini S, Lazzarin N, Vaquero E, Re M, Manfellotto D, et al. Glutathione S-transferase genes and the risk of recurrent miscarriage in Italian women. Fertil Steril. 2012;98:396-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Occurrence of GST polymorphisms...
  68. Li R, Wang X, Zhang X. [Effect of ceramide on GSTA1 in Caco-2 cells]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2012;47:962-5 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrated that ceramide may increase resistance to chemotherapeutics in Caco-2 cells by up-regulating the expression of GSTA1. ..
  69. Sørensen M, Autrup H, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Raaschou Nielsen O. Genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1, GSTA1, NQO1 and NAT2 and the risk of lung cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005;221:185-90 pubmed
    ..The NAT2 fast acetylator genotype seemed to be protective against lung cancer in light smokers (< or =20 cigarettes/day) and not among heavy smokers (>20 cigarettes/day). ..
  70. Girolami F, Spalenza V, Benedetto A, Manzini L, Badino P, Abete M, et al. Comparative liver accumulation of dioxin-like compounds in sheep and cattle: Possible role of AhR-mediated xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Sci Total Environ. 2016;571:1222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..g. aflatoxins) or drugs (e.g. benzimidazole anthelmintics) known to be metabolized by those enzymes. ..
  71. Gundacker C, Wittmann K, Kukuckova M, Komarnicki G, Hikkel I, Gencik M. Genetic background of lead and mercury metabolism in a group of medical students in Austria. Environ Res. 2009;109:786-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We found evidence that certain genetic backgrounds were associated with lead and mercury metabolism, suggesting gene-environment and gene-gene-environment interactions. The modes of interaction remain to be evaluated. ..
  72. Reljic Z, Zlatović M, Savic Radojevic A, Pekmezovic T, Djukanovic L, Matic M, et al. Is increased susceptibility to Balkan endemic nephropathy in carriers of common GSTA1 (*A/*B) polymorphism linked with the catalytic role of GSTA1 in ochratoxin a biotransformation? Serbian case control study and in silico analysis. Toxins (Basel). 2014;6:2348-62 pubmed publisher
    ..and GSTP1 polymorphisms and BEN susceptibility, and thereafter performed an in silico simulation of particular GST enzymes potentially involved in OTA transformations...
  73. Mizutani T, Ishikane S, Kawabe S, Umezawa A, Miyamoto K. Transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production. Endocr J. 2015;62:757-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we describe the transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production. ..
  74. Robertson G, Stoychev S, Sayed Y, Achilonu I, Dirr H. The effects of mutating Tyr9 and Arg15 on the structure, stability, conformational dynamics and mechanism of GSTA3-3. Biophys Chem. 2017;224:40-48 pubmed publisher
  75. Wang W, Liu F, Wang C, Wang C, Tang Y, Jiang Z. Glutathione S-transferase A1 mediates nicotine-induced lung cancer cell metastasis by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Exp Ther Med. 2017;14:1783-1788 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the results demonstrated that GSTA1 exerts its effect on lung cancer cell metastasis by promoting the EMT. ..
  76. Martínez Guzmán C, Cortes Reynosa P, Perez Salazar E, Elizondo G. Dexamethasone induces human glutathione S transferase alpha 1 (hGSTA1) expression through the activation of glucocorticoid receptor (hGR). Toxicology. 2017;385:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Human GSTA1 (hGSTA1), a cytosolic isoform, is the most abundant GST in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of carcinogenic compounds, chemotherapeutic agents and lipid ..
  77. Ahmad H, Singhal S, Saxena M, Awasthi Y. Characterization of two novel subunits of the alpha-class glutathione S-transferases of human liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1161:333-6 pubmed
    More than 85% of the complete amino-acid sequence of the alpha-class glutathione S-transferase omega (GST omega) of human liver, described for the first time in this communication, show that GST omega is a heterodimer of two closely ..
  78. Tetlow N, Liu D, Board P. Polymorphism of human Alpha class glutathione transferases. Pharmacogenetics. 2001;11:609-17 pubmed
    ..This report demonstrates that analysis of the EST database provides a rapid and efficient means of identifying variant proteins. ..
  79. Ekhart C, Doodeman V, Rodenhuis S, Smits P, Beijnen J, Huitema A. Influence of polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, GSTA1, GSTP1, ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1) on the pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2008;18:515-23 pubmed publisher
    The anticancer agent, cyclophosphamide, is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes...
  80. Honaker M, Acchione M, Sumida J, Atkins W. Ensemble perspective for catalytic promiscuity: calorimetric analysis of the active site conformational landscape of a detoxification enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42770-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, two structurally similar glutathione transferase (GST, glutathione S-transferase) isoforms with high specificity or high promiscuity are compared...
  81. Skoric D, Ivana J, Tanja R, Jovana J, Petar I, Tatjana S. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and glutathione S-tranferase gene polymorphisms in secondary mixed phenotype acute leukemia: a case report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2014;36:e152-4 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis of common gene polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in a 10-year-old boy who developed very rare type of cancer, mixed phenotype acute leukemia, 6 years after ..
  82. Di Luoffo M, Brousseau C, Bergeron F, Tremblay J. The Transcription Factor MEF2 Is a Novel Regulator of Gsta Gene Class in Mouse MA-10 Leydig Cells. Endocrinology. 2015;156:4695-706 pubmed publisher
    ..cells exhibit a significant decrease in steroidogenesis concomitant with a reduction in glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and in the expression of the 4 Gsta members (GST) that encode ROS inactivating enzymes...
  83. Chen T, Kan J, Yang Y, Ling X, Chang Y, Zhang B. A Ve homologous gene from Gossypium barbadense, Gbvdr3, enhances the defense response against Verticillium dahliae. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2016;98:101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of Gbvdr3 in transgenic Arabidopsis, which significantly elevated the expression of the ethylene-regulated gene GST2, the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-regulated defense-related genes PR3 and PDF1...
  84. Boei J, Vermeulen S, Klein B, Hiemstra P, Verhoosel R, Jennen D, et al. Xenobiotic metabolism in differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells. Arch Toxicol. 2017;91:2093-2105 pubmed publisher
  85. Tian Y, Usman T, Tian K, Di J, Huang X, Xu X, et al. Comparative study of 13 candidate genes applying multi-reference normalization to detect the expression of different fineness in skin tissues of wool sheep. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..These results infer that lower expression of PIK3CA, ADAM9, and FZD3 genes was associated with lower fiber diameter, whereas lower expression of TXNIP, TFDP1, and FAIM genes was associated with higher fiber diameter. ..
  86. Board P, Mannervik B. The contribution of the C-terminal sequence to the catalytic activity of GST2, a human alpha-class glutathione transferase. Biochem J. 1991;275 ( Pt 1):171-4 pubmed
    A plasmid vector was constructed that encodes the expression in Escherichia coli of a truncated form of GST2, a human Alpha-class glutathione transferase...
  87. Tu C, Qian B. Human liver glutathione S-transferases: complete primary sequence of an Ha subunit cDNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986;141:229-37 pubmed
    Multiple human liver GSH S-transferases (GST) with overlapping substrate specificities may be essential to their multiple roles in xenobiotics metabolism, drug biotransformation, and protection against peroxidative damage...
  88. Mulder T, Court D, Peters W. Variability of glutathione S-transferase alpha in human liver and plasma. Clin Chem. 1999;45:355-9 pubmed
    ..Both total class alpha glutathione S-transferase (GST-alpha, composed of GSTA1-1, GSTA1-2, and GSTA2-2) as well as GSTA1-1 concentrations were measured by specific and ..