Gene Symbol: GRIA4
Description: glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 4
Alias: GLUR4, GLUR4C, GLURD, GluA4, NEDSGA, glutamate receptor 4, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 4, gluR-4, gluR-D, glutamate receptor, ionotrophic, AMPA 4, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 4
Species: human
Products:     GRIA4

Top Publications

  1. Wang H, Jiang W, Yang R, Li Y. Spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 is involved in neuropathic pain. Neuroreport. 2011;22:244-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results suggest the alteration of the spinal mGluR4 expression that contributes to the development of neuropathic pain. ..
  2. Spampinato S, Merlo S, Chisari M, Nicoletti F, Sortino M. Glial metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 increases maturation and survival of oligodendrocytes. Front Cell Neurosci. 2014;8:462 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that mGlu4 receptors expressed in astrocytes mediate enhanced survival of oligodendrocytes under conditions of excitotoxicity. ..
  3. Zussy C, Gómez Santacana X, Rovira X, De Bundel D, Ferrazzo S, Bosch D, et al. Dynamic modulation of inflammatory pain-related affective and sensory symptoms by optical control of amygdala metabotropic glutamate receptor 4. Mol Psychiatry. 2018;23:509-520 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings help to define novel and more precise therapeutic interventions for chronic pain, and exemplify the potential of optopharmacology to study the dynamic activity of endogenous neuromodulatory mechanisms in vivo. ..
  4. Eschle B, Eddy M, Delay E. Antagonism of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 receptors by (RS)-alpha-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine alters the taste of amino acids in rats. Neuroscience. 2009;163:1292-301 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that multiple receptors are involved in amino acid taste and that taste-mGluR4 receptors contribute to the taste of MSG and at least some l-amino acids. ..
  5. Hossain S, Liu H, Fragoso G, Almazan G. Agonist-induced down-regulation of AMPA receptors in oligodendrocyte progenitors. Neuropharmacology. 2014;79:506-14 pubmed publisher
    ..GluR2/3 and GluR4 subunits were the most affected...
  6. Lleo A, Núñez Llaves R, Alcolea D, Chiva C, Balateu Paños D, Colom Cadena M, et al. Changes in Synaptic Proteins Precede Neurodegeneration Markers in Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2019;18:546-560 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed the specific expression of 9 of the remaining proteins (Calsynytenin-1, GluR2, GluR4, Neurexin-2A, Neurexin-3A, Neuroligin-2, Syntaxin-1B, Thy-1, Vamp-2) at the human synapse using Array Tomography ..
  7. Igoshin A, Yurchenko A, Belonogova N, Petrovsky D, Aitnazarov R, Soloshenko V, et al. Genome-wide association study and scan for signatures of selection point to candidate genes for body temperature maintenance under the cold stress in Siberian cattle populations. BMC Genet. 2019;20:26 pubmed publisher
    ..This region contains two genes, MSANTD4 and GRIA4. Both genes are functional candidates to contribute to the cold-stress resistance phenotype, due to their indirect ..
  8. Xiang Y, Han H, Ji S, Wei L, Yang P, Zhang J. The developmental expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 in prenatal human frontal lobe and neurogenesis regions. Brain Dev. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies showed that metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) regulated the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro...
  9. Zhang Y, Bai Y. [Development of a functional cell-based HTS assay for the identification mGluR4 modulators]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2009;25:457-63 pubmed
    To identify metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) modulators by Ca2+ influx assay, we developed the functional cell-based high throughput-screening (HTS) assay...

More Information

Publications119 found, 100 shown here

  1. Jones C, Bubser M, Thompson A, Dickerson J, Turle Lorenzo N, Amalric M, et al. The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4-positive allosteric modulator VU0364770 produces efficacy alone and in combination with L-DOPA or an adenosine 2A antagonist in preclinical rodent models of Parkinson's disease. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;340:404-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated that positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu₄), including N-phenyl-7-(hydroxyimino) cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxamide, can produce ..
  2. Iderberg H, Maslava N, Thompson A, Bubser M, Niswender C, Hopkins C, et al. Pharmacological stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor type 4 in a rat model of Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: Comparison between a positive allosteric modulator and an orthosteric agonist. Neuropharmacology. 2015;95:121-9 pubmed publisher
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) negatively modulates GABA and glutamate release in the 'indirect pathway' of the basal ganglia, and has thus been proposed as a potential target to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease...
  3. Wan Y, Feng J, Li M, Wang M, Liu L, Liu X, et al. Prefrontal cortex miR-29b-3p plays a key role in the antidepressant-like effect of ketamine in rats. Exp Mol Med. 2018;50:140 pubmed publisher
    ..adeno-associated virus (rAAV) or lentivirus-expressing miR-29b-3p to observe the change in metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (GRM4). Cell culture and electrophysiological recordings were used to evaluate the function of miR-29b-3p...
  4. Fallarino F, Volpi C, Fazio F, Notartomaso S, Vacca C, Busceti C, et al. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 modulates adaptive immunity and restrains neuroinflammation. Nat Med. 2010;16:897-902 pubmed publisher
    ..The high amounts of glutamate in neuroinflammation might reflect a counterregulatory mechanism that is protective in nature and might be harnessed therapeutically for restricting immunopathology in multiple sclerosis. ..
  5. Müller G, Lüchmann K, Razzera G, Toledo Silva G, Bebianno M, Marques M, et al. Proteomic response of gill microsomes of Crassostrea brasiliana exposed to diesel fuel water-accommodated fraction. Aquat Toxicol. 2018;201:109-118 pubmed publisher
    ..of glycolipids and glycoproteins (beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase 1); associated with stress responses (glutamate receptor 4 and 14-3-3 protein zeta, corticotropin-releasing factor-binding protein); plasmalogen biosynthesis (fatty ..
  6. Saxe J, Wu H, Kelly T, Phelps M, Sun Y, Kornblum H, et al. A phenotypic small-molecule screen identifies an orphan ligand-receptor pair that regulates neural stem cell differentiation. Chem Biol. 2007;14:1019-30 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrate that the effects of P-Ser are mediated by the group III metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4)...
  7. Beurrier C, Lopez S, Révy D, Selvam C, Goudet C, Lhérondel M, et al. Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence that modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 with a new agonist reverses experimental parkinsonism. FASEB J. 2009;23:3619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, systemic administration of LSP1-2111 counteracts haloperidol-induced catalepsy, opening promising perspectives for the development of antiparkinsonian therapeutic strategies focused on orthosteric mGlu4-receptor agonists. ..
  8. Moritz A, Scheschonka A, Beckhaus T, Karas M, Betz H. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 interacts with microtubule-associated protein 1B. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:82-6 pubmed publisher
    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that mediates inhibition of neurotransmitter release...
  9. Wieronska J, Stachowicz K, Pałucha Poniewiera A, Acher F, Branski P, Pilc A. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 novel agonist LSP1-2111 with anxiolytic, but not antidepressant-like activity, mediated by serotonergic and GABAergic systems. Neuropharmacology. 2010;59:627-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the compound was not effective in 5-HT depleted animals. The results of these studies indicate that the GABAergic and serotonergic systems are involved in the potential anxiolytic action of LSP1-2111. ..
  10. Goudet C, Vilar B, Courtiol T, Deltheil T, Bessiron T, Brabet I, et al. A novel selective metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 agonist reveals new possibilities for developing subtype selective ligands with therapeutic potential. FASEB J. 2012;26:1682-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal new approaches for developing selective, hydrophilic, and brain-penetrant mGlu receptor agonists, offering new possibilities to design original bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. ..
  11. Celanire S, Campo B. Recent advances in the drug discovery of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) activators for the treatment of CNS and non-CNS disorders. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2012;7:261-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our understanding of the potential application of mGluR4 as therapeutic target is expected to grow as these compounds advance into preclinical and clinical development. ..
  12. Zheng B, Zhou L, Zhao Q, Zhang X, Zhu D. [Expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 in cardiomyocytes differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2012;41:366-72 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) in cardiomyocytes differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells (ES cells). ES cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes with hanging-drop cultures...
  13. Ossowska K, Wardas J, Berghauzen Maciejewska K, Głowacka U, Kuter K, Pilc A, et al. Lu AF21934, a positive allosteric modulator of mGlu4 receptors, reduces the harmaline-induced hyperactivity but not tremor in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2014;83:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..administration of Lu AF21934, a brain-penetrating positive allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4), on the harmaline-induced tremor and other forms of motor activity in rats using fully automated ..
  14. Yasumatsu K, Manabe T, Yoshida R, Iwatsuki K, Uneyama H, Takahashi I, et al. Involvement of multiple taste receptors in umami taste: analysis of gustatory nerve responses in metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 knockout mice. J Physiol. 2015;593:1021-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also suggest that T1R1 + T1R3 and mGluR1 are involved in umami taste responses in mice. Thus, umami taste would be mediated by multiple receptors. ..
  15. Polgár E, Watanabe M, Hartmann B, Grant S, Todd A. Expression of AMPA receptor subunits at synapses in laminae I-III of the rodent spinal dorsal horn. Mol Pain. 2008;4:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Puncta stained with antibody against the C-terminus of GluR4 (which only detects the long form of this subunit) made up 23% of the AMPAr-containing puncta in lamina I, ..
  16. Mathiesen J, Svendsen N, Brauner Osborne H, Thomsen C, Ramirez M. Positive allosteric modulation of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (hmGluR4) by SIB-1893 and MPEP. Br J Pharmacol. 2003;138:1026-30 pubmed
    ..Finally, SIB-1893 and MPEP failed to displace [(3)H]L-AP4 binding. Taken together, these data identify positive allosteric modulators for the hmGluR4. ..
  17. East S, Gerlach K. mGluR4 positive allosteric modulators with potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: WO09010455. Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2010;20:441-5 pubmed publisher
    Stimulation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) represents a promising new approach to the symptomatic treatment of the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  18. Kalinichev M, Le Poul E, Boléa C, Girard F, Campo B, Fonsi M, et al. Characterization of the novel positive allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 ADX88178 in rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2014;350:495-505 pubmed publisher
    There is growing evidence that activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) leads to anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like efficacy in rodent models, yet its relevance to depression-like reactivity remains unclear...
  19. Zhou H, Cheng Z, Bass N, Krystal J, Farrer L, Kranzler H, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies glutamate ionotropic receptor GRIA4 as a risk gene for comorbid nicotine dependence and major depression. Transl Psychiatry. 2018;8:208 pubmed publisher
    ..An intronic variant at the GRIA4 locus, rs68081839, was significantly associated with ND-MD comorbidity (β = 0.69 [95% CI, 0.43-0...
  20. Hong S, Liu K, Ma G, Sabio M, Uberti M, Bacolod M, et al. Tricyclic thiazolopyrazole derivatives as metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 positive allosteric modulators. J Med Chem. 2011;54:5070-81 pubmed publisher
    There is an increasing amount of evidence to support that activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4 receptor), either with an orthosteric agonist or a positive allosteric modulator (PAM), provides impactful interventions ..
  21. Bennouar K, Uberti M, Melon C, Bacolod M, Jimenez H, Cajina M, et al. Synergy between L-DOPA and a novel positive allosteric modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4: implications for Parkinson's disease treatment and dyskinesia. Neuropharmacology. 2013;66:158-69 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. ..
  22. Verhoeven V, Hysi P, Wojciechowski R, Fan Q, Guggenheim J, Höhn R, et al. Genome-wide meta-analyses of multiancestry cohorts identify multiple new susceptibility loci for refractive error and myopia. Nat Genet. 2013;45:314-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The new loci include candidate genes with functions in neurotransmission (GRIA4), ion transport (KCNQ5), retinoic acid metabolism (RDH5), extracellular matrix remodeling (LAMA2 and BMP2) and eye ..
  23. Miyanishi K, Choudhury M, Watanabe M, Kubo M, Nomoto M, Yano H, et al. Behavioral tests predicting striatal dopamine level in a rat hemi-Parkinson's disease model. Neurochem Int. 2019;122:38-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 mRNA expression correlated with the striatal DA level and may be related to compensatory mechanisms...
  24. Takano A, Nag S, Jia Z, Jahan M, Forsberg A, Arakawa R, et al. Characterization of [11C]PXT012253 as a PET Radioligand for mGlu4 Allosteric Modulators in Nonhuman Primates. Mol Imaging Biol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    Modulation of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) by an allosteric ligand has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesia...
  25. Ponnazhagan R, Harms A, Thome A, Jurkuvenaite A, Gogliotti R, Niswender C, et al. The Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 4 Positive Allosteric Modulator ADX88178 Inhibits Inflammatory Responses in Primary Microglia. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2016;11:231-7 pubmed publisher
  26. Levite M. Glutamate, T cells and multiple sclerosis. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017;124:775-798 pubmed publisher
    ..The protective effect of mGluR4 on EAE calls for testing GluR4 enhancers in MS patients...
  27. Geerts H, Roberts P, Spiros A, Potkin S. Understanding responder neurobiology in schizophrenia using a quantitative systems pharmacology model: application to iloperidone. J Psychopharmacol. 2015;29:372-82 pubmed publisher
    ..was found to drive the beneficial effect of iloperidone, likely corresponding to the rs2513265 upstream of the GRIA4 gene identified in a traditional pharmacogenomics analysis...
  28. Poutiainen P, Kil K, Zhang Z, Kuruppu D, Tannous B, Brownell A. Co-operative binding assay for the characterization of mGlu4 allosteric modulators. Neuropharmacology. 2015;97:142-8 pubmed publisher
    The interest in the role of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) in CNS related disorders has increased the need for methods to investigate the binding of allosteric drug candidates...
  29. Peng T, Zhu G, Dong Y, Zeng J, Li W, Guo W, et al. BMP4: a Possible Key Factor in Differentiation of Auditory Neuron-Like Cells from Bone-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. Clin Lab. 2015;61:1171-8 pubmed
    ..In the presence of BMP4, the inner ear genes NF-M, Neurog1, GluR4, NeuroD, Calretinin, NeuN, Tau, and GATA3 were up-regulated in MSCs...
  30. Volpi C, Mondanelli G, Pallotta M, Vacca C, Iacono A, Gargaro M, et al. Allosteric modulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 activates IDO1-dependent, immunoregulatory signaling in dendritic cells. Neuropharmacology. 2016;102:59-71 pubmed publisher
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) possesses immune modulatory properties in vivo, such that a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of the receptor confers protection on mice with relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune ..
  31. Gulino R, Forte S, Parenti R, Gulisano M. TDP-43 as a Modulator of Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of Spinal Motoneuron Degeneration. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015;14:55-60 pubmed
    ..synapsin-I and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2 and GluR4 were measured by western blotting...
  32. Todd A, Polgár E, Watt C, Bailey M, Watanabe M. Neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing projection neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal cord have synaptic AMPA receptors that contain GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4 subunits. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GluR4 can be alternatively spliced such that it has a long or short cytoplasmic tail...
  33. He J, Gao Y, Wu G, Lei X, Zhang Y, Pan W, et al. Molecular mechanism of estrogen-mediated neuroprotection in the relief of brain ischemic injury. BMC Genet. 2018;19:46 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the module d, four glutamate receptors as Gria4, Gria3, Grin3a and Grik4 were highlighted. Further, 5 novel potential regulatory miRNAs were also predicted...
  34. Lin M, Zhang B, Yu C, Li J, Zhang L, Sun H, et al. L-Glutamate supplementation improves small intestinal architecture and enhances the expressions of jejunal mucosa amino acid receptors and transporters in weaning piglets. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e111950 pubmed publisher
    ..jejunal mucosa Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR), metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4), and neutral amino acid transporter B(0)-like (SLC1A5) in the jejunal mucosa...
  35. Raber J, Duvoisin R. Novel metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 and glutamate receptor 8 therapeutics for the treatment of anxiety. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2015;24:519-28 pubmed publisher
  36. Richard C, Tanenbaum A, Audit B, Arneodo A, Khalil A, Frankel W. SWDreader: a wavelet-based algorithm using spectral phase to characterize spike-wave morphological variation in genetic models of absence epilepsy. J Neurosci Methods. 2015;242:127-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Strain-specific density distributions were generated from SWDs of mice carrying the Gria4, Gabrg2, or Scn8a mutations to determine whether SWC morphological variants reliably mapped to the same regions of ..
  37. Kroksveen A, Jaffe J, Aasebø E, Barsnes H, Bjørlykke Y, Franciotta D, et al. Quantitative proteomics suggests decrease in the secretogranin-1 cerebrospinal fluid levels during the disease course of multiple sclerosis. Proteomics. 2015;15:3361-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1, secretogranin-1 (Sg1), cerebellin-1, neuroserpin, cell surface glycoprotein MUC18, testican-2 and glutamate receptor 4. An independent sample set of 13 early-MS patients, 13 RRMS patients and 13 neurological controls was used ..
  38. Iskhakova L, Smith Y. mGluR4-containing corticostriatal terminals: synaptic interactions with direct and indirect pathway neurons in mice. Brain Struct Funct. 2016;221:4589-4599 pubmed
    ..The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) presynaptically modulates transmission at corticostriatal synapses, and is considered as a potent ..
  39. Fenster C, Vullhorst D, Buonanno A. Acute neuregulin-1 signaling influences AMPA receptor mediated responses in cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Brain Res Bull. 2012;87:21-9 pubmed publisher low levels of GluR1, in contrast to dissociated hippocampal cultures, but do express the long isoform of GluR4. This study provides first evidence that (1) high-glycine can induce plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in CGCs, ..
  40. Fujinaga M, Yamasaki T, Nengaki N, Ogawa M, Kumata K, Shimoda Y, et al. Radiosynthesis and evaluation of 5-methyl-N-(4-[(11)C]methylpyrimidin-2-yl)-4-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)thiazol-2-amine ([(11)C]ADX88178) as a novel radioligand for imaging of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (mGluR4). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:370-374 pubmed publisher
    ADX88178 (1) has been recently developed as a potent positive allosteric modulator for metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4)...
  41. Jayanarayanan S, Anju T, Smijin S, Paulose C. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases insulin level by regulating altered IP3 and AMPA receptor expression in the pancreatic islets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. J Nutr Biochem. 2015;26:1041-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin AMPA colabelling study showed an altered AMPA GluR2 and GluR4 subunit expression in the pancreatic beta cells...
  42. Dohare P, Zia M, Ahmed E, Ahmed A, Yadala V, Schober A, et al. AMPA-Kainate Receptor Inhibition Promotes Neurologic Recovery in Premature Rabbits with Intraventricular Hemorrhage. J Neurosci. 2016;36:3363-77 pubmed publisher
    ..GluR1-GluR4 expressions were comparable between preterm humans and rabbits with and without IVH...
  43. Klooster J, Kamermans M. An Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Analysis of the Outer Plexiform Layer of the Retina of the European Silver Eel (Anguilla anguilla L). PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0152967 pubmed publisher
    ..OFF-bipolar cells express the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR4 and ON-bipolar cells, as identified by their PKCα immunoreactivity, express the metabotropic receptor mGluR6...
  44. Gogliotti R, Blobaum A, Morrison R, Daniels J, Salovich J, Cheung Y, et al. Discovery and characterization of a novel series of N-phenylsulfonyl-1H-pyrrole picolinamides as positive allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4). Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:2984-2987 pubmed publisher
    ..Our efforts culminated in the identification of N-(1-((3,4-dimethylphenyl)sulfonyl)-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)picolinamide as a potent PAM of mGlu4. ..
  45. Zhao G, Liu Y, Yi X, Wang Y, Qiao S, Li Z, et al. Curcumin inhibiting Th17 cell differentiation by regulating the metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 expression on dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2017;46:80-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that curcumin might be a potential candidate for Th17 related autoimmune disorders. ..
  46. Wang T, Chen H, Lv K, Ji G, Zhang Y, Wang Y, et al. iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of hippocampus in spatial memory deficiency rats induced by simulated microgravity. J Proteomics. 2017;160:64-73 pubmed publisher
    ..and further western blot verification, we observed the expression of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) and glutamate receptor 4 (GluR4) which involved in metabotropic glutamate receptor group III pathway and ionotropic glutamate ..
  47. Meyers J, Salling M, Almli L, Ratanatharathorn A, Uddin M, Galea S, et al. Frequency of alcohol consumption in humans; the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors and downstream signaling pathways. Transl Psychiatry. 2015;5:e586 pubmed publisher
    ..mGluR-eEF2-AMPAR pathway (including GRM1, GRM5, HOMER1, HOMER2, EEF2K, MTOR, EIF4E, EEF2, CAMK2A, ARC, GRIA1 and GRIA4) were found to predict number of drinking days per month (corrected P-value < 0...
  48. Wang S, Wei X, Chen B, Zhao M, Song G, Zhang Z, et al. Expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 in osteosarcoma. Mol Clin Oncol. 2016;4:65-69 pubmed
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) has been associated with the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. The aim of this study was to investigate mGluR4 expression and its clinical significance in osteosarcoma patients...
  49. Fasoli A, Dang J, Johnson J, Gouw A, Fogli Iseppe A, Ishida A. Somatic and neuritic spines on tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells of rat retina. J Comp Neurol. 2017;525:1707-1730 pubmed publisher
    ..GluR1, GluR4, NR1, PSD-95, and PSD-93), that TH cell somata and tapering neurites are also immunopositive for a γ-..
  50. Tamakoshi K, Ishida K, Kawanaka K, Takamatsu Y, Tamaki H. Motor Skills Training Enhances ?-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Subunit mRNA Expression in the Ipsilateral Sensorimotor Cortex and Striatum of Rats Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017;26:2232-2239 pubmed publisher
    ..GluR3 and GluR4 expression levels were reduced in the ipsilateral striatum of rats in the ICH group compared with that of rats in ..
  51. Falsafi S, Dierssen M, Ghafari M, Pollak A, Lubec G. Reduced cortical neurotransmitter receptor complex levels in fetal Down syndrome brain. Amino Acids. 2016;48:103-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of other brain receptor complexes (5-hydroxytryptamine 1A, GluA2 and GluR4 receptor-containing complexes) were comparable between the groups of females...
  52. O Neil R, Wang X, Morabito M, Emeson R. Comparative analysis of A-to-I editing in human and non-human primate brains reveals conserved patterns and context-dependent regulation of RNA editing. Mol Brain. 2017;10:11 pubmed publisher
    ..the relationships between the extent of editing at multiple substrate transcripts (5HT2C, MGLUR4, CADPS, GLUR2, GLUR4, and GABRA3) in brain tissue obtained from adult humans and rhesus macaques...
  53. Fransen J, Pangeni G, Pyle I, McCall M. Functional changes in Tg P23H-1 rat retinal responses: differences between ON and OFF pathway transmission to the superior colliculus. J Neurophysiol. 2015;114:2368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GluR4 expression, an ionotropic glutamate receptor associated with OFF BCs, appears similar to that in WT...
  54. Chardonnet S, Bessiron T, Ramos C, Dammak R, Richard M, Boursier C, et al. Native metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 depresses synaptic transmission through an unusual Gαq transduction pathway. Neuropharmacology. 2017;121:247-260 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that, in the rodent cerebellar cortex, mGlu4 receptors act by coupling to the Gαq protein and PLC effector system to reduce glutamate synaptic transmission. ..
  55. Isherwood S, Robbins T, Nicholson J, Dalley J, Pekcec A. Selective and interactive effects of D2 receptor antagonism and positive allosteric mGluR4 modulation on waiting impulsivity. Neuropharmacology. 2017;123:249-260 pubmed publisher
    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) and dopamine D2 receptors are specifically expressed within the indirect pathway neurons of the striato-pallidal-subthalamic pathway...
  56. Jones C, Engers D, Thompson A, Field J, Blobaum A, Lindsley S, et al. Discovery, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship development of a series of N-4-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)phenylpicolinamides (VU0400195, ML182): characterization of a novel positive allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate recepto. J Med Chem. 2011;54:7639-47 pubmed publisher
    ..on preclinical antiparkinsonian rodent models with selective positive allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu(4))...
  57. Chen P, Song J, Luo L, Cheng Q, Xiao H, Gong S. Gene expression of NMDA and AMPA receptors in different facial motor neurons. Laryngoscope. 2016;126:E6-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Messenger RNA (mRNA) of AMPAR subunits (GluR1, GluR2, GluR3, and GluR4) and NMDAR subunits (NR1, NR2a, NR2b, NR2c, and NR2d) was detected in reinnervating and dormant neurons...
  58. Furukawa Y, Tanemura K, Igarashi K, Ideta Otsuka M, Aisaki K, Kitajima S, et al. Learning and Memory Deficits in Male Adult Mice Treated with a Benzodiazepine Sleep-Inducing Drug during the Juvenile Period. Front Neurosci. 2016;10:339 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, decreased protein expression of GluR1 and GluR4, which are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors, was detected in the hippocampi of mice treated with TZ during ..
  59. Lomeli H, Mosbacher J, Melcher T, Hoger T, Geiger J, Kuner T, et al. Control of kinetic properties of AMPA receptor channels by nuclear RNA editing. Science. 1994;266:1709-13 pubmed
    ..quot; The extent of editing at this site progresses with brain development in a manner specific for subunit and splice form, and edited channels possess faster recovery rates from desensitization. ..
  60. Chen L, Chetkovich D, Petralia R, Sweeney N, Kawasaki Y, Wenthold R, et al. Stargazin regulates synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors by two distinct mechanisms. Nature. 2000;408:936-43 pubmed
  61. Ishiuchi S, Tsuzuki K, Yoshida Y, Yamada N, Hagimura N, Okado H, et al. Blockage of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors suppresses migration and induces apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. Nat Med. 2002;8:971-8 pubmed
    ..AMPA)-type glutamate receptors assembled from the GluR1 and/or GluR4 subunits, and that their conversion to Ca(2+)-impermeable receptors by adenovirus-mediated transfer of the GluR2 ..
  62. Coleman S, Cai C, Mottershead D, Haapalahti J, Keinanen K. Surface expression of GluR-D AMPA receptor is dependent on an interaction between its C-terminal domain and a 4.1 protein. J Neurosci. 2003;23:798-806 pubmed
    ..1 family protein(s) plays an essential role in the transport to and stabilization of GluR-D-containing AMPA receptors at the cell surface. ..
  63. Dadkhah T, Rahimi Aliabadi S, Jamshidi J, Ghaedi H, Taghavi S, Shokraeian P, et al. A genetic variant in miRNA binding site of glutamate receptor 4, metabotropic (GRM4) is associated with increased risk of major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord. 2017;208:218-222 pubmed publisher
    b>Glutamate receptor 4, metabotropic (GRM4) expression is increased in the brain of patients with depression. The poorly conserved miR-1202 is downregulated in depression and is negatively correlated with GRM4...
  64. Fletcher E, Nutt S, Hoo K, Elliott C, Korczak B, McWhinnie E, et al. Cloning, expression and pharmacological characterization of a human glutamate receptor: hGluR4. Receptors Channels. 1995;3:21-31 pubmed
    ..Human GluR4 possessed a 99% amino acid and 92% nucleotide homology to that of its rat counterpart with sequence differences ..
  65. Xia J, Zhang X, Staudinger J, Huganir R. Clustering of AMPA receptors by the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1. Neuron. 1999;22:179-87 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PICK1 may play an important role in the modulation of synaptic transmission by regulating the synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors. ..
  66. Makino C, Fujii Y, Kikuta R, Hirata N, Tani A, Shibata A, et al. Positive association of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4 gene (GRIA4) haplotype with schizophrenia: linkage disequilibrium mapping using SNPs evenly distributed across the gene region. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2003;116B:17-22 pubmed
    ..We report on a positive association of some haplotypes of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4 gene (GRIA4) with schizophrenia...
  67. Nuriya M, Oh S, Huganir R. Phosphorylation-dependent interactions of alpha-Actinin-1/IQGAP1 with the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4. J Neurochem. 2005;95:544-52 pubmed
    ..with AMPA receptors and regulate their function, little is known about the regulation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4. To understand the molecular mechanisms of GluR4 functional regulation, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to ..
  68. Kott S, Werner M, Körber C, Hollmann M. Electrophysiological properties of AMPA receptors are differentially modulated depending on the associated member of the TARP family. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3780-9 pubmed four genes that are differentially spliced to result in the flip or flop versions of the four subunits GluR1 to GluR4. GluR2 is further modified at the so-called Q/R site by posttranscriptional RNA editing...
  69. Magri C, Gardella R, Valsecchi P, Barlati S, Guizzetti L, Imperadori L, et al. Study on GRIA2, GRIA3 and GRIA4 genes highlights a positive association between schizophrenia and GRIA3 in female patients. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:745-53 pubmed publisher
    ..acid (AMPA) receptor genes has been carried out and the results obtained from the analysis on GRIA2, GRIA3 and GRIA4 are reported...
  70. Lavedan C, Licamele L, Volpi S, Hamilton J, Heaton C, Mack K, et al. Association of the NPAS3 gene and five other loci with response to the antipsychotic iloperidone identified in a whole genome association study. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:804-19 pubmed publisher, member 4 gene (XKR4), the tenascin-R gene (TNR), the glutamate receptor, inotropic, AMPA 4 gene (GRIA4), the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor-alpha2 gene (GFRA2), and the NUDT9P1 pseudogene located ..
  71. Kessels H, Malinow R. Synaptic AMPA receptor plasticity and behavior. Neuron. 2009;61:340-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that monitoring and manipulating synaptic AMPAR trafficking represents an attractive means to study cognitive function and dysfunction in animal models. ..
  72. Chiesa A, Crisafulli C, Porcelli S, Balzarro B, Han C, Patkar A, et al. Case-control association study of GRIA1, GRIA2 and GRIA4 polymorphisms in bipolar disorder. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2012;16:18-26 pubmed publisher
    The present study aimed to investigate whether some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GRIA1, GRIA2 and GRIA4 could be associated with bipolar disorder (BD) and they could predict clinical outcomes in in-patients with BD ..
  73. Chiesa A, Lia L, Lia C, Lee S, Han C, Patkar A, et al. Investigation of possible epistatic interactions between GRIA2 and GRIA4 variants on clinical outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder. J Int Med Res. 2013;41:809-15 pubmed publisher
    ..propionate (AMPA) 2 (GRIA2) rs4260586 and glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 4 (GRIA4) rs10736648 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on response to antidepressants in Korean patients with major ..
  74. Martin S, Chamberlin A, Shinde D, Hempel M, Strom T, Schreiber A, et al. De Novo Variants in GRIA4 Lead to Intellectual Disability with or without Seizures and Gait Abnormalities. Am J Hum Genet. 2017;101:1013-1020 pubmed publisher
    ..GRIA4 encodes an AMPA receptor subunit known as GluR4, which is found on excitatory glutamatergic synapses and is important for learning and memory...
  75. McNamara J, Eubanks J, McPherson J, Wasmuth J, Evans G, Heinemann S. Chromosomal localization of human glutamate receptor genes. J Neurosci. 1992;12:2555-62 pubmed
    ..together with concordance of the chromosomal locales and results of linkage analyses establishes GluR3 and GluR4 as candidate genes for a number of nervous system disorders including the oculocerebral-renal syndrome of Lowe and ..
  76. Roche K, Raymond L, Blackstone C, Huganir R. Transmembrane topology of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR6. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:11679-82 pubmed
    ..Combining these results with other recent data, we have proposed an alternative transmembrane topology model. ..
  77. Pasternack A, Coleman S, Jouppila A, Mottershead D, Lindfors M, Pasternack M, et al. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor channels lacking the N-terminal domain. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49662-7 pubmed
    ..g. in the assembly of heteromeric receptors and in synaptic protein interactions. ..
  78. Correia S, Duarte C, Faro C, Pires E, Carvalho A. Protein kinase C gamma associates directly with the GluR4 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subunit. Effect on receptor phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6307-13 pubmed
    ..In the present study we investigated the association of protein kinase C (PKC) gamma isoform with the GluR4 AMPA receptor subunit...
  79. Arai S, Shibata H, Sakai M, Ninomiya H, Iwata N, Ozaki N, et al. Association analysis of the glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 and the glutamine synthetase genes (GAD2, GLUL) with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Genet. 2009;19:6-13 pubmed publisher
    ..interactions, including six glutamate receptor genes we have reported previously in the association studies of GRIA4, GRIN2D, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIK5, and GRM3, using the multifactor dimensionality reduction method...
  80. Volpi S, Potkin S, Malhotra A, Licamele L, Lavedan C. Applicability of a genetic signature for enhanced iloperidone efficacy in the treatment of schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:801-9 pubmed Identifier: NCT00254202. ..
  81. Giegling I, Drago A, Dolzan V, Plesnicar B, Schafer M, Hartmann A, et al. Glutamatergic gene variants impact the clinical profile of efficacy and side effects of haloperidol. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:206-16 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated a set of 62 SNPs located in genes coding for subunits of glutamatergic receptors (GAD1, GRIA1, GRIA3, GRIA4, GRID2, GRIK1, GRIK2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, GRM1 and GRM4), and the transporter of glycine (SLC6A5), as modulators ..
  82. Silberberg G, Lundin D, Navon R, Ohman M. Deregulation of the A-to-I RNA editing mechanism in psychiatric disorders. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:311-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the hypothesis raised previously regarding the existence of wide-spread low-level 'background' editing as a mechanism that enhances adaptation and evolvability. ..
  83. Gasparini C, Sutherland H, Haupt L, Griffiths L. Genetic analysis of GRIA2 and GRIA4 genes in migraine. Headache. 2014;54:303-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in the GRIA2 and GRIA4 genes, which encode subunits of the ionotropic AMPA receptor for association in an Australian Caucasian population...
  84. MacDonald M, Ding Y, Newman J, Hemby S, Penzes P, Lewis D, et al. Altered glutamate protein co-expression network topology linked to spine loss in the auditory cortex of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2015;77:959-68 pubmed publisher
    ..for altered expression in schizophrenia were significantly enriched for glutamate signaling pathway proteins (GRIA4, GRIA3, ATP1A3, and GNAQ)...
  85. Christensen P, Samadi Bahrami Z, Pavlov V, Stys P, Moore G. Ionotropic glutamate receptor expression in human white matter. Neurosci Lett. 2016;630:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor subunit GluN1 and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA4 co-localized with myelin, oligodendroglial cell bodies and processes...
  86. Rovira X, Trapero A, Pittolo S, Zussy C, Faucherre A, Jopling C, et al. OptoGluNAM4.1, a Photoswitchable Allosteric Antagonist for Real-Time Control of mGlu4 Receptor Activity. Cell Chem Biol. 2016;23:929-34 pubmed publisher
    OptoGluNAM4.1, a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGlu4) contains a reactive group that covalently binds to the receptor and a blue-light-activated, fast-relaxing azobenzene group that allows ..
  87. Charvin D, Pomel V, Ortiz M, Frauli M, Scheffler S, Steinberg E, et al. Discovery, Structure-Activity Relationship, and Antiparkinsonian Effect of a Potent and Brain-Penetrant Chemical Series of Positive Allosteric Modulators of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 4. J Med Chem. 2017;60:8515-8537 pubmed publisher
    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) is an emerging target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  88. Itoh T, Itoh A, Horiuchi K, Pleasure D. AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in human NT2-N neurons results from loss of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis following marked elevation of intracellular Na+. J Neurochem. 1998;71:112-24 pubmed
    ..Our results serve to emphasize the central role of neuronal Na+ loading in AMPA-GluR-mediated excitotoxicity in human neurons. ..
  89. Carvalho A, Kameyama K, Huganir R. Characterization of phosphorylation sites on the glutamate receptor 4 subunit of the AMPA receptors. J Neurosci. 1999;19:4748-54 pubmed
    ..In this paper we characterized the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunit GluR4, using site-specific mutagenesis and biochemical techniques...
  90. Hirbec H, Perestenko O, Nishimune A, Meyer G, Nakanishi S, Henley J, et al. The PDZ proteins PICK1, GRIP, and syntenin bind multiple glutamate receptor subtypes. Analysis of PDZ binding motifs. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:15221-4 pubmed
    ..These data also suggest that the structural determinants involved in PDZ interactions are more complex than originally envisaged. ..
  91. Pasternack A, Coleman S, Féthière J, Madden D, Lecaer J, Rossier J, et al. Characterization of the functional role of the N-glycans in the AMPA receptor ligand-binding domain. J Neurochem. 2003;84:1184-92 pubmed
    ..characteristics, structural stability, cell-surface expression, and channel properties of homomeric GluR-D (GluR4) receptor and its soluble ligand-binding domain (S1S2)...
  92. Guo S, Shi Y, Zhao X, Duan S, Zhou J, Meng J, et al. No genetic association between polymorphisms in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4 gene (GRIA4) and schizophrenia in the Chinese population. Neurosci Lett. 2004;369:168-72 pubmed
    ..It has recently been reported that some haplotypes in the AMPA receptor subunit GluR4 Gene (GRIA4), which is located on chromosome 11q22, are positively associated with schizophrenia in the Japanese population...