Grp94

Summary

Gene Symbol: Grp94
Description: heat shock protein 90 beta family member 1
Alias: ECGP, GP96, GRP94, HEL-S-125m, HEL35, TRA1, endoplasmin, 94 kDa glucose-regulated protein, endothelial cell (HBMEC) glycoprotein, epididymis luminal protein 35, epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 125m, heat shock protein 90 kDa beta member 1, heat shock protein 90kDa beta (Grp94), member 1, heat shock protein 90kDa beta family member 1, stress-inducible tumor rejection antigen gp96, tumor rejection antigen (gp96) 1, tumor rejection antigen 1
Species: human
Products:     Grp94

Top Publications

  1. Randow F, Seed B. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96 is required for innate immunity but not cell viability. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:891-6 pubmed
    ..The eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone gp96 in particular has long been thought to be indispensable for cell survival...
  2. Vabulas R, Braedel S, Hilf N, Singh Jasuja H, Herter S, Ahmad Nejad P, et al. The endoplasmic reticulum-resident heat shock protein Gp96 activates dendritic cells via the Toll-like receptor 2/4 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20847-53 pubmed
    The heat shock protein Gp96 has been shown to induce specific immune responses...
  3. Meunier L, Usherwood Y, Chung K, Hendershot L. A subset of chaperones and folding enzymes form multiprotein complexes in endoplasmic reticulum to bind nascent proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:4456-69 pubmed
    ..large endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized multiprotein complex that is comprised of the molecular chaperones BiP; GRP94; CaBP1; protein disulfide isomerase (PDI); ERdj3, a recently identified ER Hsp40 cochaperone; cyclophilin B; ERp72;..
  4. Prasadarao N, Srivastava P, Rudrabhatla R, Kim K, Huang S, Sukumaran S. Cloning and expression of the Escherichia coli K1 outer membrane protein A receptor, a gp96 homologue. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1680-8 pubmed
    ..The sequence of the Ecgp gene shows that it is highly similar to gp96, a tumor rejection antigen-1, and contains an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, KDEL...
  5. Dey A, Kessova I, Cederbaum A. Decreased protein and mRNA expression of ER stress proteins GRP78 and GRP94 in HepG2 cells over-expressing CYP2E1. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2006;447:155-66 pubmed
    ..Unfolded proteins accumulate during ER stress and ER resident proteins GRP78 and GRP94 protect cells against ER dysfunction...
  6. Zheng H, Takahashi H, Li X, Hara T, Masuda S, Guan Y, et al. Overexpression of GRP78 and GRP94 are markers for aggressive behavior and poor prognosis in gastric carcinomas. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:1042-9 pubmed publisher
    ..GRP78 and GRP94 expression was induced by glucose starvation and up-regulated in the malignancies...
  7. Bloor S, Maelfait J, Krumbach R, Beyaert R, Randow F. Endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96 is essential for infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6970-5 pubmed publisher
    ..and innate immunity via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) require a shared component, the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96. Cells without gp96 or with catalytically inactive gp96 do not bind VSV-G...
  8. Wang X, Liu G, Song A, Chen R, Li H, Liu Y. Expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 and glucose-regulated protein 94 in human esophageal carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:429-32 pubmed
    To investigate the expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose-regulated protein 94 (grp94) in human esophageal carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues...
  9. Wang X, Liao J, Liu G, Wang X, Shang H. Co-expression of heat shock protein 70 and glucose-regulated protein 94 in human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:3601-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the co-expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose-regulated protein 94 (grp94) in human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC-823...

More Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. Cabanes D, Sousa S, Cebri A, Lecuit M, Garc a del Portillo F, Cossart P. Gp96 is a receptor for a novel Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor, Vip, a surface protein. EMBO J. 2005;24:2827-38 pubmed publisher
    ..overlay approach, we identified a cellular receptor for Vip, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperone Gp96 recently shown to interact with TLRs. The Vip-Gp96 interaction is critical for bacterial entry into some cells...
  2. Liu B, Yang Y, Dai J, Medzhitov R, Freudenberg M, Zhang P, et al. TLR4 up-regulation at protein or gene level is pathogenic for lupus-like autoimmune disease. J Immunol. 2006;177:6880-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we found that TLR4 signaling to LPS can be positively enforced by expressing gp96 on cell surfaces through the chaperone function of, but not the direct signaling by, gp96; TLR4 as well as the ..
  3. Maruvada R, Argon Y, Prasadarao N. Escherichia coli interaction with human brain microvascular endothelial cells induces signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 association with the C-terminal domain of Ec-gp96, the outer membrane protein A receptor for invasion. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:2326-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we demonstrated that outer membrane protein A of E. coli interacts with a gp96 homologue, Ec-gp96, on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) for invasion...
  4. Zuehlke A, Johnson J. Hsp90 and co-chaperones twist the functions of diverse client proteins. Biopolymers. 2010;93:211-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammalian cells contain three types of Hsp90s: cytosolic Hsp90, mitochondrial Trap-1, and Grp94 of the endoplasmic reticulum...
  5. Cawthorn T, Moreno J, Dharsee M, Tran Thanh D, Ackloo S, Zhu P, et al. Proteomic analyses reveal high expression of decorin and endoplasmin (HSP90B1) are associated with breast cancer metastasis and decreased survival. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30992 pubmed publisher
    ..These analyses identified decorin (DCN) and endoplasmin (HSP90B1) which play important roles regulating the tumour microenvironment and in pathways related to ..
  6. Reddy R, Lu J, Lee A. The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone glycoprotein GRP94 with Ca(2+)-binding and antiapoptotic properties is a novel proteolytic target of calpain during etoposide-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:28476-83 pubmed
    b>GRP94 is a 94-kDa chaperone glycoprotein with Ca(2+)-binding properties...
  7. Li Z, Dai J, Zheng H, Liu B, Caudill M. An integrated view of the roles and mechanisms of heat shock protein gp96-peptide complex in eliciting immune response. Front Biosci. 2002;7:d731-51 pubmed
    Heat shock protein (HSP) gp96, or grp94 is an endoplasmic reticular (ER) paralog of the cytosolic HSP90. Being abundant and non-polymorphic, gp96 plays significant roles in maintaining protein homeostasis in the secretory pathway...
  8. Dollins D, Warren J, Immormino R, Gewirth D. Structures of GRP94-nucleotide complexes reveal mechanistic differences between the hsp90 chaperones. Mol Cell. 2007;28:41-56 pubmed
    b>GRP94, an essential endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, is required for the conformational maturation of proteins destined for cell-surface display or export...
  9. Wang X, Wang Q, Guo L, Ying X, Zhao Y. Immunolocalisation of heat shock protein 72 and glycoprotein 96 in colonic adenocarcinoma. Acta Histochem. 2008;110:117-23 pubmed
    Heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and glycoprotein 96 (gp96) are highly expressed in cancer tissues...
  10. Christianson J, Shaler T, Tyler R, Kopito R. OS-9 and GRP94 deliver mutant alpha1-antitrypsin to the Hrd1-SEL1L ubiquitin ligase complex for ERAD. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:272-82 pubmed publisher
    ..OS-9 associates with the ER chaperone GRP94 which, together with Hrd1 and SEL1L, is required for the degradation of an ERAD substrate, mutant alpha(1)-..
  11. Lee S, Song R, Lee M, Kim C, Lee H, Kong Y, et al. A molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 blocks apoptosis induced by virus infection. Hepatology. 2008;47:854-66 pubmed publisher
    ..of NF-kappaB was mediated by HCV-E2-induced expression of the molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94)...
  12. Suriano R, Ghosh S, Chaudhuri D, Mittelman A, Banerjee A, Tiwari R. Sialic acid content of tissue-specific gp96 and its potential role in modulating gp96-macrophage interactions. Glycobiology. 2009;19:1427-35 pubmed publisher
    Cancer-derived heat shock protein gp96 induces a tumor-specific protective immune response primarily mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) directed toward cancer-associated peptides associated with gp96...
  13. Suzuki S, Kulkarni A. Extracellular heat shock protein HSP90beta secreted by MG63 osteosarcoma cells inhibits activation of latent TGF-beta1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;398:525-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, extracellular HSP90beta is a negative regulator for the activation of latent TGF-beta1 modulating TGF-beta signaling in the extracellular domain. ..
  14. Li G, Cai M, Fu D, Chen K, Sun M, Cai Z, et al. Heat shock protein 90B1 plays an oncogenic role and is a target of microRNA-223 in human osteosarcoma. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;30:1481-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Hsp90B1 is a direct target of miR-223 and miR- 223 may have a tumor suppressor function in osteosarcoma through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and could be used in anticancer therapies in osteosarcoma. ..
  15. Kurpińska A, Suraj J, Bonar E, Zakrzewska A, Stojak M, Sternak M, et al. Proteomic characterization of early lung response to breast cancer metastasis in mice. Exp Mol Pathol. 2019;107:129-140 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitor A3K (Serpina3k)] and activation of defense mechanisms [selenium-binding protein 1 (Selenbp1), endoplasmin (Hsp90b1), stress 70 protein, mitochondrial (Hspa9), heat shock protein HSP 90-beta (Hsp90ab1)], but also ..
  16. Liu M, Li Y, Liang B, Li Z, Jiang Z, Chu C, et al. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates myocardial fibrosis in diabetic rats through the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. Int J Mol Med. 2018;41:1867-1876 pubmed publisher
    ..transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, cystathionine???lyase (CSE), eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), GRP94, Bcl-2, caspase-3, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, nuclear factor??B (NF??B) and proteins related to the JAK?STAT ..
  17. Kobylewski S, Henderson K, Yamada K, Eckhert C. Activation of the EIF2α/ATF4 and ATF6 Pathways in DU-145 Cells by Boric Acid at the Concentration Reported in Men at the US Mean Boron Intake. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2017;176:278-293 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in ATF6 was accompanied by an increase in expression of its downstream genes GRP78/BiP, calreticulin, Grp94, and EDEM. BA did not activate IRE1 or induce cleavage of XBP1 mRNA, a target of IRE1...
  18. Li S, Ding S, Mersmann H, Chu C, Hsu C, Chen C. A nutritional nonalcoholic steatohepatitis minipig model. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;28:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with C pigs, W pigs had higher hepatic ER stress-related protein expression of GRP94, CHOP and caspase-12. The W pigs also had greater hepatic autophagy-related protein expression of p62 and LC3II...
  19. Kang M, Das J, Gurunathan S, Park H, Song H, Park C, et al. The cytotoxic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide in mouse preimplantation embryos: a mechanistic study. Theranostics. 2017;7:4735-4752 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Conclusion: These results provide a significant contribution to finding effective protective agents to combat DMSO mediated reproductive toxicity for application in human embryos in the near future...
  20. Lu T, Zhang C, Chai M, An Y. Isoquercetin ameliorates tunicamycin-induced apoptosis in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons via suppressing ROS-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;80:343-351 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, Iso down-regulated mRNA levels of ER stress genes, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), GRP94, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and cleaved caspase-12 in TUN-induced DRG neurons...
  21. Zhang Y, Cen J, Jia Z, Hsiao C, Xia Q, Wang X, et al. Hepatotoxicity Induced by Isoniazid-Lipopolysaccharide through Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Autophagy, and Apoptosis Pathways in Zebrafish. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019;63: pubmed publisher
    ..the expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-related factors (GRP78, ATF6, PERK, IRE1, XBP1s, GRP94, and CHOP), autophagy-related factors (beclin 1, LC3, Atg3, and Atg12), and apoptosis-related factors (caspase-3, ..
  22. Ahmed H, Shousha W, Shalby A, El Mezayen H, Ismaiel N, Mahmoud N. Curcumin: a unique antioxidant offers a multimechanistic approach for management of hepatocellular carcinoma in rat model. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:1667-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and heat shock protein gp96 (HSPgp96) gene expressions were detected by RT-PCR...
  23. Barrera M, Aguilera S, Castro I, Gonzalez S, Carvajal P, Molina C, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in autoimmune diseases: Can altered protein quality control and/or unfolded protein response contribute to autoimmunity? A critical review on Sjögren's syndrome. Autoimmun Rev. 2018;17:796-808 pubmed publisher
    ..patients with these diseases contain circulating auto-antibodies against chaperone proteins (such as Calnexin and GRP94), thus affecting the folding and assembly of MHC class I and II glycoproteins and their loading with peptide...
  24. Burgeiro A, Fonseca A, Espinoza D, Carvalho L, Lourenco N, Antunes M, et al. Proteostasis in epicardial versus subcutaneous adipose tissue in heart failure subjects with and without diabetes. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018;1864:2183-2198 pubmed publisher
    ..UPR and autophagy are increased in EAT compared to SAT, opening doors to the identification of early biomarkers for cardiomyopathies and novel therapeutic targets. ..
  25. Yang X, Shao H, Liu W, Gu W, Shu X, Mo Y, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress are involved in ZnO nanoparticle-induced hepatotoxicity. Toxicol Lett. 2015;234:40-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA expression levels of ER stress-associated genes (grp78, grp94, pdi-3, xbp-1) were also up-regulated in Nano-ZnO-treated mice...
  26. Kawasaki K, Ushioda R, Ito S, Ikeda K, Masago Y, Nagata K. Deletion of the collagen-specific molecular chaperone Hsp47 causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:3639-46 pubmed publisher
    ..of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible proteins BiP (immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein) and Grp94 (94-kDa glucose-regulated protein)...
  27. Wong S, To J, Santos J, Allam V, Dalton J, Djordjevic S, et al. Proteomic Analysis of Extracellular HMGB1 Identifies Binding Partners and Exposes Its Potential Role in Airway Epithelial Cell Homeostasis. J Proteome Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a new understanding of the extracellular functions of HMGB1 in cellular and immune homeostasis at the airway mucosal surface and could have implications for therapeutic targeting...
  28. Barati M, Powell D, Kechavarzi B, Isaacs S, Zheng S, Epstein P, et al. Differential expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-response proteins in different renal tubule subtypes of OVE26 diabetic mice. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2016;21:155-166 pubmed publisher
    ..ER stress-responseinduced chaperones GRP78, GRP94, and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) were increased in isolated cortical tubules of older diabetic mice, while ..
  29. Dumevska B, Main H, McKernan R, Goel D, Schmidt U. Derivation of DM1 affected human embryonic stem cell line Genea067. Stem Cell Res. 2016;16:437-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 97% Oct4, 73% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4 and gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 25.75, Novelty of 1.46...
  30. Peng Y, Huang J, Wu H, Hsieh H, Wu C, Chen S, et al. Regulation of CLC-1 chloride channel biosynthesis by FKBP8 and Hsp90?. Sci Rep. 2016;6:32444 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are consistent with the idea that FKBP8 and Hsp90? play an essential role in the late phase of CLC-1 quality control by dynamically coordinating protein folding and degradation. ..
  31. Carberry S, D Orsi B, Monsefi N, Salvucci M, Bacon O, Fay J, et al. The BAX/BAK-like protein BOK is a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9:125 pubmed publisher
    ..We found no significant association of BOK protein tumour levels with ER stress markers GRP78 or GRP94 or with cleaved caspase-3. In contrast, BOK protein levels correlated with Calreticulin...
  32. Zhou H, Chen C, Lan J, Liu C, Liu X, Jiang L, et al. Differential proteomic profiling of chordomas and analysis of prognostic factors. J Surg Oncol. 2010;102:720-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of alpha enolase (ENO1), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), and gp96 was higher in recurrences than in primary tumors...
  33. Liu B, Staron M, Li Z. Murine but not human basophil undergoes cell-specific proteolysis of a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39442 pubmed publisher
    ..As an essential chaperone for multiple Toll-like receptors and integrins in the endoplasmic reticulum, gp96 also participates in general protein homeostasis and in the ER unfolded protein response to ensure cell survival ..
  34. Ansa Addo E, Thaxton J, Hong F, Wu B, Zhang Y, Fugle C, et al. Clients and Oncogenic Roles of Molecular Chaperone gp96/grp94. Curr Top Med Chem. 2016;16:2765-78 pubmed
    ..Genetic studies in the last decade have unveiled that gp96 is also an essential master chaperone for multiple receptors and secreting proteins including Toll-like receptors (..
  35. Hoffman K, Duennwald M, Karagiannis J, Genereaux J, McCarton A, Brandl C. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tti2 Regulates PIKK Proteins and Stress Response. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:1649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) proteins, including mTOR, ATM/Tel1, ATR/Mec1, and TRRAP/Tra1, all of which serve as regulators of critical cell signaling pathways...
  36. Liang Q, Yin Z, Zhao Y, Liang L, Feng J, Zhan Z, et al. Sequencing and comparative genomics analysis of the IncHI2 plasmids pT5282-mphA and p112298-catA and the IncHI5 plasmid pYNKP001-dfrA. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017;49:709-718 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the conjugal transfer regions tra1 and tra2 as well as the tellurium resistance gene cluster ter were present in all five plasmids...
  37. Aglan H, Ahmed H, El Toumy S, Mahmoud N. Gallic acid against hepatocellular carcinoma: An integrated scheme of the potential mechanisms of action from in vivo study. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317699127 pubmed publisher
    ..downregulation in the gene expression levels of hepatic gamma glutamyl transferase and heat shock protein gp96. Intriguingly, treatment with gallic acid remarkably ameliorated the destabilization of liver tissue architecture ..
  38. Tang Q, Yuan Q, Li H, Wang W, Xie G, Zhu K, et al. miR-223/Hsp70/JNK/JUN/miR-223 feedback loop modulates the chemoresistance of osteosarcoma to cisplatin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;497:827-834 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, miR-223, Hsp70 and downstream JNK/JUN formed a feedback loop to modulate the chemoresistance of OS to CDDP. ..
  39. Ilieva E, Naudi A, Kichev A, Ferrer I, Pamplona R, Portero Otin M. Depletion of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress regulators in Pick disease. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:1302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest this was caused by complete and specific depletion of Grp78/BiP, contributing to the pathophysiology of this neurodegenerative disease. ..
  40. Rolhion N, Hofman P, Darfeuille Michaud A. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response chaperone: Gp96, a host receptor for Crohn disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli. Gut Microbes. 2011;2:115-9 pubmed
    ..We recently demonstrated that the ER-stress response chaperone Gp96 is strongly expressed on the apical surface of ileal epithelial cells in CD patients and acts as a host cell ..
  41. Dejeans N, Glorieux C, Guenin S, Beck R, Sid B, Rousseau R, et al. Overexpression of GRP94 in breast cancer cells resistant to oxidative stress promotes high levels of cancer cell proliferation and migration: implications for tumor recurrence. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;52:993-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..during oxidative stress, we identified a constitutive overexpression of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, GRP94, in these cells, whereas levels of its cytoplasmic homolog HSP90, or GRP78, were not modified...
  42. Tramentozzi E, Zamarchi R, Rossi E, Pagetta A, Frigo G, Finotti P. Inhibition of immunoglobulin secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by glucose-regulated protein94 (Grp94) in allergic subjects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;365:47-52 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-regulated protein94 (Grp94) is the most represented endoplasmic reticulum-resident HSP with the unique property to modulate the immune response...
  43. Karunakaran K, Subbarayal P, Vollmuth N, Rudel T. Chlamydia-infected cells shed Gp96 to prevent chlamydial re-infection. Mol Microbiol. 2015;98:694-711 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Glucose Regulated Protein 96 (Gp96), a chaperone for cell surface receptors, binds to and facilitates adherence and entry of C. trachomatis...
  44. Dumevska B, McKernan R, Goel D, Schmidt U. Derivation of NEM2 affected human embryonic stem cell line Genea080. Stem Cell Res. 2016;16:443-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The hESC line had pluripotent cell morphology, 90% of cells expressed Nanog, 95% Oct4, 54% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4 and gave a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 32.08, Novelty of 1.3...
  45. Ding Y, Zheng H, Feng C, Wang B, Liu C, Mi K, et al. Heat-Shock Protein gp96 Enhances T Cell Responses and Protective Potential to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccine. Scand J Immunol. 2016;84:222-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrated that immunization with heat-shock protein gp96 as an adjuvant led to a significantly increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell response to a BCG vaccine...
  46. Dobre M, Mănuc T, Milanesi E, Pleşea I, Ţieranu E, Popa C, et al. Mucosal CCR1 gene expression as a marker of molecular activity in Crohn's disease: preliminary data. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2017;58:1263-1268 pubmed
    ..Following these preliminary data, a confirmation in larger cohort studies could represent a useful method in order to identify new therapeutic targets. ..
  47. Paris S, Denis H, Delaive E, Dieu M, Dumont V, Ninane N, et al. Up-regulation of 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in human endothelial cells in response to hypoxia. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:105-14 pubmed
    ..In this work, we identified by 2D gel analysis 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94) as being upregulated in human endothelial cells in response to hypoxia...
  48. Akutsu Y, Matsubara H, Kano M, Usui A, Yoneyama Y, Ikeda N, et al. Correlation between gp96 expression and the surgical outcome in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18:832-7 pubmed publisher
    Heat-shock protein gp96 plays an important role in antitumor immunoreactions. Gp96 has a close relationship with antitumor immunity...
  49. Hu T, Xie N, Qin C, Wang J, You Y. Glucose-regulated protein 94 is a novel glioma biomarker and promotes the aggressiveness of glioma via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:9357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) expressions in human glioma and aimed to determine the roles of GRP94 expression affects cell proliferation, ..
  50. Fromm G, de Silva S, Giffin L, Xu X, Rose J, Schreiber T. Gp96-Ig/Costimulator (OX40L, ICOSL, or 4-1BBL) Combination Vaccine Improves T-cell Priming and Enhances Immunity, Memory, and Tumor Elimination. Cancer Immunol Res. 2016;4:766-78 pubmed publisher
    ..A cell-based vaccine cosecreting gp96-Ig and Fc-OX40L led to even more pronounced tumor control, complete tumor rejection, and increased tumor antigen-..
  51. Tramentozzi E, Ruli E, Angriman I, Bardini R, Campora M, Guzzardo V, et al. Grp94 in complexes with IgG is a soluble diagnostic marker of gastrointestinal tumors and displays immune-stimulating activity on peripheral blood immune cells. Oncotarget. 2016;7:72923-72940 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-regulated protein94 (Grp94), the most represented endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident heat shock protein (HSP), is a tumor antigen shared by different types of solid and hematological tumors...
  52. Deng H, Kuang P, Cui H, Chen L, Luo Q, Fang J, et al. Sodium fluoride (NaF) induces the splenic apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway in vivo and in vitro. Aging (Albany NY). 2016;8:3552-3567 pubmed publisher
    ..by up-regulating protein expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (BiP) and glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), and by activating unfolded protein response (UPR)...
  53. Lee S, Han S, Kim M, Shim S, Shin H, Lee S, et al. Post-irradiation promotes susceptibility to reprogramming to pluripotent state in human fibroblasts. Cell Cycle. 2017;16:2119-2127 pubmed publisher
    ..to the induction of reprogramming compared to that in non-irradiated cells as observed by an increased number of Tra1-81-stained colonies as well as enhanced alkaline phosphatase and Oct4 promoter activity...
  54. Chiu C, Lin C, Lee L, Chen Y, Lu Y, Wang H, et al. Molecular chaperones as a common set of proteins that regulate the invasion phenotype of head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:4629-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven chaperones were confirmed to be differentially expressed in five sublines, Hsp90?, Hsp90?, Hsp90-B1/Gp96, Hsp70-A5/Grp78, and HYOU1, that upregulate, whereas Hsp60 and glucosidase-? neutral AB (GANAB) downregulate...
  55. Gimenez M, Marie S, Oba Shinjo S, Uno M, Izumi C, Oliveira J, et al. Quantitative proteomic analysis shows differentially expressed HSPB1 in glioblastoma as a discriminating short from long survival factor and NOVA1 as a differentiation factor between low-grade astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:481 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, two new important targets were uncovered: NOVA1 useful for diagnostic refinement differentiating astrocytoma from oligodendroglioma, and HSPB1/HSP27, as a predictive factor of poor prognosis for GBM. ..
  56. Li S, Liu C, Chu H, Mersmann H, Ding S, Chu C, et al. The high-fat diet induces myocardial fibrosis in the metabolically healthy obese minipigs-The role of ER stress and oxidative stress. Clin Nutr. 2017;36:760-767 pubmed publisher
    ..The HFD upregulated the expression of Grp94, CHOP, caspase 12, p62, and LC3II, and increased the ratio of LC3II to LC3I in the left ventricle (LV) of MetS ..
  57. Dumevska B, Bosman A, McKernan R, Goel D, Schmidt U, Peura T. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea023. Stem Cell Res. 2016;16:456-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Pluripotency of Genea023 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.76, Novelty of 1...
  58. Sørensen S, Ranheim T, Bakken K, Leren T, Kulseth M. Retention of mutant low density lipoprotein receptor in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to ER stress. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:468-76 pubmed
    ..In the present study we show that the G544V mutant LDLR associates with the chaperones Grp78, Grp94, ERp72, and calnexin in the ER of transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells...
  59. Hodorova I, Rybarova S, Solar P, Vecanova J, Prokopcakova L, Bohus P, et al. Gp96 and its different expression in breast carcinomas. Neoplasma. 2008;55:31-5 pubmed
    The aim of our work was to determine the expression of glycoprotein 96 (gp96; glucose-regulated protein 94 - GRP94) in 69 samples of breast carcinoma...
  60. Sanz Pamplona R, Aragues R, Driouch K, Martín B, Oliva B, Gil M, et al. Expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins is a candidate marker of brain metastasis in both ErbB-2+ and ErbB-2- primary breast tumors. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:564-79 pubmed publisher
    ..A multivariate analysis based on stepwise logistic regression revealed GRP94, FN14, and inhibin as the best combination to discriminate between brain and non-brain metastases (ROC AUC = 0...
  61. Tzekov R, Dawson C, Orlando M, Mouzon B, Reed J, Evans J, et al. Sub-Chronic Neuropathological and Biochemical Changes in Mouse Visual System after Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153608 pubmed publisher
    ..This will allow future identification of therapeutic targets for improving the visual consequences of r-mTBI. ..
  62. Meng X, Zhu Y, Tao L, Zhao S, Qiu S. Periostin has a protective role in melatonin?induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the eIF2??ATF4 pathway in human osteoblasts. Int J Mol Med. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..revealed a positive association between melatonin and the expression levels of glucose?regulated protein (GRP)78, GRP94, phosphorylated (p?) eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), activating transcription factor (ATF)4, CCAAT/..
  63. Gomez J, Rutkowski D. Experimental reconstitution of chronic ER stress in the liver reveals feedback suppression of BiP mRNA expression. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..to feedback-mediated suppression of a select group of mRNAs, including those encoding the ER chaperones BiP and GRP94. This suppression was due to both silencing of the ATF6α pathway of UPR-dependent transcription and enhancement ..
  64. Jahn M, Tych K, Girstmair H, Steinmaßl M, Hugel T, Buchner J, et al. Folding and Domain Interactions of Three Orthologs of Hsp90 Studied by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy. Structure. 2018;26:96-105.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..folding of different Hsp90 orthologs, namely bacterial Hsp90 (HtpG) and Hsp90 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Grp94), as well as from the cytosol of the eukaryotic cell (Hsp82)...
  65. Otsuki T, Furukawa Y, Ikeda K, Endo H, Yamashita T, Shinohara A, et al. Fanconi anemia protein, FANCA, associates with BRG1, a component of the human SWI/SNF complex. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:2651-60 pubmed
    ..We also found a significant increase in the molecular chaperone, glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) among BRG1-associated factors isolated from a FANCA-mutant cell line, which was not seen in either a normal ..
  66. Demine R, Walden P. Testing the role of gp96 as peptide chaperone in antigen processing. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17573-8 pubmed
    b>gp96 is a 96-kDa glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum that is believed to be involved in antigen processing as an intermediate carrier of peptides for presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules...
  67. Lu Q, Harrington E, Newton J, Jankowich M, Rounds S. Inhibition of ICMT induces endothelial cell apoptosis through GRP94. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;37:20-30 pubmed
    ..PAGE and immunoblot analysis further documented that ICMT inhibition caused multiple changes in the pI of GRP94. GRP94 is an endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, a component of the unfolded protein response (UPR), and is ..
  68. Kakiuchi C, Ishiwata M, Nanko S, Kunugi H, Minabe Y, Nakamura K, et al. Association analysis of HSP90B1 with bipolar disorder. J Hum Genet. 2007;52:794-803 pubmed
    ..goal of this study was to test the genetic association between bipolar disorder and an ER chaperone gene, HSP90B1 (GRP94/gp96), which is located on a candidate locus, 12q23.3...
  69. Suzuki S, Utsugisawa K, Iwasa K, Satoh T, Nagane Y, Yoshikawa H, et al. Autoimmunity to endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP94 in myasthenia gravis. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;237:87-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The 90-kDa protein was affinity-purified and found to match to ER chaperon GRP94 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectroscopy analysis...
  70. Brown M, Naidoo N. The endoplasmic reticulum stress response in aging and age-related diseases. Front Physiol. 2012;3:263 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will discuss age-related changes in the ER stress response and the role of the UPR in age-related diseases. ..
  71. Liu D, Wu A, Cui L, Hao R, Wang Y, He J, et al. Hepatitis B virus polymerase suppresses NF-?B signaling by inhibiting the activity of IKKs via interaction with Hsp90?. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e91658 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies therefore shed light on a potential therapeutic target for persistent infection with HBV. ..
  72. Prusty B, Siegl C, Gulve N, Mori Y, Rudel T. GP96 interacts with HHV-6 during viral entry and directs it for cellular degradation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113962 pubmed publisher
    ..We found host cell chaperone protein GP96 to interact with HHV-6A and HHV-6B and to interfere with virus propagation within the host cell...
  73. Lu W, Zhang H, Li Y, Ji F. Gastric cancer-derived heat shock protein-gp96 peptide complex enhances dendritic cell activation. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23:4390-4398 pubmed publisher
    ..Human GC cell lines KATOIII, MKN-28 and SGC-7901 were infected with adenovirus gp96 at a multiplicity of infection of 100. gp96-GC antigen peptide complexes were purified...
  74. Altpere A, Raud S, Sütt S, Reimets R, Visnapuu T, Toots M, et al. Mild stress induces brain region-specific alterations of selective ER stress markers' mRNA expression in Wfs1-deficient mice. Behav Brain Res. 2018;352:94-98 pubmed publisher
    ..spliced form (Xbp1s), 78-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (Grp78), 94-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (Grp94), C/EBP homologous protein (Chop)...
  75. Koo B, Apte S. Cell-surface processing of the metalloprotease pro-ADAMTS9 is influenced by the chaperone GRP94/gp96. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..by mass spectrometric analysis identified UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase I, heat shock protein gp96 (GRP94), BiP (GRP78), and ERdj3 (Hsp40 homolog) as associated proteins...
  76. Lin J, Hemenway C. Hsp90 directly modulates the spatial distribution of AF9/MLLT3 and affects target gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:11966-73 pubmed publisher
    ..AF9 is among a growing number of nuclear proteins recognized to rely on the Hsp90 complex for nuclear targeting. ..
  77. Zhou J, Xiao X, Yi H, Wang J, Wang X, Zhang Q. Upregulation of Gp96 correlates with the radiosensitivity and five-year survival rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2012;74:164-71 pubmed publisher
    Gp96 (GRP94) is a chaperone that is responsible for molecular folding and assembly of proteins...
  78. Martínez Aranda A, Hernández V, Guney E, Muixí L, Foj R, Baixeras N, et al. FN14 and GRP94 expression are prognostic/predictive biomarkers of brain metastasis outcome that open up new therapeutic strategies. Oncotarget. 2015;6:44254-73 pubmed publisher
    Brain metastasis is a devastating problem in patients with breast, lung and melanoma tumors. GRP94 and FN14 are predictive biomarkers over-expressed in primary breast carcinomas that metastasized in brain...
  79. Cai Q, Lin J, Zhang L, Lin J, Wang L, Chen D, et al. Comparative proteomics-network analysis of proteins responsible for ursolic acid-induced cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer cells. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317695015 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, the identified targets may be useful in explaining the anticancer mechanisms of ursolic acid and as potential targets for colorectal cancer therapy. ..
  80. Mohammadi A, Vahabzadeh Z, Jamalzadeh S, Khalili T. Trimethylamine-N-oxide, as a risk factor for atherosclerosis, induces stress in J774A.1 murine macrophages. Adv Med Sci. 2018;63:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..humeral immunoreaction in macrophages through induction of heat shock protein expressions and increased levels of GRP94 and HSP70 are associated with increased atherosclerosis risk...
  81. Fu Y, Liu X, Gao M, Zhang Y, Liu J. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces autophagy and apoptosis while inhibiting proliferation and drug resistance in multiple myeloma through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Oncotarget. 2017;8:61093-61106 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum levels of ALB and hemoglobin, and expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), GRP94, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and Beclin1, were lower in the resistant than sensitive ..
  82. Liu M, Liu S, Tan W, Tang F, Long J, Li Z, et al. Gaseous signalling molecule SO2 via Hippo?MST pathway to improve myocardial fibrosis of diabetic rats. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:8953-8963 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of ERS and Hippo?MST pathway?associated proteins, including CHOP, GRP94, MST1 and MST2, were significantly upregulated...
  83. Khandelwal A, Crowley V, Blagg B. Resorcinol-Based Grp94-Selective Inhibitors. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2017;8:1013-1018 pubmed publisher
    Glucose regulated protein 94 (Grp94) is the endoplasmic reticulum resident of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) family and represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of several diseases...
  84. Bruneau N, Lombardo D. Chaperone function of a Grp 94-related protein for folding and transport of the pancreatic bile salt-dependent lipase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:13524-33 pubmed
  85. Chavany C, Mimnaugh E, Miller P, Bitton R, Nguyen P, Trepel J, et al. p185erbB2 binds to GRP94 in vivo. Dissociation of the p185erbB2/GRP94 heterocomplex by benzoquinone ansamycins precedes depletion of p185erbB2. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:4974-7 pubmed
    ..In this report, we present evidence that the approximately 100-kDa ansamycin-binding protein is GRP94. Membrane-associated p185erbB2 exists in a stable complex with GRP94...
  86. Kaul S, Taira K, Pereira Smith O, Wadhwa R. Mortalin: present and prospective. Exp Gerontol. 2002;37:1157-64 pubmed
    ..Depending on its different subcellular niche and binding partner therein, mortalin is expected to perform multiple functions relevant to cell survival, control of proliferation and stress response. ..
  87. Machado J, Iborra R, Fusco F, Castilho G, Pinto R, Machado Lima A, et al. N-acetylcysteine prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress elicited in macrophages by serum albumin drawn from chronic kidney disease rats and selectively affects lipid transporters, ABCA-1 and ABCG-1. Atherosclerosis. 2014;237:343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..1 mg/mL; 18 h) from all groups, and the expression of ERS markers (protein disulfide isomerase - PDI, Grp78 and Grp94), ABCA-1 and ABCG-1 determined by immunoblot. HDL2 or apo A-I were used for cholesterol efflux assays...
  88. Marzec M, Hawkes C, Eletto D, Boyle S, Rosenfeld R, Hwa V, et al. A Human Variant of Glucose-Regulated Protein 94 That Inefficiently Supports IGF Production. Endocrinology. 2016;157:1914-28 pubmed publisher
    ..that the production of IGF-1 and IGF-2 requires interaction with the chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) and that the amount of secreted IGFs is proportional to the GRP94 activity...
  89. Chopjitt P, Pientong C, Sunthamala N, Kongyingyoes B, Haonon O, Boonmars T, et al. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;478:417-423 pubmed publisher
    ..Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, ..
  90. Huck J, Que N, Hong F, Li Z, Gewirth D. Structural and Functional Analysis of GRP94 in the Closed State Reveals an Essential Role for the Pre-N Domain and a Potential Client-Binding Site. Cell Rep. 2017;20:2800-2809 pubmed publisher
    ..A structure of GRP94, the endoplasmic reticulum hsp90, in a closed conformation has not been described, and the determinants that ..
  91. Srivastava P, Old L. Identification of a human homologue of the murine tumor rejection antigen GP96. Cancer Res. 1989;49:1341-3 pubmed
    A family of cell surface glycoproteins with a molecular weight of 96,000 (gp96) has recently been implicated in the individually distinct immunogenicity of chemically induced sarcomas of inbred mice...
  92. Takagi S, Miyagawa S, Ichikawa E, Soeda J, Miwa S, Miyagawa Y, et al. Dendritic cells, T-cell infiltration, and Grp94 expression in cholangiocellular carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2004;35:881-6 pubmed
    ..with the number of CD8-positive or CD4-positive T cells in the cancerous region and was significantly higher in grp94-positive cancer than in grp94-negative cancer (P = 0.0006)...