GPR55

Summary

Gene Symbol: GPR55
Description: G protein-coupled receptor 55
Alias: LPIR1, G-protein coupled receptor 55
Species: human
Products:     GPR55

Top Publications

  1. Sawzdargo M, Nguyen T, Lee D, Lynch K, Cheng R, Heng H, et al. Identification and cloning of three novel human G protein-coupled receptor genes GPR52, PsiGPR53 and GPR55: GPR55 is extensively expressed in human brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999;64:193-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the identification and cloning of two novel human intronless GPCR genes, GPR52, GPR55 and a pseudogene PsiGPR53...
  2. Whyte L, Ryberg E, Sims N, Ridge S, Mackie K, Greasley P, et al. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 affects osteoclast function in vitro and bone mass in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16511-6 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor recently shown to be activated by certain cannabinoids and by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). However, the physiological role of GPR55 remains unknown...
  3. Petitet F, Donlan M, Michel A. GPR55 as a new cannabinoid receptor: still a long way to prove it. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2006;67:252-3 pubmed
  4. Andradas C, Caffarel M, Perez Gomez E, Salazar M, Lorente M, Velasco G, et al. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation via ERK. Oncogene. 2011;30:245-52 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR55 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that may be engaged by some lipid ligands such as lysophosphatidylinositol and cannabinoid-type compounds...
  5. Henstridge C, Balenga N, Ford L, Ross R, Waldhoer M, Irving A. The GPR55 ligand L-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol promotes RhoA-dependent Ca2+ signaling and NFAT activation. FASEB J. 2009;23:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..LPI) was recently identified as a novel ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55)...
  6. Brown A, Robin Hiley C. Is GPR55 an anandamide receptor?. Vitam Horm. 2009;81:111-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Several approaches have suggested that an orphan receptor, GPR55, is a target for anandamide, but the pharmacology of this receptor is such that it cannot be categorically ..
  7. Moriconi A, Cerbara I, Maccarrone M, Topai A. GPR55: Current knowledge and future perspectives of a purported "Type-3" cannabinoid receptor. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17:1411-29 pubmed
    In the last decade, accumulated evidence highlighted that GPR55 might be activated by several classical cannabinoid ligands, making this orphan receptor the main candidate to be considered as the "third" cannabinoid receptor...
  8. Kapur A, Zhao P, Sharir H, Bai Y, Caron M, Barak L, et al. Atypical responsiveness of the orphan receptor GPR55 to cannabinoid ligands. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29817-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR55 is also a cannabinoid receptor remains unclear as a result of conflicting pharmacological studies...
  9. Borrelli F, Izzo A. Role of acylethanolamides in the gastrointestinal tract with special reference to food intake and energy balance. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;23:33-49 pubmed publisher
    ..activated by OEA and, to a less extent, by PEA), and the orphan G-coupled receptors GPR119 (activated by OEA) and GPR55 (activated by PEA and, with lower potency, by AEA and OEA)...

More Information

Publications83

  1. Yin H, Chu A, Li W, Wang B, Shelton F, Otero F, et al. Lipid G protein-coupled receptor ligand identification using beta-arrestin PathHunter assay. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:12328-38 pubmed publisher
    ..We screened a large number of newly "deorphaned" receptors (GPR23, GPR92, GPR55, G2A, GPR18, GPR3, GPR6, GPR12, and GPR63) and control receptors against a collection of approximately 400 lipid ..
  2. Ishiguro H, Onaivi E, Horiuchi Y, Imai K, Komaki G, Ishikawa T, et al. Functional polymorphism in the GPR55 gene is associated with anorexia nervosa. Synapse. 2011;65:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore focused on the receptor, which is called G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) that had recently been reported to have binding affinity for endocannabinoids...
  3. Sharir H, Abood M. Pharmacological characterization of GPR55, a putative cannabinoid receptor. Pharmacol Ther. 2010;126:301-13 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR55 has recently attracted much attention as another member of the cannabinoid family, potentially explaining physiological effects that are non-CB1/CB2 mediated...
  4. Brown A. Novel cannabinoid receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:567-75 pubmed
    ..novel cannabinoid receptors; these are GPR119, which has been proposed as a receptor for oleoylethanolamide, and GPR55 which has been proposed as a receptor activated by multiple different cannabinoid ligands...
  5. Brown A, Daniels D, Kassim M, Brown S, Haslam C, Terrell V, et al. Pharmacology of GPR55 in yeast and identification of GSK494581A as a mixed-activity glycine transporter subtype 1 inhibitor and GPR55 agonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;337:236-46 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by L-?-lysophosphatidylinositol and suggested to have roles in pain signaling, bone morphogenesis, and possibly in vascular endothelial cells...
  6. Pineiro R, Maffucci T, Falasca M. The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 defines a novel autocrine loop in cancer cell proliferation. Oncogene. 2011;30:142-52 pubmed publisher
    Recently, the orphan receptor G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been proposed as a potential cannabinoid receptor, although controversy remains on its physiological roles...
  7. Oka S, Toshida T, Maruyama K, Nakajima K, Yamashita A, Sugiura T. 2-Arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoinositol: a possible natural ligand for GPR55. J Biochem. 2009;145:13-20 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor. Recently, we obtained evidence that lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is a possible endogenous ligand for GPR55...
  8. Nevalainen T, Irving A. GPR55, a lysophosphatidylinositol receptor with cannabinoid sensitivity?. Curr Top Med Chem. 2010;10:799-813 pubmed
    ..targets for cannabinoid ligands and recently it has been suggested that the orphan G-protein coupled receptor, GPR55 can be activated by a range of endogenous, plant and synthetic cannabinoids...
  9. Ryberg E, Larsson N, Sjogren S, Hjorth S, Hermansson N, Leonova J, et al. The orphan receptor GPR55 is a novel cannabinoid receptor. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:1092-101 pubmed
    ..Cells transfected with the human cDNA for GPR55 were tested for their ability to bind and to mediate GTPgammaS binding by cannabinoid ligands...
  10. Waldeck Weiermair M, Zoratti C, Osibow K, Balenga N, Goessnitzer E, Waldhoer M, et al. Integrin clustering enables anandamide-induced Ca2+ signaling in endothelial cells via GPR55 by protection against CB1-receptor-triggered repression. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1704-1717 pubmed publisher
    ..were found, which were characterized as cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R; CNR1) and G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55). Both receptors trigger distinct signaling pathways...
  11. Ross R. L-?-lysophosphatidylinositol meets GPR55: a deadly relationship. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2011;32:265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It has now been revealed that LPI activates GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor that couples to G(12/13) and G(q) proteins, which direct oncogenic signalling...
  12. Pertwee R. GPR55: a new member of the cannabinoid receptor clan?. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:984-6 pubmed
    ..present convincing in vitro evidence that the orphan GPCR, GPR55, is a cannabinoid receptor...
  13. Kotsikorou E, Madrigal K, Hurst D, Sharir H, Lynch D, Heynen Genel S, et al. Identification of the GPR55 agonist binding site using a novel set of high-potency GPR55 selective ligands. Biochemistry. 2011;50:5633-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The orphan receptor GPR55 binds a subset of CB1 and CB2 ligands and has been proposed as a cannabinoid receptor...
  14. Bondarenko A, Malli R, Graier W. The GPR55 agonist lysophosphatidylinositol acts as an intracellular messenger and bidirectionally modulates Ca2+ -activated large-conductance K+ channels in endothelial cells. Pflugers Arch. 2011;461:177-89 pubmed publisher
    ..in endothelial cells, acts as an endogenous agonist of the orphan receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55)...
  15. Huang L, Ramirez J, Frampton G, Golden L, Quinn M, Pae H, et al. Anandamide exerts its antiproliferative actions on cholangiocarcinoma by activation of the GPR55 receptor. Lab Invest. 2011;91:1007-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, GPR55 was identified as a putative cannabinoid receptor; therefore, the role of GPR55 in the antiproliferative effects ..
  16. Ford L, Roelofs A, Anavi Goffer S, Mowat L, Simpson D, Irving A, et al. A role for L-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol and GPR55 in the modulation of migration, orientation and polarization of human breast cancer cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:762-71 pubmed publisher
    ..LPI) are associated with cancer and LPI is a potent, ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55. Here we have assessed the modulation of breast cancer cell migration, orientation and polarization by LPI and ..
  17. Bondarenko A, Waldeck Weiermair M, Naghdi S, Poteser M, Malli R, Graier W. GPR55-dependent and -independent ion signalling in response to lysophosphatidylinositol in endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:308-20 pubmed publisher
    ..lysophospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is an endogenous agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) exhibiting cannabinoid receptor-like properties in endothelial cells...
  18. Johns D, Behm D, Walker D, Ao Z, Shapland E, Daniels D, et al. The novel endocannabinoid receptor GPR55 is activated by atypical cannabinoids but does not mediate their vasodilator effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:825-31 pubmed
    ..Recent reports suggest GPR55 is an atypical cannabinoid receptor, making it a candidate for the vasodilator 'CBx' receptor...
  19. Henstridge C, Balenga N, Kargl J, Andradas C, Brown A, Irving A, et al. Minireview: recent developments in the physiology and pathology of the lysophosphatidylinositol-sensitive receptor GPR55. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1835-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Due to its cannabinoid sensitivity, the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was recently proposed as a candidate; however, GPR55 is phylogenetically distinct from the traditional ..
  20. Balenga N, Aflaki E, Kargl J, Platzer W, Schröder R, Blättermann S, et al. GPR55 regulates cannabinoid 2 receptor-mediated responses in human neutrophils. Cell Res. 2011;21:1452-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence that the recently de-orphanized 7TM/GPCR GPR55 potently modulates CB(2)R-mediated responses...
  21. McHugh D, Hu S, Rimmerman N, Juknat A, Vogel Z, Walker J, et al. N-arachidonoyl glycine, an abundant endogenous lipid, potently drives directed cellular migration through GPR18, the putative abnormal cannabidiol receptor. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:44 pubmed publisher
    ..cellular migration in both BV-2 microglia and HEK293-GPR18 transfected cells, but neither induce migration in HEK-GPR55 or non-transfected HEK293 wildtype cells...
  22. Yamashita A, Kumazawa T, Koga H, Suzuki N, Oka S, Sugiura T. Generation of lysophosphatidylinositol by DDHD domain containing 1 (DDHD1): Possible involvement of phospholipase D/phosphatidic acid in the activation of DDHD1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1801:711-20 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR55 is a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor that has been proposed as a novel type of cannabinoid receptor. Previously, we identified lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), in particular 2-arachidonoyl-LPI, as an agonist for GPR55...
  23. Oka S, Nakajima K, Yamashita A, Kishimoto S, Sugiura T. Identification of GPR55 as a lysophosphatidylinositol receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:928-34 pubmed
    b>GPR55 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor. In this study, we explored a possible endogenous ligand for GPR55 using HEK293 cells which expressed GPR55...
  24. Lauckner J, Jensen J, Chen H, Lu H, Hille B, Mackie K. GPR55 is a cannabinoid receptor that increases intracellular calcium and inhibits M current. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2699-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide further evidence that GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor, is a cannabinoid receptor...
  25. Henstridge C, Balenga N, Schröder R, Kargl J, Platzer W, Martini L, et al. GPR55 ligands promote receptor coupling to multiple signalling pathways. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160:604-14 pubmed publisher
    Although GPR55 is potently activated by the endogenous lysophospholipid, L-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), it is also thought to be sensitive to a number of cannabinoid ligands, including the prototypic CB1 receptor antagonists ..
  26. Baker D, Pryce G, Davies W, Hiley C. In silico patent searching reveals a new cannabinoid receptor. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006;27:1-4 pubmed
    ..patents indicate that several cannabinoid receptor ligands also bind to the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55. This receptor is reported to be expressed in several tissues and might function in lipid or vascular biology...
  27. Okuno T, Yokomizo T. What is the natural ligand of GPR55?. J Biochem. 2011;149:495-7 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR55 is a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor and was originally identified as a putative third cannabinoid receptor. Recently, lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was reported to be a GPR55 ligand...
  28. Pertwee R, Howlett A, Abood M, Alexander S, Di Marzo V, Elphick M, et al. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: beyond CB? and CB?. Pharmacol Rev. 2010;62:588-631 pubmed publisher
    ..orthosteric or allosteric interactions with non-CB(1), non-CB(2) established GPCRs, deorphanized receptors such as GPR55, ligand-gated ion channels, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, and other ion channels or peroxisome ..
  29. Oka S, Kimura S, Toshida T, Ota R, Yamashita A, Sugiura T. Lysophosphatidylinositol induces rapid phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and activating transcription factor 2 in HEK293 cells expressing GPR55 and IM-9 lymphoblastoid cells. J Biochem. 2010;147:671-8 pubmed publisher
    Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is an endogenous ligand for GPR55, a putative novel type of cannabinoid receptor. In this study, we first examined the effects of LPI on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in HEK293 cells expressing GPR55...
  30. Ernst J, Grabiec U, Greither T, Fischer B, Dehghani F. The endocannabinoid system in the human granulosa cell line KGN. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;423:67-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression studies were performed and estradiol was measured. CB1, CB2, DAGL, FAAH, GPR55, MAGL, NAPE-PLD and TRPV1 were expressed without FSH-dependent effects...
  31. Liu B, Song S, Jones P, Persaud S. GPR55: from orphan to metabolic regulator?. Pharmacol Ther. 2015;145:35-42 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR55 belongs to the class A family of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) and its activity is regulated by a range of synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids, and by lipid-derived ligands...
  32. Karpińska O, Baranowska Kuczko M, Malinowska B, Kloza M, Kusaczuk M, Gęgotek A, et al. Mechanisms of l-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol-induced relaxation in human pulmonary arteries. Life Sci. 2018;192:38-45 pubmed publisher
    l-Alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is an endogenous agonist of G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) which relaxes mesenteric arteries on activation...
  33. Sumida H, Lu E, Chen H, Yang Q, Mackie K, Cyster J. GPR55 regulates intraepithelial lymphocyte migration dynamics and susceptibility to intestinal damage. Sci Immunol. 2017;2: pubmed publisher
    ..Yet, the factors controlling their migration and interaction dynamics are poorly understood. We demonstrate that GPR55, a receptor that mediates migration inhibition in response to lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), negatively regulates ..
  34. Carey L, Gutierrez T, Deng L, Lee W, Mackie K, Hohmann A. Inflammatory and Neuropathic Nociception is Preserved in GPR55 Knockout Mice. Sci Rep. 2017;7:944 pubmed publisher
    The G-protein coupled receptor GPR55 has been postulated to serve as a novel cannabinoid receptor...
  35. Tudurí E, Imbernon M, Hernández Bautista R, Tojo M, Fernø J, Dieguez C, et al. GPR55: a new promising target for metabolism?. J Mol Endocrinol. 2017;58:R191-R202 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR55 is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been identified as a new cannabinoid receptor...
  36. Alhouayek M, Masquelier J, Muccioli G. Lysophosphatidylinositols, from Cell Membrane Constituents to GPR55 Ligands. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2018;39:586-604 pubmed publisher
    ..However, recent data showing that the once orphan receptor, GPR55, can act as a receptor for LPIs has sparked a renewed interest in LPIs as bioactive lipids...
  37. Malek N, Popiolek Barczyk K, Mika J, Przewlocka B, Starowicz K. Anandamide, Acting via CB2 Receptors, Alleviates LPS-Induced Neuroinflammation in Rat Primary Microglial Cultures. Neural Plast. 2015;2015:130639 pubmed publisher
    ..g., GPR18/GPR55). We studied the effect of anandamide on lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in rat primary microglial cultures...
  38. Walsh S, Hector E, Andréasson A, Jönsson Rylander A, Wainwright C. GPR55 deletion in mice leads to age-related ventricular dysfunction and impaired adrenoceptor-mediated inotropic responses. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e108999 pubmed publisher
    b>G protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is expressed throughout the body, and although its exact physiological function is unknown, studies have suggested a role in the cardiovascular system...
  39. Elbegdorj O, Westkaemper R, Zhang Y. A homology modeling study toward the understanding of three-dimensional structure and putative pharmacological profile of the G-protein coupled receptor GPR55. J Mol Graph Model. 2013;39:50-60 pubmed publisher
    The orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR55 was shown to bind to certain cannabinoid compounds which led to its initial classification as the third type of cannabinoid receptor...
  40. Balenga N, Henstridge C, Kargl J, Waldhoer M. Pharmacology, signaling and physiological relevance of the G protein-coupled receptor 55. Adv Pharmacol. 2011;62:251-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was recently proposed as a novel component of this system; however, its classification as a cannabinoid receptor ..
  41. Gasperi V, Dainese E, Oddi S, Sabatucci A, Maccarrone M. GPR55 and its interaction with membrane lipids: comparison with other endocannabinoid-binding receptors. Curr Med Chem. 2013;20:64-78 pubmed
    ..Recently, the orphan GPR55 receptor has been proved to be activated by many eCBs, thus leading to the hypothesis that it might be the "type-3"..
  42. Akimov M, Ashba A, Gretskaya N, Bezuglov V. N-acyl dopamines induce apoptosis in PC12 cell line via the GPR55 receptor activation. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2017;474:155-158 pubmed publisher
    ..arachidonic, docosahexaenoic, and oleic acids were found to induce apoptosis in PC12 cells, which was blocked exclusively by antagonists and preincubation agonists of the receptor GPR55, belonging to the group of non-CB1/CB2 receptors.
  43. Haskó J, Fazakas C, Molnár J, Nyúl Tóth Ã, Herman H, Hermenean A, et al. CB2 receptor activation inhibits melanoma cell transmigration through the blood-brain barrier. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:8063-74 pubmed publisher
    ..First, we identified the presence of CB1, CB2(A), GPR18 (transcriptional variant 1) and GPR55 receptors in brain endothelial cells, while melanoma cells expressed CB1, CB2(A), GPR18 (transcriptional variants ..
  44. Kargl J, Balenga N, Platzer W, Martini L, Whistler J, Waldhoer M. The GPCR-associated sorting protein 1 regulates ligand-induced down-regulation of GPR55. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;165:2611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant has also recently been described to be an agonist at GPR55, a cannabinoid-related receptor...
  45. Lipina C, Rastedt W, Irving A, Hundal H. New vistas for treatment of obesity and diabetes? Endocannabinoid signalling and metabolism in the modulation of energy balance. Bioessays. 2012;34:681-91 pubmed publisher
  46. Gaston T, Friedman D. Pharmacology of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2017;70:313-318 pubmed publisher
    ..to explain its anticonvulsant properties including TRPV1, voltage gated potassium and sodium channels, and GPR55, among others...
  47. Biernacki M, Skrzydlewska E. Metabolism of endocannabinoids. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2016;70:830-43 pubmed
    ..ester, ether and amide derivatives of fatty acids, which are endogenous ligands of receptors CB1, CB2, TRPV1 and GPR55 that are included in the endocannabinoid system of the animal organism...
  48. Al Suleimani Y, Hiley C. Characterization of calcium signals provoked by lysophosphatidylinositol in human microvascular endothelial cells. Physiol Res. 2016;65:53-62 pubmed
    ..is hypothesised to form part of a novel lipid signalling system that involves the G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 and distinct intracellular signalling cascades in endothelial cells...
  49. Montecucco F, Bondarenko A, Lenglet S, Burger F, Piscitelli F, Carbone F, et al. Treatment with the GPR55 antagonist CID16020046 increases neutrophil activation in mouse atherogenesis. Thromb Haemost. 2016;116:987-997 pubmed
    ..Here, we investigated whether GPR55 antagonism with CID16020046 would impact on atherosclerotic size and inflammation in two mouse models of early and ..
  50. Alavi M, Hosseinzadeh H, Shamsizadeh A, Roohbakhsh A. The effect of O-1602, an atypical cannabinoid, on morphine-induced conditioned place preference and physical dependence. Pharmacol Rep. 2016;68:592-7 pubmed publisher
    Previous studies show that some non-CB1/non-CB2 effects of cannabinoids are mediated through G protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55)...
  51. Schicho R, Storr M. A potential role for GPR55 in gastrointestinal functions. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2012;12:653-8 pubmed publisher
    ..10-15%) with cannabinoid-1 (CB(1)) and cannabinoid-2 (CB(2)) receptors, the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was initially thought to be a new member of the cannabinoid receptor family...
  52. Sharir H, Console Bram L, Mundy C, Popoff S, Kapur A, Abood M. The endocannabinoids anandamide and virodhamine modulate the activity of the candidate cannabinoid receptor GPR55. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012;7:856-65 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GPR55 has been proposed to be a cannabinoid receptor; however the interaction of the endocannabinoid system with GPR55 ..
  53. Martínez Pinilla E, Rabal O, Reyes Resina I, Zamarbide M, Navarro G, Sánchez Arias J, et al. Two Affinity Sites of the Cannabinoid Subtype 2 Receptor Identified by a Novel Homogeneous Binding Assay. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2016;358:580-7 pubmed publisher
    ..site and showed conformational changes in CB2R forming receptor heteromers with G protein-coupled receptor GPR55, a receptor for l-?-lysophosphatidylinositol...
  54. Singh N, Bernier M, Wainer I. Selective GPR55 antagonism reduces chemoresistance in cancer cells. Pharmacol Res. 2016;111:757-766 pubmed publisher
    G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) possesses pro-oncogenic activity and its function can be competitively inhibited with (R,R')-4'-methoxy-1-naphthylfenoterol (MNF) through poorly defined signaling pathways...
  55. Zhou X, Guo X, Song Y, Zhu C, Zou W. The LPI/GPR55 axis enhances human breast cancer cell migration via HBXIP and p-MLC signaling. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2018;39:459-471 pubmed publisher
    The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is expressed in multiple tissues, and has been implicated in cancer pathogenesis, but little is known about its role in the migratory behavior of cancer cells, particularly breast cancer cells...
  56. Henstridge C, Brown A, Waldhoer M. GPR55: Metabolic Help or Hindrance?. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2016;27:606-608 pubmed publisher
    Since the discovery of the lysophospholipid-sensitive receptor GPR55, hopes have been raised that targeting this G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) may represent a novel approach for the treatment of metabolic disorders...
  57. Kargl J, Andersen L, Hasenöhrl C, Feuersinger D, Stančić A, Fauland A, et al. GPR55 promotes migration and adhesion of colon cancer cells indicating a role in metastasis. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173:142-54 pubmed publisher
    Tumour cell migration and adhesion constitute essential features of metastasis. G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a lysophospholipid receptor, has been shown to play an important role in carcinogenesis...
  58. Console Bram L, Ciuciu S, Zhao P, Zipkin R, Brailoiu E, Abood M. N-arachidonoyl glycine, another endogenous agonist of GPR55. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1389-1393 pubmed publisher
    ..herein investigated the effects of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) on a candidate endocannabinoid receptor, GPR55. Our novel findings reveal that NAGly induces concentration dependent increases in calcium mobilization and ..
  59. Irving A, Abdulrazzaq G, Chan S, Penman J, Harvey J, Alexander S. Cannabinoid Receptor-Related Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptors. Adv Pharmacol. 2017;80:223-247 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these 100 or so entities, 3 have been linked to the cannabinoid system. GPR18, GPR55, and GPR119 exhibit limited sequence homology with the established CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid ..
  60. Hofmann N, Yang J, Trauger S, Nakayama H, Huang L, Strunk D, et al. The GPR 55 agonist, L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol, mediates ovarian carcinoma cell-induced angiogenesis. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172:4107-18 pubmed publisher
    Highly vascularized ovarian carcinoma secretes the putative endocannabinoid and GPR55 agonist, L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), into the circulation...
  61. Li K, Fichna J, Schicho R, Saur D, Bashashati M, Mackie K, et al. A role for O-1602 and G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 in the control of colonic motility in mice. Neuropharmacology. 2013;71:255-63 pubmed publisher
    The G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is a novel cannabinoid (CB) receptor, whose role in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains unknown. Here we studied the significance of GPR55 in the regulation of GI motility...
  62. Gorantla S, Makarov E, Roy D, Finke Dwyer J, Murrin L, Gendelman H, et al. Immunoregulation of a CB2 receptor agonist in a murine model of neuroAIDS. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2010;5:456-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Brains of hu-PBL/HIVE mice showed microglial activation and increased expression of CB2R, but not CB1R or GPR55. Gp1a substantively reduced infiltration of human cells into the mouse brain and reduced HLA DQ activation...
  63. Starowicz K, Finn D. Cannabinoids and Pain: Sites and Mechanisms of Action. Adv Pharmacol. 2017;80:437-475 pubmed publisher
    ..uptake, and modulation of other non-CB1R/non-CB2R targets of cannabinoids including TRPV1, GPR55, and PPARs...
  64. Morales P, Reggio P. An Update on Non-CB1, Non-CB2 Cannabinoid Related G-Protein-Coupled Receptors. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2:265-273 pubmed publisher
    ..In the last years, GPCRs such as GPR18 and GPR55 have emerged as possible missing members of the cannabinoid family...
  65. Henstridge C. Off-target cannabinoid effects mediated by GPR55. Pharmacology. 2012;89:179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The orphan G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was initially touted as a novel cannabinoid target in early industrial patent literature...
  66. Agrawal A, Lynskey M. Candidate genes for cannabis use disorders: findings, challenges and directions. Addiction. 2009;104:518-32 pubmed publisher
    ..for (a) genes posited to have specific influences on cannabis use disorders: CNR1, CB2, FAAH, MGLL, TRPV1 and GPR55 and (b) genes from various neurotransmitter systems that are likely to exert a non-specific influence on risk of ..
  67. Ruz Maldonado I, Pingitore A, Liu B, Atanes P, Huang G, Baker D, et al. LH-21 and Abn-CBD improve ?-cell function in isolated human and mouse islets through GPR55-dependent and -independent signalling. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    CB1 and GPR55 are GPCRs expressed by islet ?-cells. Pharmacological compounds have been used to investigate their function, but off-target effects of ligands have been reported...
  68. Fakhouri L, Cook C, Al Huniti M, Console Bram L, Hurst D, Spano M, et al. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of GPR55 agonists. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:4355-4367 pubmed publisher
    b>GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor, is an attractive target to alleviate inflammatory and neuropathic pain and treat osteoporosis and cancer...
  69. McPartland J, Norris R, Kilpatrick C. Tempo and mode in the endocannaboinoid system. J Mol Evol. 2007;65:267-76 pubmed
    ..from highest to lowest: PTPN22, NAAA, TRPV1, TRPA1, NAPE-PLD, MAGL, PPARgamma, FAAH1, COX2, FAAH2, ABDH4, CB2, GPR55, DAGLbeta, PPARalpha, TRPV4, CB1, DAGLalpha; differences were significant (p < 0.0001)...
  70. Kremshofer J, Siwetz M, Berghold V, Lang I, Huppertz B, Gauster M. A role for GPR55 in human placental venous endothelial cells. Histochem Cell Biol. 2015;144:49-58 pubmed publisher
    ..G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) was previously postulated to be another cannabinoid receptor, since specific cannabinoids were shown to act ..
  71. Campos A, Moreira F, Gomes F, Del Bel E, Guimarães F. Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012;367:3364-78 pubmed publisher
    ..g. inhibition of adenosine uptake, inverse agonism at CB2 receptor, CB1 receptor antagonism, GPR55 antagonism, PPAR? receptors agonism, intracellular (Ca(2+)) increase, etc.), on CBD behavioural effects.
  72. Bakali E, Elliott R, Taylor A, Lambert D, Willets J, Tincello D. Human urothelial cell lines as potential models for studying cannabinoid and excitatory receptor interactions in the urinary bladder. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2014;387:581-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of ACEA to reduce intracellular cAMP was investigated in HCV29 cells. CB1 and GPR55 receptor transcripts were detected in HCV29 and UROtsa cells, respectively...
  73. Zhao P, Abood M. GPR55 and GPR35 and their relationship to cannabinoid and lysophospholipid receptors. Life Sci. 2013;92:453-7 pubmed publisher
    This review presents a summary of what is known about the G-protein coupled receptors GPR35 and GPR55 and their potential characterization as lysophospholipid or cannabinoid receptors, respectively...
  74. Bondarenko A, Montecucco F, Panasiuk O, Sagach V, Sidoryak N, Brandt K, et al. GPR55 agonist lysophosphatidylinositol and lysophosphatidylcholine inhibit endothelial cell hyperpolarization via GPR-independent suppression of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger and endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ refilling. Vascul Pharmacol. 2017;89:39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibition of NCX by LPI and LPC underlies diminished endothelium-dependent responses and endothelial dysfunction accompanied by increased levels of these lipids in the blood. ..