Gene Symbol: GRIA3
Description: glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 3
Alias: GLUR-C, GLUR-K3, GLUR3, GLURC, GluA3, MRX94, glutamate receptor 3, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 3, dJ1171F9.1, gluR-3, glutamate receptor C, glutamate receptor subunit 3, glutamate receptor, ionotrophic, AMPA 3, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 3
Species: human
Products:     GRIA3

Top Publications

  1. Sodhi M, Simmons M, McCullumsmith R, Haroutunian V, Meador Woodruff J. Glutamatergic gene expression is specifically reduced in thalamocortical projecting relay neurons in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcripts encoding the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits NR2D, GluR3, GluR6, GluR7, and the intracellular proteins GRIP1 and SynGAP1 were significantly decreased in relay neurons but ..
  2. Cao F, Xu M, Gong K, Wang Y, Wang R, Chen X, et al. Imbalance Between Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex Caused by Persistent Nociception in Rats. J Pain. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..The change of GluR1 was opposite to that of GluR2, and GluR3 did not change significantly...
  3. Hu H, Takano N, Xiang L, Gilkes D, Luo W, Semenza G. Hypoxia-inducible factors enhance glutamate signaling in cancer cells. Oncotarget. 2014;5:8853-68 pubmed
    ..In addition, HIFs coordinately regulated expression of the GRIA2 and GRIA3 genes, which encode glutamate receptors...
  4. Damaskos C, Garmpis N, Karatzas T, Kostakis I, Nikolidakis L, Kostakis A, et al. Nuclear receptors in pancreatic tumor cells. Anticancer Res. 2014;34:6897-911 pubmed
    ..the chemokine receptor CXCR4, the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, the ephrine A2 receptor, the GRIA3 receptor, the RON receptor and the angiotensin II receptor AT-1 are expressed in pancreatic tumor cells...
  5. Yuan H, Low C, Moody O, Jenkins A, Traynelis S. Ionotropic GABA and Glutamate Receptor Mutations and Human Neurologic Diseases. Mol Pharmacol. 2015;88:203-17 pubmed publisher
    ..all α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor mutations, most of which occur within GRIA3, are from patients with intellectual disabilities, suggesting a link to this condition...
  6. Lyu Y, Yang Y, Liu Y, Gai Z. [Analysis of a patient with X-linked mental retardation by next generation sequencing]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2018;35:257-260 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequencing showed the patient has carried a c.455T>C (p.L152P) mutation of the GRIA3 gene inherited from his mother. The c.455T>C (p...
  7. Polgár E, Watanabe M, Hartmann B, Grant S, Todd A. Expression of AMPA receptor subunits at synapses in laminae I-III of the rodent spinal dorsal horn. Mol Pain. 2008;4:5 pubmed publisher
    ..In laminae I-II, approximately 65% were GluR1-positive and approximately 60% were GluR3-positive, while in lamina III the corresponding values were 34% (GluR1) and 80% (GluR3)...
  8. Chen Y, Luo C, Zhao M, Li Q, Hu R, Zhang J, et al. Administration of a PTEN inhibitor BPV(pic) attenuates early brain injury via modulating AMPA receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2015;588:131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor subunit GluR1 protein expression at cytomembrane was downregulated, whereas the expression of GluR2 and GluR3 was upregulated after BPV(pic) treatment...
  9. Nakajima K, Masubuchi Y, Ito Y, Inohana M, Takino M, Saegusa Y, et al. Developmental exposure of citreoviridin transiently affects hippocampal neurogenesis targeting multiple regulatory functions in mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018;120:590-602 pubmed publisher
    ..mature granule cells increased, and at 10 ppm, number of hilar GRIA1+ cells increased and Gria2 and Gria3 upregulated, suggesting an operation of AMPA receptor membrane trafficking on the increase of ARC-mediated ..

More Information


  1. Blanco E, Pavón F, Palomino A, Luque Rojas M, Serrano A, Rivera P, et al. Cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization is associated with changes in the expression of endocannabinoid and glutamatergic signaling systems in the mouse prefrontal cortex. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014;18: pubmed publisher
    ..this inhibition was reversed and a strong increase was detected in the mGluR5, NR2 subunits, and both GluR1 and GluR3. These findings indicate that cocaine sensitization is associated with an endocannabinoid downregulation and a ..
  2. Gui Y, Chen L, Duan S, Li G, Tang J, Li A. Methyl cinnamate alleviated CCI-induced upregualtion of spinal AMPA receptors and pain hypersensitivity by targeting AMPK. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018;833:183-189 pubmed publisher
    ..MC treatment reversed CCI-induced upregulation of GluR2, GluR3 and phosphorylation of GluR1...
  3. Liu Y, Chen Y, Du W, Wu X, Dong F, Qu X, et al. GluR3B Ab's induced oligodendrocyte precursor cells excitotoxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction. Brain Res Bull. 2017;130:60-66 pubmed publisher
    Studies have indicated that glutamate receptor subunit 3 peptide B antibodies (GluR3B Ab's) by directing against a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs) subunit 3 (GluR3B) was involved in ..
  4. Priya A, Johar K, Nair B, Wong Riley M. Nuclear respiratory factor 2 regulates the transcription of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 (Gria2). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1843:3018-28 pubmed publisher
    ..and western blot analysis, NRF-2 was found to functionally regulate the expression of Gria2, but not of Gria1, Gria3, or Gria4 genes in neurons...
  5. Todd A, Polgár E, Watt C, Bailey M, Watanabe M. Neurokinin 1 receptor-expressing projection neurons in laminae III and IV of the rat spinal cord have synaptic AMPA receptors that contain GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4 subunits. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..carried out before antigen retrieval, and sections were then reacted to reveal GluR2 and either GluR4 (long form), GluR3 or GluR1...
  6. Laje G, Allen A, Akula N, Manji H, John Rush A, McMahon F. Genome-wide association study of suicidal ideation emerging during citalopram treatment of depressed outpatients. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2009;19:666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..treatment-emergent suicidal ideation (TESI) and markers in genes encoding glutamate receptor subunits GRIK2 and GRIA3. The present genome-wide association study was conducted to identify additional genetic markers associated with ..
  7. Tamási V, Petschner P, Adori C, Kirilly E, Ando R, Tothfalusi L, et al. Transcriptional evidence for the role of chronic venlafaxine treatment in neurotrophic signaling and neuroplasticity including also Glutamatergic [corrected] - and insulin-mediated neuronal processes. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113662 pubmed publisher
    ..activated the expression of genes involved in neurotrophic signaling (Ntrk2, Ntrk3), glutamatergic transmission (Gria3, Grin2b and Grin2a), neuroplasticity (Camk2g/b, Cd47), synaptogenesis (Epha5a, Gad2) and cognitive processes (..
  8. Jin Z, Yu L, Geng J, Wang J, Jin X, Huang H. A novel 47.2 Mb duplication on chromosomal bands Xq21.1-25 associated with mental retardation. Gene. 2015;567:98-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Ten genes (i.e., ZNF711, SRPX2, RAB40AL, MID2, ACSL4, PAK3, UBE2A, UPF3B, CUL4B, and GRIA3) in the duplication interval have been associated with mental retardation...
  9. He J, Gao Y, Wu G, Lei X, Zhang Y, Pan W, et al. Molecular mechanism of estrogen-mediated neuroprotection in the relief of brain ischemic injury. BMC Genet. 2018;19:46 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the module d, four glutamate receptors as Gria4, Gria3, Grin3a and Grik4 were highlighted. Further, 5 novel potential regulatory miRNAs were also predicted...
  10. Chen P, Song J, Luo L, Cheng Q, Xiao H, Gong S. Gene expression of NMDA and AMPA receptors in different facial motor neurons. Laryngoscope. 2016;126:E6-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Messenger RNA (mRNA) of AMPAR subunits (GluR1, GluR2, GluR3, and GluR4) and NMDAR subunits (NR1, NR2a, NR2b, NR2c, and NR2d) was detected in reinnervating and dormant neurons...
  11. Kowalska M, Prendecki M, Kozubski W, Lianeri M, Dorszewska J. Molecular factors in migraine. Oncotarget. 2016;7:50708-50718 pubmed publisher
    ..The genes analysed in familial and sporadic migraine are: MTHFR, KCNK18, HCRTR1, SLC6A4, STX1A, GRIA1 and GRIA3. It is possible that migraine is a multifactorial disease with polygenic influence...
  12. Fang J, An X, Chen S, Yu Z, Ma Q, Qu H. Case-control study of GRIA1 and GRIA3 gene variants in migraine. J Headache Pain. 2015;17:2 pubmed publisher
    ..The previous studies have reported the glutamate receptor ionotropic GRIA1 and GRIA3 genes variants associated with migraine...
  13. Subramanian M, Holt A, Mueller P. Physical activity correlates with glutamate receptor gene expression in spinally-projecting RVLM neurons: a laser capture microdissection study. Brain Res. 2014;1585:51-62 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GLUR3 subunit showed a significant negative correlation between total running distance and its relative gene expression ..
  14. Levite M. Glutamate, T cells and multiple sclerosis. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017;124:775-798 pubmed publisher
    ..With regard to T cells of MS patients: (1) The cell surface expression of a specific GluR: the AMPA GluR3 is elevated in T cells of MS patients during relapse and with active disease, (2) Glutamate and AMPA (a selective ..
  15. Bodily P, Fujimoto M, Page J, Clement M, Ebbert M, Ridge P. A novel approach for multi-SNP GWAS and its application in Alzheimer's disease. BMC Bioinformatics. 2016;17 Suppl 7:268 pubmed publisher
    ..sufficient data to demonstrate significance, our preliminary experimentation identified a high correlation between GRIA3 and HLA-DRB5 (an AD gene)...
  16. Wei C, Wu G, Cai Q, Gao X, Tong F, Zhou R, et al. Correction to: MicroRNA-330-3p promotes cell invasion and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer through GRIA3 by activating MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. J Hematol Oncol. 2018;11:6 pubmed publisher
    ..The original article [1] contained incorrect affiliations for the authors. ..
  17. Lan Z, Xu J, Wang Y, Lu W. Modulatory effect of glutamate GluR2 receptor on the caudal neurosecretory Dahlgren cells of the olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;261:9-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The glutamate effect was not blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801, or the GluR1/GluR3 (AMPA) receptor antagonist IEm1795-2HBr, but was blocked by the broad-spectrum ?-amino-3-hydroxy- 5- methyl-4-..
  18. Gasparini C, Smith R, Griffiths L. Genetic insights into migraine and glutamate: a protagonist driving the headache. J Neurol Sci. 2016;367:258-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotyping case-control studies have shown an association between glutamate receptor genes, namely, GRIA1 and GRIA3 with migraine with indirect supporting evidence from GWAS...
  19. Bao L, Li R, Li M, Jin M, Li G, Han X, et al. Autophagy-regulated AMPAR subunit upregulation in in vitro oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation-induced hippocampal injury. Brain Res. 2017;1668:65-71 pubmed publisher, we investigated the role of autophagy in regulating the expression of AMPAR subunits (GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3) in oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R)-mediated injury of hippocampal neurons...
  20. Li X, Rubio F, Zeric T, Bossert J, Kambhampati S, Cates H, et al. Incubation of methamphetamine craving is associated with selective increases in expression of Bdnf and trkb, glutamate receptors, and epigenetic enzymes in cue-activated fos-expressing dorsal striatal neurons. J Neurosci. 2015;35:8232-44 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of immediate early genes (Arc, Egr1), Bdnf and its receptor (Trkb), glutamate receptor subunits (Gria1, Gria3, Grm1), and epigenetic enzymes (Hdac3, Hdac4, Hdac5, GLP, Dnmt3a, Kdm1a) in the Fos-positive neurons only...
  21. Tamakoshi K, Ishida K, Kawanaka K, Takamatsu Y, Tamaki H. Motor Skills Training Enhances ?-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Subunit mRNA Expression in the Ipsilateral Sensorimotor Cortex and Striatum of Rats Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017;26:2232-2239 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GluR3 and GluR4 expression levels were reduced in the ipsilateral striatum of rats in the ICH group compared with that ..
  22. Correia S, Bassani S, Brown T, Lise M, Backos D, El Husseini A, et al. Motor protein-dependent transport of AMPA receptors into spines during long-term potentiation. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we identified the specific motor protein and organelle acceptor that catalyze the directional transport of AMPARs into spines during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. ..
  23. Formicola D, Aloia A, Sampaolo S, Farina O, Diodato D, Griffiths L, et al. Common variants in the regulative regions of GRIA1 and GRIA3 receptor genes are associated with migraine susceptibility. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:103 pubmed publisher
    ..Two variants in the regulative regions of GRIA1 (rs2195450) and GRIA3 (rs3761555) genes resulted strongly associated with MA (P = 0.00002 and P = 0...
  24. Kato A, Gill M, Ho M, Yu H, Tu Y, Siuda E, et al. Hippocampal AMPA receptor gating controlled by both TARP and cornichon proteins. Neuron. 2010;68:1082-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, γ-8 and CNIH-2 functionally interact with common hippocampal AMPA receptor complexes to modulate synergistically kinetics and pharmacology. ..
  25. Ripka S, Riedel J, Neesse A, Griesmann H, Buchholz M, Ellenrieder V, et al. Glutamate receptor GRIA3--target of CUX1 and mediator of tumor progression in pancreatic cancer. Neoplasia. 2010;12:659-67 pubmed
    ..several CUX1 targets with effect on tumor cell viability were identified, including the glutamate receptor GRIA3, which was validated in detail for its effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and cell migration using RNAi knock-..
  26. Möykkynen T, Coleman S, Semenov A, Keinanen K. The N-terminal domain modulates ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor desensitization. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:13197-205 pubmed publisher
  27. Laverghetta A, Toledo C, Veenman C, Yamamoto K, Wang H, Reiner A. Cellular localization of AMPA type glutamate receptor subunits in the basal ganglia of pigeons (Columba livia). Brain Behav Evol. 2006;67:10-38 pubmed
    ..neuropil is rich in GluR1, GluR2, and GluR2/3 immunolabeling, suggesting the localization of GluR1, GluR2 and/or GluR3 to the dendrites and spines of striatal projection neurons...
  28. Kolleker A, Zhu J, Schupp B, Qin Y, Mack V, Borchardt T, et al. Glutamatergic plasticity by synaptic delivery of GluR-B(long)-containing AMPA receptors. Neuron. 2003;40:1199-212 pubmed
    ..Trafficking of GluR-B(long)-containing receptors thus mediates a GluR-A-independent form of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the juvenile hippocampus. ..
  29. Flajolet M, Rakhilin S, Wang H, Starkova N, Nuangchamnong N, Nairn A, et al. Protein phosphatase 2C binds selectively to and dephosphorylates metabotropic glutamate receptor 3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:16006-11 pubmed
    ..However, phosphorylation of the mGluR3 cytoplasmic tail at Ser-845 inhibits the interaction with PP2C. These results indicate distinct functions for mGluR2 and mGluR3 and suggest a dynamic regulation of mGluR3 by PP2C. ..
  30. Itoh T, Itoh A, Horiuchi K, Pleasure D. AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in human NT2-N neurons results from loss of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis following marked elevation of intracellular Na+. J Neurochem. 1998;71:112-24 pubmed
    ..Our results serve to emphasize the central role of neuronal Na+ loading in AMPA-GluR-mediated excitotoxicity in human neurons. ..
  31. Falsafi S, Roßner S, Ghafari M, Groessl M, Morawski M, Gerner C, et al. Changes of several brain receptor complexes in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer disease: probable new potential pharmaceutical targets. Amino Acids. 2014;46:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the levels were comparable for complexes containing GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4 as well as 5-HT1A...
  32. Kordi Tamandani D, Dahmardeh N, Torkamanzehi A. Evaluation of hypermethylation and expression pattern of GMR2, GMR5, GMR8, and GRIA3 in patients with schizophrenia. Gene. 2013;515:163-6 pubmed publisher
    ..promoter hypermethylation and RNA expression pattern of GMR2 (glutamate metabotropic receptor), GMR5, GMR8, and GRIA3 (glutamate receptor, ionotropic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) are associated with the ..
  33. Myung W, Song J, Lim S, Won H, Kim S, Lee Y, et al. Genetic association study of individual symptoms in depression. Psychiatry Res. 2012;198:400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The rs557762 and the TT haplotype in the 11th haplotype block of the GRIA3 gene were associated with feelings of guilt in females...
  34. Utge S, Kronholm E, Partonen T, Soronen P, Ollila H, Loukola A, et al. Shared genetic background for regulation of mood and sleep: association of GRIA3 with sleep duration in healthy Finnish women. Sleep. 2011;34:1309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a significant association of rs687577 from GRIA3 on the X-chromosome with sleep duration in women (permutation-based corrected empirical P=0.00001, ?=0...
  35. Hollmann M, Hartley M, Heinemann S. Ca2+ permeability of KA-AMPA--gated glutamate receptor channels depends on subunit composition. Science. 1991;252:851-3 pubmed
    ..propionic acid (AMPA) are formed by the glutamate receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3. These subunits were expressed in various combinations in Xenopus oocytes so that their permeability to divalent ..
  36. Lu W, Ziff E. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking. Neuron. 2005;47:407-21 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking. ..
  37. Amir R, Dahle E, Toriolo D, Zoghbi H. Candidate gene analysis in Rett syndrome and the identification of 21 SNPs in Xq. Am J Med Genet. 2000;90:69-71 pubmed
    ..These are: Glutamate receptor subunit 3 (GLUR3), GABA receptor subunit alpha 3 (GABRA3), GABA receptor subunit e1 (GABRE1), Vacuolar ATPase ..
  38. Rampersad V, Elliott C, Nutt S, Foldes R, Kamboj R. Human glutamate receptor hGluR3 flip and flop isoforms: cloning and sequencing of the cDNAs and primary structure of the proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1219:563-6 pubmed
    Several cDNA clones encoding the human glutamate receptor subunit GluR3 flip and flop isoforms, were isolated from human hippocampus and fetal brain libraries...
  39. Lynd Balta E, Pilcher W, Joseph S. AMPA receptor alterations precede mossy fiber sprouting in young children with temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuroscience. 2004;126:105-14 pubmed
    ..The combination of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic changes serves as a potential substrate for hyperexcitability. ..
  40. Feyissa A, Woolverton W, Miguel Hidalgo J, Wang Z, Kyle P, Hasler G, et al. Elevated level of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 in the prefrontal cortex in major depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34:279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation is consistent with reports showing that mGluR2/3 antagonists exhibit antidepressant-like activity in animal models and demonstrates that these receptors are promising targets for the discovery of novel antidepressants. ..
  41. Hirbec H, Perestenko O, Nishimune A, Meyer G, Nakanishi S, Henley J, et al. The PDZ proteins PICK1, GRIP, and syntenin bind multiple glutamate receptor subtypes. Analysis of PDZ binding motifs. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:15221-4 pubmed
    ..These data also suggest that the structural determinants involved in PDZ interactions are more complex than originally envisaged. ..
  42. Osten P, Srivastava S, Inman G, Vilim F, Khatri L, Lee L, et al. The AMPA receptor GluR2 C terminus can mediate a reversible, ATP-dependent interaction with NSF and alpha- and beta-SNAPs. Neuron. 1998;21:99-110 pubmed
    ..NSF is known to disassemble the SNARE protein complex in a chaperone-like interaction driven by ATP hydrolysis. We propose a model in which NSF functions as a chaperone in the molecular processing of the AMPA receptor. ..
  43. Gecz J, Barnett S, Liu J, Hollway G, Donnelly A, Eyre H, et al. Characterization of the human glutamate receptor subunit 3 gene (GRIA3), a candidate for bipolar disorder and nonspecific X-linked mental retardation. Genomics. 1999;62:356-68 pubmed
    ..translocation t(X;12)(q24;q15), bipolar affective disorder and mental retardation was mapped within the glutamate receptor 3 (GRIA3) gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization...
  44. Chiyonobu T, Hayashi S, Kobayashi K, Morimoto M, Miyanomae Y, Nishimura A, et al. Partial tandem duplication of GRIA3 in a male with mental retardation. Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143A:1448-55 pubmed
    ..Further characterization revealed a partial tandem duplication of GRIA3, an alteration also present on one allele in his mother...
  45. Hayashi T, Umemori H, Mishina M, Yamamoto T. The AMPA receptor interacts with and signals through the protein tyrosine kinase Lyn. Nature. 1999;397:72-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, AMPA receptors generate intracellular signals from the cell surface to the nucleus through the Lyn-MAPK pathway, which may contribute to synaptic plasticity by regulating the expression of BDNF. ..
  46. Magri C, Gardella R, Valsecchi P, Barlati S, Guizzetti L, Imperadori L, et al. Study on GRIA2, GRIA3 and GRIA4 genes highlights a positive association between schizophrenia and GRIA3 in female patients. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:745-53 pubmed publisher
    ..acid (AMPA) receptor genes has been carried out and the results obtained from the analysis on GRIA2, GRIA3 and GRIA4 are reported...
  47. Tomiyama M, Rodriguez Puertas R, Cortes R, Pazos A, Palacios J, Mengod G. Flip and flop splice variants of AMPA receptor subunits in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Synapse. 2002;45:245-9 pubmed
    ..This expression change of AMPA receptors in ALS may account for vulnerability of motor neurons in this disease. ..
  48. Wollmuth L, Kuner T, Sakmann B. Adjacent asparagines in the NR2-subunit of the NMDA receptor channel control the voltage-dependent block by extracellular Mg2+. J Physiol. 1998;506 ( Pt 1):13-32 pubmed
    ..The contribution to the blocking site, in contrast to the prevailing view, is stronger for the N + 1 site than for the N-site asparagine. The block may involve binding of Mg2+ to these residues. ..
  49. Wyszynski M, Kim E, Dunah A, Passafaro M, Valtschanoff J, Serra Pagès C, et al. Interaction between GRIP and liprin-alpha/SYD2 is required for AMPA receptor targeting. Neuron. 2002;34:39-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, by mediating the targeting of liprin/GRIP-associated proteins, liprin-alpha is important for postsynaptic as well as presynaptic maturation. ..
  50. Perlis R, Laje G, Smoller J, Fava M, Rush A, McMahon F. Genetic and clinical predictors of sexual dysfunction in citalopram-treated depressed patients. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009;34:1819-28 pubmed publisher
    ..for association, single nucleotide polymorphisms in glutamatergic genes were associated with decreased libido (GRIA3; GRIK2), difficulty achieving orgasm (GRIA1), and difficulty achieving erection (GRIN3A) (experiment-wide permuted ..
  51. Gahring L, Carlson N, Meyer E, Rogers S. Granzyme B proteolysis of a neuronal glutamate receptor generates an autoantigen and is modulated by glycosylation. J Immunol. 2001;166:1433-8 pubmed
    ..this study, we considered a mechanism for the origin of an extracellular autoantigen from the neuronal glutamate receptor subunit 3 (GluR3) in Rasmussen's encephalitis, a severe form of pediatric epilepsy...
  52. Aruscavage P, Bass B. A phylogenetic analysis reveals an unusual sequence conservation within introns involved in RNA editing. RNA. 2000;6:257-69 pubmed
    ..The approximately 600-nt intron 13 of gluR-C was particularly remarkable, showing >94% nucleotide identity between human and chicken, organisms estimated to have diverged 310 million years ago. ..
  53. Wei C, Wu G, Cai Q, Gao X, Tong F, Zhou R, et al. MicroRNA-330-3p promotes cell invasion and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer through GRIA3 by activating MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. J Hematol Oncol. 2017;10:125 pubmed publisher
    ..The correlation between GRIA3 and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 and DNMT3A was tested by RT-PCR, western blotting, and co-immunoprecipitation (..
  54. Coleman S, Hou Y, Willibald M, Semenov A, Möykkynen T, Keinänen K. Aggregation Limits Surface Expression of Homomeric GluA3 Receptors. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:8784-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the biochemical basis for the poor ability of GluA3 subunits to form homomeric receptors, linked previously to two amino acid residues, Tyr-454 and Arg-461, in its ..
  55. Liu Q, Gong Y, Chen B, Guo C, Li J, Guo Y. [Linkage analysis and mutation detection of GRIA3 in Smith--Fineman--Myers syndrome]. Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 2001;28:985-90 pubmed
    To determine the role of GRIA3 in the etiology of Smith--Fineman--Myers syndrome (SFMS), polymorphic short tandem repeats within GRIA3 gene were genotyped by PCR and denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to test linkage between ..
  56. Bhandage A, Jin Z, Hellgren C, Korol S, Nowak K, Williamsson L, et al. AMPA, NMDA and kainate glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) where the expression of GluK4 is altered by pregnancy and GluN2D by depression in pregnant women. J Neuroimmunol. 2017;305:51-58 pubmed publisher
    ..of the iGlu receptors, mRNAs for 11 subunits were detected in PBMCs from men and non-pregnant women; AMPA: GluA3, GluA4, kainate: GluK2, GluK4, GluK5, NMDA: GluN1, GluN2C, GluN2D, GluN3A, GluN3B, and delta: GluD1...
  57. Xia J, Zhang X, Staudinger J, Huganir R. Clustering of AMPA receptors by the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1. Neuron. 1999;22:179-87 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PICK1 may play an important role in the modulation of synaptic transmission by regulating the synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors. ..
  58. Kessels H, Malinow R. Synaptic AMPA receptor plasticity and behavior. Neuron. 2009;61:340-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that monitoring and manipulating synaptic AMPAR trafficking represents an attractive means to study cognitive function and dysfunction in animal models. ..
  59. Bonnet C, Leheup B, Beri M, Philippe C, Gregoire M, Jonveaux P. Aberrant GRIA3 transcripts with multi-exon duplications in a family with X-linked mental retardation. Am J Med Genet A. 2009;149A:1280-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Further characterization showed a partial tandem duplication of GRIA3 extending from exon 1 to exon 12...
  60. Marek G, Behl B, Bespalov A, Gross G, Lee Y, Schoemaker H. Glutamatergic (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) hypofrontality in schizophrenia: too little juice or a miswired brain?. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;77:317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The hope is that by modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission, the dysfunctional circuitry of the schizophrenic brain (both local circuits and long-loop pathways) will be improved. ..
  61. Liu Q, Han D, Ji Y, Li J, Lan L, Zhao C, et al. [Analyzing GRIA3 gene mutations located in AUNX1 locus in a Chinese pedigree with auditory neuropathy]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;26:376-8 pubmed
    ..We found two point mutations that one caused no amino acid changed and the other caused D132N, but AQP3 gene isn't the responsible gene for this pedigree with auditory neuropathy. ..
  62. Bao H, Sun L, Zhu Y, Ran P, Hu W, Zhu K, et al. Lentinan produces a robust antidepressant-like effect via enhancing the prefrontal Dectin-1/AMPA receptor signaling pathway. Behav Brain Res. 2017;317:263-271 pubmed publisher
    ..of treatment, LNT enhanced p-GluR1 (S845) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); however, the total GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3 expression levels remained unchanged...
  63. Ishiuchi S, Tsuzuki K, Yoshida Y, Yamada N, Hagimura N, Okado H, et al. Blockage of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors suppresses migration and induces apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. Nat Med. 2002;8:971-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors have crucial roles in growth of glioblastoma. Blockage of these Ca(2+)-permeable receptors may be a useful therapeutic strategy for the prevention of glioblastoma invasion. ..
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