GRM2

Summary

Gene Symbol: GRM2
Description: glutamate metabotropic receptor 2
Alias: GLUR2, GPRC1B, MGLUR2, mGlu2, metabotropic glutamate receptor 2, glutamate receptor homolog, glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2
Species: human
Products:     GRM2

Top Publications

  1. Gonzalez Maeso J, ANG R, Yuen T, Chan P, Weisstaub N, Lopez Gimenez J, et al. Identification of a serotonin/glutamate receptor complex implicated in psychosis. Nature. 2008;452:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the mGluR2 interacts through specific transmembrane helix domains with the 2AR, a member of an unrelated G-protein-coupled ..
  2. Bigio B, Mathe A, Sousa V, Zelli D, Svenningsson P, McEwen B, et al. Epigenetics and energetics in ventral hippocampus mediate rapid antidepressant action: Implications for treatment resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:7906-11 pubmed publisher
    ..regulator of appetite Cartpt) and to LAC responsiveness (leptin receptors Lepr, metabotropic glutamate receptors-2 mGlu2, neuropeptide-Y NPY, and mineralocorticoid receptors MR)...
  3. Meek J, Yang J, Han V, Bell C. Morphological analysis of the mormyrid cerebellum using immunohistochemistry, with emphasis on the unusual neuronal organization of the valvula. J Comp Neurol. 2008;510:396-421 pubmed publisher
    ..NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor; the metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1alpha and mGluR2/3; the intracellular signaling molecules calcineurin and calcium calmodulin kinase IIalpha (CAMKIIalpha); and the ..
  4. Dohare P, Zia M, Ahmed E, Ahmed A, Yadala V, Schober A, et al. AMPA-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery in Premature Rabbits with Intraventricular Hemorrhage. J Neurosci. 2016;36:3363-77 pubmed publisher
    ..However, GluR1 and GluR2 levels were significantly lower in the embryonic white matter and germinal matrix relative to the neocortex in ..
  5. Wang H, Huang F, Hu Z, Zhang W, Qiao X, Huang Y, et al. Early-Life Social Isolation-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Rats Results in Microglial Activation and Neuronal Histone Methylation that Are Mitigated by Minocycline. Neurotox Res. 2017;31:505-520 pubmed publisher
    ..ESI also decreased expression of hippocampal NMDA receptor subunits, NR1, and AMPA receptor subunits, GluR1 and GluR2, which are involved in synaptic plasticity, but it did not affect expression of PSD95 and NR2B...
  6. Lladó Pelfort L, Troyano Rodriguez E, van den Munkhof H, Cervera Ferri A, Jurado N, Núñez Calvet M, et al. Phencyclidine-induced disruption of oscillatory activity in prefrontal cortex: Effects of antipsychotic drugs and receptor ligands. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;26:614-25 pubmed publisher
    ..using muscimol, diazepam or valproate) and the reduction of excitatory neurotransmission (using the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 and the preferential kainite/AMPA antagonist CNQX--but not the preferential AMPA/kainate ..
  7. Ji Y, Hu B, Li J, Traub R. Opposing Roles of Estradiol and Testosterone on Stress-Induced Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats. J Pain. 2018;19:764-776 pubmed publisher
    ..excitatory glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 1 expression and decreased inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 expression after FS in male thoracolumbar spinal cord...
  8. Hu L, Fernstrom J, Goldsmith P. Exogenous glutamate enhances glutamate receptor subunit expression during selective neuronal injury in the ventral arcuate nucleus of postnatal mice. Neuroendocrinology. 1998;68:77-88 pubmed
    ..2 mg MSG/g BW enhanced neuronal expression of NMDAR1 and of GluR2/4, and that higher doses of MSG preferentially increased NMDAR1 expression in injured neurons...
  9. Seredynski A, Balthazart J, Ball G, Cornil C. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a. J Neurosci. 2015;35:13110-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective...

More Information

Publications142 found, 100 shown here

  1. Li X, Xi Z, Markou A. Metabotropic glutamate 7 (mGlu7) receptor: a target for medication development for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Neuropharmacology. 2013;66:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, elevated extracellular glutamate activated presynaptic mGlu2/3 autoreceptors which in turn inhibited cocaine priming- or cue-induced enhancement of glutamate release and ..
  2. Yao G, Yue H, Yun Y, Sang N. Chronic SO2 inhalation above environmental standard impairs neuronal behavior and represses glutamate receptor gene expression and memory-related kinase activation via neuroinflammation in rats. Environ Res. 2015;137:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..abnormality, we detected that SO2 inhalation reduced the expression of Arc and glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1, GluR2, NR1, NR2A, and NR2B) with a concentration-dependent property in comparison to controls...
  3. Gulino R, Forte S, Parenti R, Gulisano M. TDP-43 as a Modulator of Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of Spinal Motoneuron Degeneration. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015;14:55-60 pubmed
    ..such as synapsin-I and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2 and GluR4 were measured by western blotting...
  4. Reiss L, Stark G, Nguyen Huynh A, Spear K, Zhang H, Tanaka C, et al. Morphological correlates of hearing loss after cochlear implantation and electro-acoustic stimulation in a hearing-impaired Guinea pig model. Hear Res. 2015;327:163-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The organ of Corti was immunolabeled with phalloidin, anti-CtBP2, and anti-GluR2 to quantify hair cells, ribbons and post-synaptic receptors...
  5. Sultana A, Nakaya N, Dong L, Abu Asab M, Qian H, Tomarev S. Deletion of olfactomedin 2 induces changes in the AMPA receptor complex and impairs visual, olfactory, and motor functions in mice. Exp Neurol. 2014;261:802-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Olfm2, similar to Olfm1, interacted with the GluR2 subunit of the AMPAR complexes and Olfm2 co-segregated with the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and other synaptic ..
  6. Pati D, Kelly K, Stennett B, Frazier C, Knackstedt L. Alcohol consumption increases basal extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens core of Sprague-Dawley rats without increasing spontaneous glutamate release. Eur J Neurosci. 2016;44:1896-905 pubmed publisher
    ..No change in metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGlu2/3) function was detected as bath application of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 decreased ..
  7. Witkin J, Mitchell S, Wafford K, Carter G, Gilmour G, Li J, et al. Comparative Effects of LY3020371, a Potent and Selective Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) 2/3 Receptor Antagonist, and Ketamine, a Noncompetitive N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist in Rodents: Evidence Supporting the Use of mGlu2/3 Antagonists, fo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;361:68-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The broad overlap of biologic responses produced by LY3020371 and ketamine supports the hypothesis that mGlu2/3 receptor blockade might be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of TRD patients...
  8. Li Y, Xue Y, He Y, Li F, Xue L, Xu C, et al. Inhibition of PKMzeta in nucleus accumbens core abolishes long-term drug reward memory. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5436-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Accumbens core injections of Tat-GluR2(3Y), which inhibits GluR2-dependent AMPA receptor endocytosis, prevented the impairment in morphine CPP induced by ..
  9. Kang H, Menlove K, Ma J, Wilkins A, Lichtarge O, Wensel T. Selectivity and evolutionary divergence of metabotropic glutamate receptors for endogenous ligands and G proteins coupled to phospholipase C or TRP channels. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:29961-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas L-SOP cannot activate mGluR1 or mGluR2, it acts as a weak antagonist for mGluR1 and a potent antagonist for mGluR2, suggesting that co-recognition of L-..
  10. Zammataro M, Merlo S, Barresi M, Parenti C, Hu H, Sortino M, et al. Chronic Treatment with Fluoxetine Induces Sex-Dependent Analgesic Effects and Modulates HDAC2 and mGlu2 Expression in Female Mice. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:743 pubmed publisher
    ..that fluoxetine was able to specifically increase the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor type-2 (mGlu2) in females...
  11. Wu H, Yen H, Huang C, Lee Y, Wu S, Lee T, et al. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor enhances synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity in mouse prefrontal cortex. J Biomed Sci. 2015;22:94 pubmed publisher
    ..NR1, NR2A, NR2B; the α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2, and ERK phosphorylation. Inhibition of sEH induced an enhancement of PFC neuronal synaptic neurotransmission...
  12. Du J, Wei Y, Liu L, Wang Y, Khairova R, Blumenthal R, et al. A kinesin signaling complex mediates the ability of GSK-3beta to affect mood-associated behaviors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitor AR-A014418 regulated alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA)-induced GluR1 and GluR2 internalization via phosphorylation of kinesin light chain 2 (KLC2), the key molecule of the kinesin cargo ..
  13. Nasca C, Zelli D, Bigio B, Piccinin S, Scaccianoce S, Nisticò R, et al. Stress dynamically regulates behavior and glutamatergic gene expression in hippocampus by opening a window of epigenetic plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:14960-5 pubmed publisher
    ..a key role for epigenetic up- and down-regulation of the putative presynaptic type 2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors and the postsynaptic NR1/NMDA receptors in the hippocampus and particularly in the dentate gyrus (DG), ..
  14. Zuckerman C, Blumkin E, Melamed O, Golan H. Glutamatergic synapse protein composition of wild-type mice is sensitive to in utero MTHFR genotype and the timing of neonatal vigabatrin exposure. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1787-802 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that in utero MTHFR deficiency is sufficient to alter the levels of glutamate receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2, and NR2B in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adult offspring with a WT genotype...
  15. Bhattacharya D, Dunaway E, Bhattacharya S, Bloemer J, Buabeid M, Escobar M, et al. Impaired ILK Function Is Associated with Deficits in Hippocampal Based Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in a FASD Rat Model. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0135700 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased synaptic expression of GluR2 AMPA receptors was observed with immunoprecipitation of post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95)...
  16. Shimizu K, Kurosawa N, Seki K. The role of the AMPA receptor and 5-HT(3) receptor on aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in chronic social isolation-reared mice. Physiol Behav. 2016;153:70-83 pubmed publisher
    ..blot analysis revealed that after four weeks of SI, mice exhibited up-regulated AMPA receptor subunit (GluR1, GluR2) protein levels in the amygdala and down-regulated hypothalamic 5-HT3 receptor protein levels...
  17. Zhai D, Lee F, D Souza C, Su P, Zhang S, Jia Z, et al. Blocking GluR2-GAPDH ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2015;2:388-400 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that protein complex composed of the GluR2 subunit of AMPA receptors and GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) was present at significantly higher ..
  18. Molosh A, Dustrude E, Lukkes J, Fitz S, Caliman I, Abreu A, et al. Panic results in unique molecular and network changes in the amygdala that facilitate fear responses. Mol Psychiatry. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..transmission of the principal neurons, and reduced protein levels of metabotropic glutamate type 2 receptor (mGluR2) in the BLA...
  19. Pedraza N, Ortiz R, Cornadó A, Llobet A, Aldea M, Gallego C. KIS, a kinase associated with microtubule regulators, enhances translation of AMPA receptors and stimulates dendritic spine remodeling. J Neurosci. 2014;34:13988-97 pubmed publisher
    ..decrease of protein levels of PSD-95, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, and the AMPAR subunits GluR1 and GluR2 in a CPEB3-dependent manner...
  20. Tian K, Wang Y, Li L, Liu Y. Neuronal death/apoptosis induced by intracellular zinc deficiency associated with changes in amino-acid neurotransmitters and glutamate receptor subtypes. J Inorg Biochem. 2018;179:54-59 pubmed publisher
    ..and the expression of 2 glutamate receptor subtypes ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (GluR2)and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B) were evaluated in zinc-deficient cells...
  21. Karlsson R, Tanaka K, Saksida L, Bussey T, Heilig M, Holmes A. Assessment of glutamate transporter GLAST (EAAT1)-deficient mice for phenotypes relevant to the negative and executive/cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:1578-89 pubmed publisher
    ..the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, some of which were rescued by treatment with either haloperidol or the mGlu2/3 agonist, LY379268 the mGlu2/3 agonist, LY379268...
  22. Riazi K, Galic M, Kentner A, Reid A, Sharkey K, Pittman Q. Microglia-dependent alteration of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus during peripheral inflammation. J Neurosci. 2015;35:4942-52 pubmed publisher
    ..synaptic currents were enhanced, and analysis of AMPA-mediated currents revealed increased contributions of GluR2-lacking receptors...
  23. Wang X, Zhong X, Li Z, Wang H, Zhang J, Li F, et al. Differential roles of hippocampal glutamatergic receptors in neuropathic anxiety-like behavior after partial sciatic nerve ligation in rats. BMC Neurosci. 2015;16:14 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subtypes NR1 and NR2B, but not NR2A, GluR1, or GluR2 (the main subtype of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid [AMPA] receptor) in the ..
  24. Wang H, Liu S, Wang H, Wang G, Zhu A. The effect of propofol postconditioning on the expression of K(+)-Cl(-)-co-transporter 2 in GABAergic inhibitory interneurons of acute ischemia/reperfusion injury rats. Brain Res. 2015;1597:210-9 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and prevented the internalization of GluR2 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, thus provided ..
  25. Liu Z, Huang Y, Wang Y, Wang H, Deng F, Heng B, et al. Prevention of cell death by the zinc ion chelating agent TPEN in cultured PC12 cells exposed to Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation (OGD). J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2015;31:45-52 pubmed publisher
    ..cell survival rate, apoptosis status, potassium channel currents, intracellular free glutamate concentration and GluR2 expression in PC12 cells exposed to OGD in the absence or presence of TPEN for different time were investigated...
  26. Topiol S, Sabio M. 7TM X-ray structures for class C GPCRs as new drug-discovery tools. 1. mGluR5. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:484-494 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, using homology models that we built for mGluR2 and mGluR4, we have identified the factors leading to the selectivity between group I and groups II and III for ..
  27. Copeland C, Wall T, Sims R, Neale S, Nisenbaum E, Parri H, et al. Astrocytes modulate thalamic sensory processing via mGlu2 receptor activation. Neuropharmacology. 2017;121:100-110 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that mGlu2 receptor activity reduces inhibitory transmission from the thalamic reticular nucleus to the somatosensory ..
  28. Ferrara N, Cullen P, Pullins S, Rotondo E, Helmstetter F. Input from the medial geniculate nucleus modulates amygdala encoding of fear memory discrimination. Learn Mem. 2017;24:414-421 pubmed publisher
    ..GluR1 and GluR2 containing AMPA receptors are found at synapses throughout the amygdala and their expression is persistently up-..
  29. O Brien D, Shaw D, Cho H, Cross A, Wesolowski S, Felts A, et al. Differential Pharmacology and Binding of mGlu2 Receptor Allosteric Modulators. Mol Pharmacol. 2018;93:526-540 pubmed publisher
    Allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu2) has demonstrated efficacy in preclinical rodent models of several brain disorders, leading to industry and academic drug discovery efforts...
  30. Bidkhori G, Narimani Z, Hosseini Ashtiani S, Moeini A, Nowzari Dalini A, Masoudi Nejad A. Reconstruction of an integrated genome-scale co-expression network reveals key modules involved in lung adenocarcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67552 pubmed publisher
    ..ARF4, CLPTM1L, SP4, ZNF124, LPP, FOXP1, SOX18, MSX2, NFE2L2, SMARCC1, TRA2B, CBX3, PRPF6, ATP6V1C1, MYBBP1A, MACF1, GRM2, TBXA2R, PRKAR2A, PTK2, PGF and MYO10 are among the genes that belong to modules 1 and 22...
  31. Morin N, Morissette M, Grégoire L, Di Paolo T. mGlu5, Dopamine D2 and Adenosine A2A Receptors in L-DOPA-induced Dyskinesias. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2016;14:481-93 pubmed
    ..receptors with normalization of glutamate activity in the basal ganglia of L-DOPA-induced changes of NMDA, AMPA, mGlu2/3 receptors and VGlut2 transporter...
  32. Ali I, Boets S, Janssens P, Van Eetveldt A, Amhaoul H, Langlois X, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 density and its relation to the hippocampal neuropathology in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy in rats. Epilepsy Res. 2016;127:55-59 pubmed publisher
    ..in efficient translation of these findings to the clinical settings, we aimed to characterise the expression of mGluR2/3 receptors in the brain areas relevant to MTLE...
  33. Levitz J, Habrian C, Bharill S, Fu Z, Vafabakhsh R, Isacoff E. Mechanism of Assembly and Cooperativity of Homomeric and Heteromeric Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. Neuron. 2016;92:143-159 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective liganding with photoswitchable tethered agonists conjugated to one or both subunits of covalently linked mGluR2 homodimers reveals that receptor activation is highly cooperative...
  34. Sta Maria N, Reger M, Cai Y, Baquing M, Buen F, Ponnaluri A, et al. D-Cycloserine Restores Experience-Dependent Neuroplasticity after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Developing Rat Brain. J Neurotrauma. 2017;34:1692-1702 pubmed publisher
    ..On PID4, DCS restored reduced NR2A and increased GluR2 by 54%, and also restored diminished recognition memory in FPI pups...
  35. Zhang F, Ma X, Wang Y, He C, Tian K, Wang H, et al. TPEN, a Specific Zn2+ Chelator, Inhibits Sodium Dithionite and Glucose Deprivation (SDGD)-Induced Neuronal Death by Modulating Apoptosis, Glutamate Signaling, and Voltage-Gated K+ and Na+ Channels. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2017;37:235-250 pubmed publisher
    ..free glutamate concentration and expression of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor (GluR2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits (NR2B), and voltage-dependent K+ and Na+ ..
  36. García Bea A, Walker M, Hyde T, Kleinman J, Harrison P, Lane T. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3; mGluR3; GRM3) in schizophrenia: Antibody characterisation and a semi-quantitative western blot study. Schizophr Res. 2016;177:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies tested using Grm3-/- and Grm2-/-/3-/- mice and transfected HEK293T/17 cells...
  37. Aso E, Andrés Benito P, Ferrer I. Delineating the Efficacy of a Cannabis-Based Medicine at Advanced Stages of Dementia in a Murine Model. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;54:903-912 pubmed
    ..The positive effects induced by ?9-THC and CBD in aged A?PP/PS1 mice are associated with reduced GluR2/3 and increased levels of GABA-A R?1 in cannabinoid-treated animals when compared with animals treated with ..
  38. Malik R, Mehta P, Srivastava S, Choudhary B, Sharma M. Structure-based screening, ADMET profiling, and molecular dynamic studies on mGlu2 receptor for identification of newer antiepileptic agents. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2017;35:3433-3448 pubmed publisher
    ..with special emphasis for CNS ranges, and toxicity analysis were studied and showed good binding modes in the mGluR2-active site. Enrichment studies for validating screening protocol were carried out which gave ROC values 0...
  39. Pitsikas N, Kaffe E, Markou A. The metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 differentially affects recognition memory in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2012;230:374-9 pubmed
    Experimental evidence suggests that metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor antagonists affect cognitive function, although contradictory findings have been reported...
  40. Petrosyan H, Alessi V, Hunanyan A, Sisto S, Arvanian V. Spinal electro-magnetic stimulation combined with transgene delivery of neurotrophin NT-3 and exercise: novel combination therapy for spinal contusion injury. J Neurophysiol. 2015;114:2923-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These physiological changes associated with increased immunoreactivity of GluR1 and GluR2/3 glutamate receptors in lumbar neurons...
  41. Han J, Kwon M, Cha M, Tanioka M, Hong S, Bai S, et al. Plasticity-Related PKMζ Signaling in the Insular Cortex Is Involved in the Modulation of Neuropathic Pain after Nerve Injury. Neural Plast. 2015;2015:601767 pubmed publisher
    ..injection, mechanical allodynia test and immunoblotting of PKMζ, phospho-PKMζ (p-PKMζ), and GluR1 and GluR2 were observed. IHC demonstrated that zif268 expression significantly increased in the IC after nerve injury...
  42. Li X, D Souza M, Niño A, Doherty J, Cross A, Markou A. Attenuation of nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior by the mGlu2 receptor positive allosteric modulators AZD8418 and AZD8529 in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016;233:1801-14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the relative contribution of mGlu2 receptors in nicotine dependence is still unknown...
  43. Chen C, Meng S, Xue Y, Han Y, Sun C, Deng J, et al. Epigenetic modification of PKMζ rescues aging-related cognitive impairment. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22096 pubmed publisher
    ..After fear conditioning, the protein levels of PKMζ and the membrane expression of GluR2 increased in the PrL in young and adult rats but not in aged rats, and the levels of methylated PKMζ DNA in the ..
  44. Rosenberg N, Gerber U, Ster J. Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Promotes LTP Induction at Schaffer Collateral-CA1 Pyramidal Cell Synapses by Priming NMDA Receptors. J Neurosci. 2016;36:11521-11531 pubmed
    ..Pharmacological activation of group II mGlu receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptors) with the specific agonist LY354740 in conjunction with electrical stimulation induced ..
  45. Witkin J, Monn J, Li J, Johnson B, McKinzie D, Wang X, et al. Preclinical predictors that the orthosteric mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY3020371 will not engender ketamine-associated neurotoxic, motor, cognitive, subjective, or abuse-liability-related effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2017;155:43-55 pubmed publisher
    The novel mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY3020371, has been shown to produce antidepressant-like effects comparable to that of the clinically-effective antidepressant ketamine...
  46. Wang X, Li Y, Wang H, Zhu M, Guo D, Wang G, et al. Propofol inhibits invasion and proliferation of C6 glioma cells by regulating the Ca2+ permeable AMPA receptor-system xc- pathway. Toxicol In Vitro. 2017;44:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..xCT protein and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluR2 subunit protein expression was assessed with Western blot analysis and immunofluorescent staining...
  47. Du J, Wang X, Zhang X, Zhang X, Jiang H. DNER modulates the length, polarity and synaptogenesis of spiral ganglion neurons via the Notch signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the expression of ??synuclein and the GluR2/3 subunits of the ??amin?o?3?hydroxy?5?methyl?4-isoxazolepropionic acid glutamate receptor were also reduced in ..
  48. Dean B, Snelling S, Dakin S, Murphy R, Javaid M, Carr A. Differences in glutamate receptors and inflammatory cell numbers are associated with the resolution of pain in human rotator cuff tendinopathy. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:176 pubmed publisher
    ..Tendon samples from patients with persistent pain demonstrated increased levels of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2), kainate receptor 1 (KA1), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9...
  49. Acri J, Cross A, Skolnick P. From bench to bedside: mGluR2 positive allosteric modulators as medications to treat substance use disorders. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017;234:1347-1355 pubmed publisher
    This paper provides an overview of the role of type 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2) in addiction and behaviors reflecting addictive processes...
  50. Chen A, Chen Y, Tang Y, Bao C, Cui Z, Xiao M, et al. Hippocampal AMPARs involve the central sensitization of rats with irritable bowel syndrome. Brain Behav. 2017;7:e00650 pubmed publisher
    ..The expressions of hippocampal AMPARs (GluR1 and GluR2) were determined by Western blot. The IBS-like rats showed visceral hypersensitivity when compared with controls...
  51. Gjørlund M, Carlsen E, Kønig A, Dmytrieva O, Petersen A, Jacobsen J, et al. Soluble Ectodomain of Neuroligin 1 Decreases Synaptic Activity by Activating Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 2. Front Mol Neurosci. 2017;10:116 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) are located primarily at the periphery of presynaptic terminals, where they inhibit the ..
  52. Santarelli S, Wagner K, Labermaier C, Uribe A, Dournes C, Balsevich G, et al. SLC6A15, a novel stress vulnerability candidate, modulates anxiety and depressive-like behavior: involvement of the glutamatergic system. Stress. 2016;19:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide evidence that GluR1 expression in the dentate gyrus, but not GluR2 or NR1, are regulated by slc6a15 expression, and may contribute to the difference in stress responsiveness ..
  53. Di Prisco S, Merega E, Bonfiglio T, Olivero G, Cervetto C, Grilli M, et al. Presynaptic, release-regulating mGlu2 -preferring and mGlu3 -preferring autoreceptors in CNS: pharmacological profiles and functional roles in demyelinating disease. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173:1465-77 pubmed publisher
    Presynaptic, release-regulating metabotropic glutamate 2 and 3 (mGlu2/3) autoreceptors exist in the CNS. They represent suitable targets for therapeutic approaches to central diseases that are typified by hyperglutamatergicity...
  54. Chiechio S. Modulation of Chronic Pain by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors. Adv Pharmacol. 2016;75:63-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, group I mGluRs includes mGluR1 and mGluR5, group II mGluRs includes mGluR2 and mGluR3, and group III mGluRs consists of mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8...
  55. Fomsgaard L, Moreno J, de la Fuente Revenga M, Brudek T, Adamsen D, Río Alamos C, et al. Differences in 5-HT2A and mGlu2 Receptor Expression Levels and Repressive Epigenetic Modifications at the 5-HT2A Promoter Region in the Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High- (RHA-I) Avoidance Rat Strains. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:1998-2012 pubmed publisher
    The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia...
  56. Chaki S. mGlu2/3 Receptor Antagonists as Novel Antidepressants. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2017;38:569-580 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamatergic system, preclinical data have indicated that the group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, mGlu2 and mGlu3, are attractive targets for the development of novel antidepressants...
  57. Caprioli D, Justinova Z, Venniro M, Shaham Y. Effect of Novel Allosteric Modulators of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors on Drug Self-administration and Relapse: A Review of Preclinical Studies and Their Clinical Implications. Biol Psychiatry. 2018;84:180-192 pubmed publisher
    ..of ionotropic glutamate receptors or metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) or orthosteric agonists of mGluR2/3. However, these compounds have not advanced to clinical use because of potential side effects and other factors...
  58. Wang Y, Ma Y, Hu J, Cheng W, Jiang H, Zhang X, et al. Prenatal chronic mild stress induces depression-like behavior and sex-specific changes in regional glutamate receptor expression patterns in adult rats. Neuroscience. 2015;301:363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (NMDAR) or metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) expression, while in PCMS males, higher mGluR2/3, mGluR5, and NR1 expression levels were observed in the prefrontal cortex...
  59. McOmish C, Pavey G, Gibbons A, Hopper S, Udawela M, Scarr E, et al. Lower [3H]LY341495 binding to mGlu2/3 receptors in the anterior cingulate of subjects with major depressive disorder but not bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. J Affect Disord. 2016;190:241-248 pubmed publisher
    ..system has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of major depressive disorders(MDD) and mGlu2/3 receptors play an important role in regulating glutamatergic tone...
  60. Davidson S, Golden J, Copits B, Ray P, Vogt S, Valtcheva M, et al. Group II mGluRs suppress hyperexcitability in mouse and human nociceptors. Pain. 2016;157:2081-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive immunoreactivity for mGlu2 in rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG), peripheral fibers in skin, and central labeling in the spinal dorsal horn...
  61. Yi E, Oh S, Lee J, Leem Y. Chronic stress-induced dendritic reorganization and abundance of synaptosomal PKA-dependent CP-AMPA receptor in the basolateral amygdala in a mouse model of depression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;486:671-678 pubmed publisher
    ..acid receptors (CP-AMPARs) within the synaptosome exhibited an increased GluR1:GluR2 subunit ratio...
  62. Tseng Y, Chuang P, Huang Y, Chen C. Computational Investigation into the Interactions of Traditional Chinese Medicine Molecules of WenQingYin with GluR2. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..out to investigate the interaction of a traditional Chinese medicine, WenQingYin, with the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor...
  63. Li M, Yang S, Xing B, Ferguson B, Gulchina Y, Li Y, et al. LY395756, an mGluR2 agonist and mGluR3 antagonist, enhances NMDA receptor expression and function in the normal adult rat prefrontal cortex, but fails to improve working memory and reverse MK801-induced working memory impairment. Exp Neurol. 2015;273:190-201 pubmed publisher
    Targeting group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) has been proposed to correct the dysfunctional glutamatergic system, particularly NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction, for treatment of schizophrenia...
  64. Li S, Hang L, Ma Y. FGF22 protects hearing function from gentamycin ototoxicity by maintaining ribbon synapse number. Hear Res. 2016;332:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunostaining with anti- GluR2&3/CtBP2 was used to estimate the number of ribbon synapses in the cochlea...
  65. Aleman A, Lincoln T, Bruggeman R, Melle I, Arends J, Arango C, et al. Treatment of negative symptoms: Where do we stand, and where do we go?. Schizophr Res. 2017;186:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..g. glycine receptor inhibitors and drugs that target the NMDA receptor or metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor, but no consistent evidence of improvement of negative symptoms was found...
  66. Leurquin Sterk G, Celen S, Van Laere K, Koole M, Bormans G, Langlois X, et al. What We Observe In Vivo Is Not Always What We See In Vitro: Development and Validation of 11C-JNJ-42491293, A Novel Radioligand for mGluR2. J Nucl Med. 2017;58:110-116 pubmed publisher
    Positive allosteric modulators (PAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) are a potential therapy for anxiety, schizophrenia, and addiction...
  67. García Bea A, Bermudez I, Harrison P, Lane T. A group II metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3, GRM3) isoform implicated in schizophrenia interacts with canonical mGlu3 and reduces ligand binding. J Psychopharmacol. 2017;31:1519-1526 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation shows that mGlu3?4 interacts with canonical mGlu3. mGlu3?4 does not bind the mGlu2/3 antagonist [3H]LY341495, but the presence of mGlu3?4 reduces binding of [3H]LY341495 to ..
  68. Nasca C, Bigio B, Zelli D, De Angelis P, Lau T, Okamoto M, et al. Role of the Astroglial Glutamate Exchanger xCT in Ventral Hippocampus in Resilience to Stress. Neuron. 2017;96:402-413.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..with acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) or acetyl-N-cysteine (NAC) rapidly increases xCT and activates a network with mGlu2 receptors to prime an enhanced glutamate homeostasis that promotes both pro-resilient and antidepressant-like ..
  69. Bratek E, Ziembowicz A, Salinska E. Pretreatment with Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist LY379268 Protects Neonatal Rat Brains from Oxidative Stress in an Experimental Model of Birth Asphyxia. Brain Sci. 2018;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Recent investigations have shown that activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) can provide neuroprotection against H-I, but the mechanism of this effect is not clear...
  70. Subramanian M, Holt A, Mueller P. Physical activity correlates with glutamate receptor gene expression in spinally-projecting RVLM neurons: a laser capture microdissection study. Brain Res. 2014;1585:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no significant difference in the gene expression of NMDA (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, NR2C and NR2D), AMPA (GLUR1, GLUR2 and GLUR3) and GABAA (GABAA1 and GABAA2) receptor subunits...
  71. Chaki S, Fukumoto K. Potential of Glutamate-Based Drug Discovery for Next Generation Antidepressants. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2015;8:590-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, agents acting on metabotropic glutamate receptors, such as mGlu2/3 and mGlu5 receptors, have been proposed as useful approaches to mimicking the antidepressant effects of ketamine...
  72. Holloway T, Moreno J, González Maeso J. HSV-Mediated Transgene Expression of Chimeric Constructs to Study Behavioral Function of GPCR Heteromers in Mice. J Vis Exp. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    The heteromeric receptor complex between 5-HT2A and mGlu2 has been implicated in some of the behavioral phenotypes in mouse models of psychosis(1,2)...
  73. Stone T, Darlington L, Forrest C. Dependence receptor involvement in subtilisin-induced long-term depression and in long-term potentiation. Neuroscience. 2016;336:49-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, two inhibitors of endocytosis - dynasore and tat-gluR2(3Y) - were tested and, although the former compound had no effect on neurophysiological responses, tat-gluR2(3Y) ..
  74. Shin C, Templeton T, Chiu A, Kim J, Gable E, Vieira P, et al. Endogenous glutamate within the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices regulates the incubation of cocaine-seeking in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2018;128:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..For testing, rats were microinjected with vehicle, 20 mM of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 (to lower endogenous glutamate), or 300 ?M of the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor ..
  75. Bruno A, Costantino G, De Fabritiis G, Pastor M, Selent J. Membrane-sensitive conformational states of helix 8 in the metabotropic Glu2 receptor, a class C GPCR. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42023 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the structural properties for the H8 domain of the mGluR2 receptor, a class C GPCR, by applying extended molecular dynamics simulations...
  76. Kitano J, Kimura K, Yamazaki Y, Soda T, Shigemoto R, Nakajima Y, et al. Tamalin, a PDZ domain-containing protein, links a protein complex formation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor cytohesins. J Neurosci. 2002;22:1280-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that tamalin plays a key role in the association of group 1 mGluRs with the ARF-specific GEF proteins and contributes to intracellular trafficking and the macromolecular organization of group 1 mGluRs at synapses. ..
  77. Dietrich D, Kral T, Clusmann H, Friedl M, Schramm J. Presynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors reduce stimulated and spontaneous transmitter release in human dentate gyrus. Neuropharmacology. 2002;42:297-305 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in human dentate gyrus mGluR2/3 can almost completely depress glutamate release by a presynaptic mechanism which acts downstream of presynaptic ..
  78. Kuwabara T, Hsieh J, Nakashima K, Taira K, Gage F. A small modulatory dsRNA specifies the fate of adult neural stem cells. Cell. 2004;116:779-93 pubmed
    ..The discovery of small modulatory dsRNAs (smRNAs) extends the important contribution of noncoding RNAs as key regulators of cell behavior at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. ..
  79. Laverghetta A, Toledo C, Veenman C, Yamamoto K, Wang H, Reiner A. Cellular localization of AMPA type glutamate receptor subunits in the basal ganglia of pigeons (Columba livia). Brain Behav Evol. 2006;67:10-38 pubmed
    ..Single-label studies showed that the striatal neuropil is rich in GluR1, GluR2, and GluR2/3 immunolabeling, suggesting the localization of GluR1, GluR2 and/or GluR3 to the dendrites and spines ..
  80. Liu W, Downing A, Munsie L, Chen P, Reed M, Ruble C, et al. Pharmacogenetic analysis of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY2140023 monohydrate in the treatment of schizophrenia. Pharmacogenomics J. 2012;12:246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a genetic association exists between SNPs in several genes, such as HTR2A, and response to LY2140023 treatment. Additional clinical trials are needed to establish replication of these results. ..
  81. Doornbos M, Pérez Benito L, Tresadern G, Mulder Krieger T, Biesmans I, Trabanco A, et al. Molecular mechanism of positive allosteric modulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 by JNJ-46281222. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173:588-600 pubmed publisher
    Allosteric modulation of the mGlu2 receptor is a potential strategy for treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders...
  82. Gaudette F, Hamadjida A, Bédard D, Nuara S, Beaudry F, Huot P. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify LY-354,740 in rat and marmoset plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1061-1062:392-398 pubmed publisher
    LY-354,740 (eglumegad) is a selective and potent agonist of the metabotropic glutamate group II receptors (mGluR2,3) that has already entered clinical trials as a potential anti-psychotic agent and therefore has well-documented ..
  83. Jeong H, Paik Y. MGL-1 on AIY neurons translates starvation to reproductive plasticity via neuropeptide signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans. Dev Biol. 2017;430:80-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered that in C. elegans, the glutamate receptor homolog MGL-1 initiated reproductive plasticity in response to starvation...
  84. Naue J, Hoefsloot H, Mook O, Rijlaarsdam Hoekstra L, van der Zwalm M, Henneman P, et al. Chronological age prediction based on DNA methylation: Massive parallel sequencing and random forest regression. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2017;31:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..on publicly available 450K microarray data, and 13 finally selected for the age tool based on MPS (DDO, ELOVL2, F5, GRM2, HOXC4, KLF14, LDB2, MEIS1-AS3, NKIRAS2, RPA2, SAMD10, TRIM59, ZYG11A)...
  85. Shishkina T, Mishchenko T, Mitroshina E, Shirokova O, Pimashkin A, Kastalskiy I, et al. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) counteracts hypoxic damage to hippocampal neural network function in vitro. Brain Res. 2018;1678:310-321 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravital mRNA detection identified fewer GluR2 mRNA-positive cells, whereas GDNF preserved the number of these cells in the post-hypoxic period...
  86. Berry M, Holt A, Levitz J, Broichhagen J, Gaub B, Visel M, et al. Restoration of patterned vision with an engineered photoactivatable G protein-coupled receptor. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1862 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a retinal G protein-coupled receptor, mGluR2, which we chemically engineered to respond to light...
  87. Joo A, Shibata H, Ninomiya H, Kawasaki H, Tashiro N, Fukumaki Y. Structure and polymorphisms of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor type 2 gene (GRM2): analysis of association with schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2001;6:186-92 pubmed
    ..The subtype 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) gene (GRM2) is one of the possible candidate genes for schizophrenia...
  88. Adamek D, Kałuza J, Jasinski A. Immunohistochemical investigations of excitotoxicity in experimental spinal cord trauma. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2001;39:175-6 pubmed
    ..We investigated the expression of GluR2 (glutamate receptor), EAAT1, and EAAT2 by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded rat spinal ..
  89. Ghose S, Crook J, Bartus C, SHERMAN T, Herman M, Hyde T, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 and 3 gene expression in the human prefrontal cortex and mesencephalon in schizophrenia. Int J Neurosci. 2008;118:1609-27 pubmed publisher
    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 and mGluR3) are implicated in schizophrenia...
  90. Matosin N, Fernandez Enright F, Frank E, Deng C, Wong J, Huang X, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 binding in the anterior cingulate cortex in psychotic and nonpsychotic depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: implications for novel mGluR-based therapeutics. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2014;39:407-16 pubmed
    Metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 (mGluR2/3) and 5 (mGluR5) are novel therapeutic targets for major depression (MD), bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia...
  91. Jin L, Wang M, Yang S, Yang Y, Galvin V, Lightbourne T, et al. mGluR2/3 mechanisms in primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: evidence for both presynaptic and postsynaptic actions. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22:1615-1625 pubmed publisher
    ..Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3), which couple to Gi/Go, have been a focus of therapeutics based on rodent research, where mGluR2/3 have been ..
  92. Wang Y, Zhang X. FAAH inhibition produces antidepressant-like efforts of mice to acute stress via synaptic long-term depression. Behav Brain Res. 2017;324:138-145 pubmed publisher
    ..The PF3845- and/or AEA-elicited LTD are abolished by the LTD-blocking peptide Tat-GluR2. PF3845 significantly decreases passive behavioral coping of naïve mice to acute inescapable stress, which is ..