GRIK2

Summary

Gene Symbol: GRIK2
Description: glutamate ionotropic receptor kainate type subunit 2
Alias: EAA4, GLR6, GLUK6, GLUR6, GluK2, MRT6, glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2, bA487F5.1, excitatory amino acid receptor 4, gluR-6, glutamate receptor 6, glutamate receptor form A, glutamate receptor form B, glutamate receptor form C, glutamate receptor form D, glutamate receptor form E
Species: human
Products:     GRIK2

Top Publications

  1. Darstein M, Petralia R, Swanson G, Wenthold R, Heinemann S. Distribution of kainate receptor subunits at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. J Neurosci. 2003;23:8013-9 pubmed
    ..Both subunits coimmunoprecipitated from hippocampal membrane extracts with GluR6 but not GluR7 subunits...
  2. Paschen W, Hedreen J, Ross C. RNA editing of the glutamate receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR6 in human brain tissue. J Neurochem. 1994;63:1596-602 pubmed
    ..of mRNA in the coding region of the second transmembrane domain of glutamate receptor subunits GluR2, GluR5, and GluR6 involves a change of the base A in genomic DNA to the base G in mRNA as described in rat brain...
  3. Rubinsztein D, Leggo J, Chiano M, Dodge A, Norbury G, Rosser E, et al. Genotypes at the GluR6 kainate receptor locus are associated with variation in the age of onset of Huntington disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3872-6 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, we investigated the GluR6 kainate receptor...
  4. Barbon A, Vallini I, Barlati S. Genomic organization of the human GRIK2 gene and evidence for multiple splicing variants. Gene. 2001;274:187-97 pubmed
    ..Here we present the genomic organization of the human GRIK2 gene, which codes for the kainate GluR6 receptor subunit, deduced from sequence data present in the public databases and analyzed by bioinformatic tools...
  5. Coussen F, Normand E, Marchal C, Costet P, Choquet D, Lambert M, et al. Recruitment of the kainate receptor subunit glutamate receptor 6 by cadherin/catenin complexes. J Neurosci. 2002;22:6426-36 pubmed
    ..We have generated transgenic mice expressing the kainate receptor subunit glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) bearing an extracellular myc epitope (myc-GluR6), in forebrain neurons, in which it assembles with ..
  6. Chattopadhyay B, Ghosh S, Gangopadhyay P, Das S, Roy T, Sinha K, et al. Modulation of age at onset in Huntington's disease and spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 patients originated from eastern India. Neurosci Lett. 2003;345:93-6 pubmed
    ..genetic modifier(s) that might alter the age at onset in Huntington's disease (HD) we have analyzed variations in GluR6 kainate receptor (GluR6), CA150 gene, Delta2642 and polymorphic CCG repeat variation in huntingtin (htt) gene in ..
  7. Sodhi M, Simmons M, McCullumsmith R, Haroutunian V, Meador Woodruff J. Glutamatergic gene expression is specifically reduced in thalamocortical projecting relay neurons in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcripts encoding the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits NR2D, GluR3, GluR6, GluR7, and the intracellular proteins GRIP1 and SynGAP1 were significantly decreased in relay neurons but not in ..
  8. Gurung S, Evans A, Wilkinson K, Henley J. ADAR2-mediated Q/R editing of GluK2 regulates kainate receptor upscaling in response to suppression of synaptic activity. J Cell Sci. 2018;131: pubmed publisher
    Kainate receptors (KARs) regulate neuronal excitability and network function. Most KARs contain the subunit GluK2 (also known as GRIK2), and the properties of these receptors are determined in part by ADAR2 (also known as ADARB1)-..
  9. Zhawar V, Kandpal R, Athwal R. Isoforms of Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor GRIK2 Induce Senescence of Carcinoma Cells. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2019;16:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..gene transfer technique, SKOV3 ovarian carcinoma cells were transduced with an expression construct of glutamate receptor 6 (glutamate ionotropic receptor kainate type subunit 2, GRIK2) in retroviral vector PQCXIP...

More Information

Publications120 found, 100 shown here

  1. Hunter R, Bellani R, Bloss E, Costa A, McCarthy K, McEwen B. Regulation of kainate receptor subunit mRNA by stress and corticosteroids in the rat hippocampus. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4328 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that, after 7 days, adrenalectomy results in increased expression of hippocampal KA1, GluR6 and GluR7 mRNAs, an effect which is reversed by treatment with corticosterone in the case of KA1 and GluR7 and by ..
  2. Maraschi A, Ciammola A, Folci A, Sassone F, Ronzitti G, Cappelletti G, et al. Parkin regulates kainate receptors by interacting with the GluK2 subunit. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5182 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that parkin interacts with the kainate receptor (KAR) GluK2 subunit and regulates KAR function...
  3. Mennesson M, Rydgren E, Lipina T, Sokolowska E, Kulesskaya N, Morello F, et al. Kainate receptor auxiliary subunit NETO2 is required for normal fear expression and extinction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrated that the relative amount of synaptosomal KAR GLUK2/3 subunit was 20.8% lower in the ventral hippocampus and 36...
  4. Sherwood J, Amici M, Dargan S, Culley G, Fitzjohn S, Jane D, et al. Differences in kainate receptor involvement in hippocampal mossy fibre long-term potentiation depending on slice orientation. Neurochem Int. 2012;61:482-9 pubmed publisher
    ..knockout and mRNA expression studies argue against a major role of GluK1, supporting a more central role for GluK2 (formerly GluR6/Glu(K6))...
  5. Delorme R, Krebs M, Chabane N, Roy I, Millet B, Mouren Simeoni M, et al. Frequency and transmission of glutamate receptors GRIK2 and GRIK3 polymorphisms in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Neuroreport. 2004;15:699-702 pubmed
    ..disequilibrium test in 124 parent-offspring trios to search for association between OCD and two kainate receptors, GRIK2 and GRIK3...
  6. Greenwood T, Lazzeroni L, Calkins M, Freedman R, Green M, Gur R, et al. Genetic assessment of additional endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study. Schizophr Res. 2016;170:30-40 pubmed publisher
    ..g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3)...
  7. Garcia E, Mehta S, Blair L, Wells D, Shang J, Fukushima T, et al. SAP90 binds and clusters kainate receptors causing incomplete desensitization. Neuron. 1998;21:727-39 pubmed
    ..SAP90 and SAP102 coimmunoprecipitate with both KA2 and GluR6, but only SAP97 coimmunoprecipitates with GluR6...
  8. Mhamdi O, Kharrat M, Mrad R, Maazoul F, Chaabouni Bouhamed H. Non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation in Tunisian families : exclusion of GRIK2 and TUSC3 genes. Tunis Med. 2011;89:479-84 pubmed
    ..Genetic analysis of NSAR-MR: the GRIK2 gene (6q16.3-q21) and the TUSC3 gene (8p22). Four Tunisian families with NSAR-MR were included in this study...
  9. Taverna F, Wang L, MacDonald J, Hampson D. A transmembrane model for an ionotropic glutamate receptor predicted on the basis of the location of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:14159-64 pubmed
    ..In this study, the sites of N-linked oligosaccharides on GluR6, a member of the kainate class of ionotropic glutamate receptors, were examined...
  10. Barbon A, Gervasoni A, LaVia L, Orlandi C, Jaskolski F, Perrais D, et al. Human GluR6c, a functional splicing variants of GluR6, is mainly expressed in non-nervous cells. Neurosci Lett. 2008;434:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The kainate receptor subunit GluR6 presents different splice variants involving the C-terminal domain, namely GluR6a, GluR6b and GluR6c...
  11. Kumar J, Schuck P, Jin R, Mayer M. The N-terminal domain of GluR6-subtype glutamate receptor ion channels. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the crystal structure of the ATD from the kainate receptor GluR6. The ATD forms dimers in solution at micromolar protein concentrations and crystallizes as a dimer...
  12. Chen G, Henter I, Manji H. Translational research in bipolar disorder: emerging insights from genetically based models. Mol Psychiatry. 2010;15:883-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These include CLOCK, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta), glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK1), p11 (or S100A10), vesicular monoamine transporter ..
  13. Li M, Gardiner J, Breslau N, Anthony J, Lu Q. A non-parametric approach for detecting gene-gene interactions associated with age-at-onset outcomes. BMC Genet. 2014;15:79 pubmed publisher
    ..In the initial dataset, two SNPs, rs6570989 and rs2930357, located in genes GRIK2 and CSMD1, are found to be significantly associated with the progression of nicotine dependence (ND)...
  14. Zhu Q, Kong F, Xu H, Wang Y, Du C, Sun C, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GluK2 up-regulates kainate receptor-mediated responses and downstream signaling after brain ischemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:13990-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Brain ischemia and reperfusion induce rapid and sustained phosphorylation of the kainate receptor subunit GluK2 by Src in the rat hippocampus, implicating a critical role for Src-mediated GluK2 phosphorylation in ischemic ..
  15. Yang H, Zhao N, Lv L, Yan X, Hu S, Xu T. Functional research and molecular mechanism of Kainic acid-induced denitrosylation of thioredoxin-1 in rat hippocampus. Neurochem Int. 2017;108:448-456 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that the S-nitrosylation levels of Trx1 were decreased subsequent to KA injection and that the glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) antagonist NS102 could inhibit the denitrosylation of Trx1...
  16. Seaborne R, Strauss J, Cocks M, Shepherd S, O Brien T, van Someren K, et al. Human Skeletal Muscle Possesses an Epigenetic Memory of Hypertrophy. Sci Rep. 2018;8:1898 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified AXIN1, GRIK2, CAMK4, TRAF1 as hypomethylated genes with enhanced expression after loading that maintained their hypomethylated ..
  17. Emanuelle S, Doblin M, Gooley P, Gentry M. The UBA domain of SnRK1 promotes activation and maintains catalytic activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;497:127-132 pubmed publisher
    ..Firstly, the plant upstream kinase GRIK2 preferentially phosphorylates the SnRK1 KD-UBA...
  18. Zhai Z, Keereetaweep J, Liu H, Feil R, Lunn J, Shanklin J. Trehalose 6-Phosphate Positively Regulates Fatty Acid Synthesis by Stabilizing WRINKLED1. Plant Cell. 2018;30:2616-2627 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibition of SnRK1 activity was reduced in extracts of individual Arabidopsis thaliana grik1 and grik2 mutants relative to the wild type, while SnRK1 activity in grik1 grik2 extracts was enhanced by T6P...
  19. Strutz Seebohm N, Korniychuk G, Schwarz R, Baltaev R, Ureche O, Mack A, et al. Functional significance of the kainate receptor GluR6(M836I) mutation that is linked to autism. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2006;18:287-94 pubmed
    Previous studies revealed a linkage of the kainate receptor GluR6 with autism, a pervasive developmental disorder...
  20. Perlis R, Laje G, Smoller J, Fava M, Rush A, McMahon F. Genetic and clinical predictors of sexual dysfunction in citalopram-treated depressed patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:1819-28 pubmed publisher
    ..association, single nucleotide polymorphisms in glutamatergic genes were associated with decreased libido (GRIA3; GRIK2), difficulty achieving orgasm (GRIA1), and difficulty achieving erection (GRIN3A) (experiment-wide permuted p<0...
  21. Laje G, Allen A, Akula N, Manji H, John Rush A, McMahon F. Genome-wide association study of suicidal ideation emerging during citalopram treatment of depressed outpatients. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..between treatment-emergent suicidal ideation (TESI) and markers in genes encoding glutamate receptor subunits GRIK2 and GRIA3...
  22. Cai J, Zhang W, Yi Z, Lu W, Wu Z, Chen J, et al. Influence of polymorphisms in genes SLC1A1, GRIN2B, and GRIK2 on clozapine-induced obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013;230:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..a role for altered glutamate neurotransmission in the etiology of OC disorder (OCD), and SLC1A1, GRIN2B, and GRIK2 have all been reported to regulate glutamate transmission and affect OCD pathophysiology...
  23. Lang F, Stournaras C. Serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and tumor growth. Hormones (Athens). 2013;12:160-71 pubmed
    ..g. ENaC, SCN5A, TRPV4-6, Orai1/STIM1, ROMK, KCNE1/KCNQ1, GluR6, CFTR). SGK1 further up-regulates a number of enzymes (e.g...
  24. Dinet V, Ciccotosto G, Delaunay K, Borras C, Ranchon Cole I, Kostic C, et al. Amyloid Precursor-Like Protein 2 deletion-induced retinal synaptopathy related to congenital stationary night blindness: structural, functional and molecular characteristics. Mol Brain. 2016;9:64 pubmed publisher
    ..of the number of bipolar cells was accompanied with disrupted dendrites, reduced expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 at the dendritic tips and alteration of axon terminals in the OFF laminae of the inner plexiform layer...
  25. Motazacker M, Rost B, Hucho T, Garshasbi M, Kahrizi K, Ullmann R, et al. A defect in the ionotropic glutamate receptor 6 gene (GRIK2) is associated with autosomal recessive mental retardation. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;81:792-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we report a complex mutation in the ionotropic glutamate receptor 6 gene (GRIK2, also called "GLUR6") that cosegregates with moderate-to-severe nonsyndromic ..
  26. Dargan S, Clarke V, Alushin G, Sherwood J, Nisticò R, Bortolotto Z, et al. ACET is a highly potent and specific kainate receptor antagonist: characterisation and effects on hippocampal mossy fibre function. Neuropharmacology. 2009;56:121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..4+/-0.2 nM. In contrast, ACET was ineffective at GluK2 (formerly GluR6) receptors at all concentrations tested (up to 100 microM) and had no effect at GluK3 (formerly ..
  27. Briel D, Rybak A, Mann S, Kronbach C, Unverferth K. Synthesis of thieno[2,3-d]oxazines and thieno[2,3-d]thiazines as subtype specific kainate receptor antagonists. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16:4704-11 pubmed
    For the development of new antiepileptics the kainate receptors GluR6 and GluR5 are important targets. Based on the anticonvulsant effects of chinazolines and thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines that are known from the literature, thieno[2,3-d][1...
  28. El Khattabi L, Guimiot F, Pipiras E, Andrieux J, Baumann C, Bouquillon S, et al. Incomplete penetrance and phenotypic variability of 6q16 deletions including SIM1. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015;23:1010-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in the phenotype of patients carrying 6q16 deletions, some data support a contribution of other genes, such as GRIK2, to explain associated behavioural problems...
  29. Ramakrishnan H, Dhingra A, Tummala S, Fina M, Li J, Lyubarsky A, et al. Differential function of Gγ13 in rod bipolar and ON cone bipolar cells. J Physiol. 2015;593:1531-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In the retina, glutamate released from photoreceptors in the dark activates metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) receptors in ON bipolar cells; this leads to activation of Go , closure of transient receptor ..
  30. Marshall J, Xu J, Contractor A. Kainate Receptors Inhibit Glutamate Release Via Mobilization of Endocannabinoids in Striatal Direct Pathway Spiny Projection Neurons. J Neurosci. 2018;38:3901-3910 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The GRIK2 gene, encoding the GluK2 subunit of the kainate receptor, has been linked to several neuropsychiatric and ..
  31. Clarelli F, Liberatore G, Sorosina M, Osiceanu A, Esposito F, Mascia E, et al. Pharmacogenetic study of long-term response to interferon-? treatment in multiple sclerosis. Pharmacogenomics J. 2017;17:84-91 pubmed publisher
    ..we found an enrichment of pathways related to inflammatory processes and presynaptic membrane, the latter with involvement of genes related to glutamatergic system (GRM3 and GRIK2), confirming its potential role in the response to IFN?.
  32. Broer L, Buchman A, Deelen J, Evans D, Faul J, Lunetta K, et al. GWAS of longevity in CHARGE consortium confirms APOE and FOXO3 candidacy. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015;70:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..81; p value = 9.66 × 10(-7)) and GRIK2 (odds ratio = 1.24; p value = 5.09 × 10(-8)) with longevity...
  33. Qian H, Ji R, Gregg R, Peachey N. Identification of a new mutant allele, Grm6(nob7), for complete congenital stationary night blindness. Vis Neurosci. 2015;32:E004 pubmed publisher
    ..and 9, which would result in a frameshift mutation in the open reading frame that encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (Grm6)...
  34. Seeburg P, Higuchi M, Sprengel R. RNA editing of brain glutamate receptor channels: mechanism and physiology. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1998;26:217-29 pubmed
    ..If so, RNA editing by adenosine deamination may significantly enlarge the functional repertoire of the mammalian genome. ..
  35. Du M, Rambhadran A, Jayaraman V. Luminescence resonance energy transfer investigation of conformational changes in the ligand binding domain of a kainate receptor. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27074-8 pubmed publisher
    The apo state structure of the isolated ligand binding domain of the GluR6 subunit and the conformational changes induced by agonist binding to this protein have been investigated by luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) ..
  36. Ou J, Vijayasarathy C, Ziccardi L, Chen S, Zeng Y, Marangoni D, et al. Synaptic pathology and therapeutic repair in adult retinoschisis mouse by AAV-RS1 transfer. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2891-903 pubmed publisher
    ..development of the photoreceptor-DBC synapse was normal in the Rs1-KO retina; however, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6/transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily M member 1-signaling (mGluR6/TRPM1-signaling) cascade was ..
  37. Multani S, Pradhan S, Saranath D. Gene polymorphisms and oral cancer risk in tobacco habitués. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:6169-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNPs rs2124437 (RASGRP3), rs1335022 (GRIK2), rs4512367 (PREX2), rs4748011 (CCDC3), and rs1435218 (LNX1) were analyzed in 500 histopathologically confirmed ..
  38. Kim S, Kim J, Park M, Cho I, Yoo H. Family-based association study between GRIK2 polymorphisms and autism spectrum disorders in the Korean trios. Neurosci Res. 2007;58:332-5 pubmed
    ..The present study comprises the detection of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRIK2 followed by a family-based association analysis of the SNPs in 126 Korean ASD trios by using the transmission ..
  39. Lin H, Huang Y, Lin J, Wu J, Chen L, Tsai F. Association of genes on chromosome 6, GRIK2 , TMEM217 and TMEM63B (linked to MRPL14 ) with diabetic retinopathy. Ophthalmologica. 2013;229:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..rs1224329, rs1150790, rs713050, rs2518344 and rs487083; all were associated with genes TMEM217, MRPL14 and GRIK2. After adjusting for the duration of DM and levels of hemoglobin A(1c), the TT genotype of rs713050, and the AG + ..
  40. Inoue R, Hirohashi Y, Kitamura H, Nishida S, Murai A, Takaya A, et al. GRIK2 has a role in the maintenance of urothelial carcinoma stem-like cells, and its expression is associated with poorer prognosis. Oncotarget. 2017;8:28826-28839 pubmed publisher
    ..cDNA microarray analysis revealed that an ionotropic glutamate receptor glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kainate 2 (GRIK2) was expressed in ALDH1high cells at a higher level than that in ALDH1low cells...
  41. Cosgrove V, Kelsoe J, Suppes T. Toward a Valid Animal Model of Bipolar Disorder: How the Research Domain Criteria Help Bridge the Clinical-Basic Science Divide. Biol Psychiatry. 2016;79:62-70 pubmed publisher
    ..humans into animal models has led to greater understanding of roles for candidate biological systems such as the GRIK2 and CLOCK genes, as well as the extracellular signal-related kinase pathway involved in the pathophysiology of the ..
  42. Vila A, Whitaker C, O BRIEN J. Membrane-associated guanylate kinase scaffolds organize a horizontal cell synaptic complex restricted to invaginating contacts with photoreceptors. J Comp Neurol. 2017;525:850-867 pubmed publisher
    ..We further identified some known SAP102 binding partners, kainate receptor GluR6/7 and inward rectifier potassium channel Kir2.1, closely associated with SAP102 in photoreceptor invaginations...
  43. Roche K, Raymond L, Blackstone C, Huganir R. Transmembrane topology of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR6. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:11679-82 pubmed
    ..In this study we have shown that both AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1-4) and kainate receptor subunits (GluR6/7) are glycosylated in adult rat brain; however, the kainate receptor subunits are glycosylated to a greater ..
  44. Fransen J, Pangeni G, Pyle I, McCall M. Functional changes in Tg P23H-1 rat retinal responses: differences between ON and OFF pathway transmission to the superior colliculus. J Neurophysiol. 2015;114:2368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..At P150, metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6) expression is lower than in WT, consistent with a decrease in ON RGC responses...
  45. Paschen W, Blackstone C, Huganir R, Ross C. Human GluR6 kainate receptor (GRIK2): molecular cloning, expression, polymorphism, and chromosomal assignment. Genomics. 1994;20:435-40 pubmed
    ..human disorders may involve kainate-preferring glutamate receptors, we have isolated a cDNA clone for the human GluR6 kainate-preferring receptor...
  46. Mehta S, Wu H, Garner C, Marshall J. Molecular mechanisms regulating the differential association of kainate receptor subunits with SAP90/PSD-95 and SAP97. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:16092-9 pubmed
    ..proteins (SAPs)) in neurons and that SAP90 can cluster and modify the electrophysiological properties of GluR6/KA2 kainate receptors when co-expressed in transfected cells...
  47. Hasan N, Ray T, Gregg R. CACNA1S expression in mouse retina: Novel isoforms and antibody cross-reactivity with GPR179. Vis Neurosci. 2016;33:E009 pubmed publisher
    ..to be expressed on the tips of retinal depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs) and colocalized with metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 (mGluR6), which is critical to DBC signal transduction...
  48. Kandpal R, Sandhu A, Kaur G, Kaur G, Athwal R. Monochromosomal Hybrids and Chromosome Transfer: A Functional Approach for Gene Identification. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2017;14:93-101 pubmed
    ..We have cloned RNaseT2, GluR6 (glutamate ionotropic receptor kainate type subunit 2-GRIK2) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type K (PTPRK) genes using these strategies.
  49. Wenthold R, Trumpy V, Zhu W, Petralia R. Biochemical and assembly properties of GluR6 and KA2, two members of the kainate receptor family, determined with subunit-specific antibodies. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:1332-9 pubmed
    ..of glutamate receptors (GluR), antibodies were made to synthetic peptides corresponding to the carboxyl termini of GluR6 and KA2...
  50. Chaudhry C, Plested A, Schuck P, Mayer M. Energetics of glutamate receptor ligand binding domain dimer assembly are modulated by allosteric ions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12329-34 pubmed publisher
    ..to probe the energetic effects of allosteric ions on kainate receptor dimer stability in solution, using a GluR6 mutant that desensitizes slowly...
  51. Chen C. RGS Protein Regulation of Phototransduction. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015;133:31-45 pubmed publisher
    ..where RGS7 and RGS11 work redundantly and in a complex with Gβ5-S as GAPs for Goα in the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 pathway situated at DBC dendritic tips...
  52. Cowan C, Abd El Barr M, van der Heijden M, Lo E, Paul D, Bramblett D, et al. Connexin 36 and rod bipolar cell independent rod pathways drive retinal ganglion cells and optokinetic reflexes. Vision Res. 2016;119:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..experiments show that rod pathway-driven and Cx36-independent RGC ON responses are also metabotropic glutamate receptor 6-dependent...
  53. Hendrickson A, Zhang C. Development of cone photoreceptors and their synapses in the human and monkey fovea. J Comp Neurol. 2019;527:38-51 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, two crucial components for cone to bipolar cell glutamatergic transmission, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 and voltage-dependent calcium channel α1...
  54. Kistler T, Fleck M. Functional consequences of natural substitutions in the GluR6 kainate receptor subunit ligand-binding site. Channels (Austin). 2007;1:417-28 pubmed
    Differences in binding-site residues of GluR2 (AMPAR) and GluR6 (KAR) subunits have been identified that might account for their functional and pharmacological differences...
  55. Fay A, Corbeil C, Brown P, Moitessier N, Bowie D. Functional characterization and in silico docking of full and partial GluK2 kainate receptor agonists. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;75:1096-107 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify a series of structurally related full and partial agonists at GluK2 (formerly GluR6) KARs and predict their docking mode using the in silico ligand-docking program FITTED...
  56. Sampaio A, Fagerness J, Crane J, Leboyer M, Delorme R, Pauls D, et al. Association between polymorphisms in GRIK2 gene and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a family-based study. CNS Neurosci Ther. 2011;17:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes involved in glutamatergic pathways, such as the glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kainate 2 (GRIK2), have been associated with OCD in previous studies...
  57. Copits B, Swanson G. Kainate receptor post-translational modifications differentially regulate association with 4.1N to control activity-dependent receptor endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8952-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the GluK1 and GluK2 kainate receptor subunits interact with the spectrin-actin binding scaffolding protein 4...
  58. Daniels B, Andrews E, Aurousseau M, Accardi M, Bowie D. Crosslinking the ligand-binding domain dimer interface locks kainate receptors out of the main open state. J Physiol. 2013;591:3873-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Working within the limits of a common architectural design, we propose functionally diverse iGluR families were able to emerge during evolution by re-deploying existing gating structures to fulfil different tasks. ..
  59. Sakai R, Swanson G, Shimamoto K, Green T, Contractor A, Ghetti A, et al. Pharmacological properties of the potent epileptogenic amino acid dysiherbaine, a novel glutamate receptor agonist isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea herbacea. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001;296:650-8 pubmed
    ..DH displaced [3H]KA from recombinant GluR5 and GluR6 kainate receptor subunits expressed in HEK293 cells with K(i) values of 0.74 and 1.2 nM, respectively...
  60. Smith H. The introduction of MR in the Nordic countries with special reference to Norway: central control versus local initiatives. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2001;13:639-44 pubmed
    ..In 1993, the strict regulations were abolished, and during the succeeding years all four Nordic countries experienced similar exponential growth in the number of MR units. ..
  61. Shibata H, Shibata A, Ninomiya H, Tashiro N, Fukumaki Y. Association study of polymorphisms in the GluR6 kainate receptor gene (GRIK2) with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res. 2002;113:59-67 pubmed
    ..The GluR6 kainate receptor gene GRIK2 is located on chromosome 6q16...
  62. Zhawar V, Kaur G, deRiel J, Kaur G, Kandpal R, Athwal R. Novel spliced variants of ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR6 in normal human fibroblast and brain cells are transcribed by tissue specific promoters. Gene. 2010;459:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We have investigated the splicing pattern and expression of the kainate receptor subunit GluR6 in human fibroblast cell lines and brain tissue...
  63. Smith A, Fang H, Whistler T, Unger E, Rajeevan M. Convergent genomic studies identify association of GRIK2 and NPAS2 with chronic fatigue syndrome. Neuropsychobiology. 2011;64:183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..05) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CFS subjects. Two genes, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, kinase 2 (GRIK2) and neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2), were identified by both SNP and gene expression analyses...
  64. Myung W, Song J, Lim S, Won H, Kim S, Lee Y, et al. Genetic association study of individual symptoms in depression. Psychiatry Res. 2012;198:400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The ACAG haplotype in the 13th haplotype block of the GRIK2 gene was associated with somatic anxiety...
  65. Mattheisen M, Samuels J, Wang Y, Greenberg B, Fyer A, McCracken J, et al. Genome-wide association study in obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from the OCGAS. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20:337-44 pubmed publisher
    ..0176). Secondary analyses of high-confidence interaction partners of DLGAP1 and GRIK2 (both showing evidence for association in our follow-up and the original GWAS study) revealed a trend of ..
  66. Gareeva A, Khusnutdinova E. [Glutamate receptors genes polymorphism and the risk of paranoid schizophrenia in Russians and tatars from the Republic of Bashkortostan]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2014;48:771-81 pubmed
    ..The association of polymorphic variants of genes GRIA2 and GRIK2 with paranoid schizophrenia and response to therapy with haloperidol in Russian and Tatar of the Republic of ..
  67. de Dios Barajas López J, Moreno J, Gámez Arjona F, Pardo J, Punkkinen M, Zhu J, et al. Upstream kinases of plant SnRKs are involved in salt stress tolerance. Plant J. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Geminivirus Rep-Interacting Kinase (GRIK)1 and GRIK2 phosphorylate SnRK1s, which are involved in sugar/energy sensing, and the grik1-1 grik2-1 double mutant shows ..
  68. Piserchio A, Pellegrini M, Mehta S, Blackman S, Garcia E, Marshall J, et al. The PDZ1 domain of SAP90. Characterization of structure and binding. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6967-73 pubmed
    ..and NMR chemical shift analysis, we have characterized the association of PDZ1 to the C-terminal peptides of the GluR6 subunit of the kainate receptor, voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv1...
  69. Hirbec H, Francis J, Lauri S, Braithwaite S, Coussen F, Mulle C, et al. Rapid and differential regulation of AMPA and kainate receptors at hippocampal mossy fibre synapses by PICK1 and GRIP. Neuron. 2003;37:625-38 pubmed
    ..PICK1, GRIP, and PSD95, as interactors with the kainate receptor (KAR) subunits GluR5(2b,) GluR5(2c), and GluR6. Of these, we show that both GRIP and PICK1 interactions are required to maintain KAR-mediated synaptic function ..
  70. Li G, Oswald R, Niu L. Channel-opening kinetics of GluR6 kainate receptor. Biochemistry. 2003;42:12367-75 pubmed
    b>GluR6 is an ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit of the kainate subtype. It plays an essential role in synaptic plasticity and epilepsy...
  71. Bah J, Quach H, Ebstein R, Segman R, Melke J, Jamain S, et al. Maternal transmission disequilibrium of the glutamate receptor GRIK2 in schizophrenia. Neuroreport. 2004;15:1987-91 pubmed
    ..Among the genes located in this region is the glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 2 gene (GRIK2 or GLUR6), a functional candidate for susceptibility to schizophrenia...
  72. Menke A, Lucae S, Kloiber S, Horstmann S, Bettecken T, Uhr M, et al. Genetic markers within glutamate receptors associated with antidepressant treatment-emergent suicidal ideation. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:917-8 pubmed publisher
  73. Holt R, Barnby G, Maestrini E, Bacchelli E, Brocklebank D, Sousa I, et al. Linkage and candidate gene studies of autism spectrum disorders in European populations. Eur J Hum Genet. 2010;18:1013-9 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and produced a second significant result in GRIK2 (rs2518261, P=0.008)...
  74. Giegling I, Drago A, Dolzan V, Plesnicar B, Schafer M, Hartmann A, et al. Glutamatergic gene variants impact the clinical profile of efficacy and side effects of haloperidol. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:206-16 pubmed publisher
    ..62 SNPs located in genes coding for subunits of glutamatergic receptors (GAD1, GRIA1, GRIA3, GRIA4, GRID2, GRIK1, GRIK2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, GRM1 and GRM4), and the transporter of glycine (SLC6A5), as modulators of the effects of ..
  75. Lee J, Lee J, Ramos E, Gillis T, Mysore J, Kishikawa S, et al. TAA repeat variation in the GRIK2 gene does not influence age at onset in Huntington's disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;424:404-8 pubmed
    ..GRIK2, which encodes GluR6, a mediator of excitatory neurotransmission in the brain, has been suggested in several studies to be a modifier ..
  76. Stewart S, Yu D, Scharf J, Neale B, Fagerness J, Mathews C, et al. Genome-wide association study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:788-98 pubmed publisher
    ..001) was observed within the top-ranked SNPs (P<0.01) from the trio-case-control analysis, suggesting these top signals may have a broad role in gene expression in the brain, and possibly in the etiology of OCD. ..
  77. Nagy C, Suderman M, Yang J, Szyf M, Mechawar N, Ernst C, et al. Astrocytic abnormalities and global DNA methylation patterns in depression and suicide. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20:320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Among intragenic DMRs, those found in GRIK2 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 2) and BEGAIN (brain-enriched guanylate kinase-associated protein) were ..
  78. Sander T, Janz D, Ramel C, Ross C, Paschen W, Hildmann T, et al. Refinement of map position of the human GluR6 kainate receptor gene (GRIK2) and lack of association and linkage with idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Neurology. 1995;45:1713-20 pubmed
    ..A trinucleotide repeat polymorphism detected in the 3' untranslated region of the kainate-selective GluR6 receptor gene (GRIK2) on chromosome 6 makes it possible to perform linkage and association studies with this high-..
  79. Pickering D, Taverna F, Salter M, Hampson D. Palmitoylation of the GluR6 kainate receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:12090-4 pubmed
    The G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR1 alpha and the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR6 were examined for posttranslational palmitoylation...
  80. Ripellino J, Neve R, Howe J. Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor subunits in the developing and adult cerebellum. Neuroscience. 1998;82:485-97 pubmed
    ..stained the internal, but not the external, granule cell layer, immunostaining for the kainate-type subunits GluR6/7 and KA2 was detected in both the external and internal granule cell layers...
  81. Leuschner W, Hoch W. Subtype-specific assembly of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunits is mediated by their n-terminal domains. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16907-16 pubmed
    ..GluR1-4 associated with indistinguishable efficiency with each other, whereas the kainate receptor subunits GluR6 and 7 showed a much lower degree of association with GluR1...
  82. Cai C, Coleman S, Niemi K, Keinanen K. Selective binding of synapse-associated protein 97 to GluR-A alpha-amino-5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subunit is determined by a novel sequence motif. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31484-90 pubmed
  83. Kohda K, Kamiya Y, Matsuda S, Kato K, Umemori H, Yuzaki M. Heteromer formation of delta2 glutamate receptors with AMPA or kainate receptors. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;110:27-37 pubmed
    ..We transiently expressed lurcher mutant AMPA receptor GluR1(Lc) and kainate receptor GluR6(Lc) in HEK293 cells...
  84. Breustedt J, Schmitz D. Assessing the role of GLUK5 and GLUK6 at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. J Neurosci. 2004;24:10093-8 pubmed
    ..We therefore conclude that the facilitatory effects of kainate on mossy fiber synaptic transmission are mediated by GLU(K6)-containing KARs. ..
  85. Wilding T, Zhou Y, Huettner J. Q/R site editing controls kainate receptor inhibition by membrane fatty acids. J Neurosci. 2005;25:9470-8 pubmed
    ..Genomic sequences for the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit of AMPA receptors and the GluR5 and GluR6 subunits of kainate receptors all encode a neutral glutamine (Q) residue within the channel pore that can be ..
  86. Vink J, Smit A, de Geus E, Sullivan P, Willemsen G, Hottenga J, et al. Genome-wide association study of smoking initiation and current smoking. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84:367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Several interesting groups of proteins stood out, including glutamate receptors (e.g., GRIN2B, GRIN2A, GRIK2, GRM8), proteins involved in tyrosine kinase receptor signaling (e.g., NTRK2, GRB14), transporters (e.g...
  87. Guzman Y, Ramsey K, Stolz J, Craig D, Huentelman M, Narayanan V, et al. A gain-of-function mutation in the GRIK2 gene causes neurodevelopmental deficits. Neurol Genet. 2017;3:e129 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutation is predicted to change a codon for alanine to that of a threonine at position 657 (A657T) in the GluK2 kainate receptor (KAR) subunit, a member of the ionotropic glutamate receptor gene family...
  88. Raymond L, Blackstone C, Huganir R. Phosphorylation and modulation of recombinant GluR6 glutamate receptors by cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Nature. 1993;361:637-41 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the GluR6 glutamate receptor, transiently expressed in mammalian cells, is directly phosphorylated by PKA, and that ..
  89. Metzger S, Bauer P, Tomiuk J, Laccone F, DiDonato S, Gellera C, et al. Genetic analysis of candidate genes modifying the age-at-onset in Huntington's disease. Hum Genet. 2006;120:285-92 pubmed
    ..To identify genetic modifiers influencing the age at disease onset, we searched for polymorphic markers in the GRIK2, TBP, BDNF, HIP1 and ZDHHC17 genes and analysed seven of them by association studies in 980 independent European ..
  90. Kornreich B, Niu L, Roberson M, Oswald R. Identification of C-terminal domain residues involved in protein kinase A-mediated potentiation of kainate receptor subtype 6. Neuroscience. 2007;146:1158-68 pubmed
    ..of specific amino acid residues in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of the rat kainate receptor subtype 6 (GluR6) as a possible mechanism for regulation of receptor function...
  91. Dutta S, Das S, Guhathakurta S, Sen B, Sinha S, Chatterjee A, et al. Glutamate receptor 6 gene (GluR6 or GRIK2) polymorphisms in the Indian population: a genetic association study on autism spectrum disorder. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2007;27:1035-47 pubmed
    ..The gene coding for glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6 or GRIK2) has been suggested as a candidate gene for autism based on its localization in the autism ..
  92. Laezza F, Wilding T, Sequeira S, Craig A, Huettner J. The BTB/kelch protein, KRIP6, modulates the interaction of PICK1 with GluR6 kainate receptors. Neuropharmacology. 2008;55:1131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..the BTB/kelch and PDZ domain families interact with different regions of the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain of the GluR6 kainate receptor subunit...