GNRH1

Summary

Gene Symbol: GNRH1
Description: gonadotropin releasing hormone 1
Alias: GNRH, GRH, LHRH, LNRH, progonadoliberin-1, GnRH-associated peptide 1, gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone), leuteinizing-releasing hormone, luliberin I, prolactin release-inhibiting factor
Species: human
Products:     GNRH1

Top Publications

  1. Emons G, Weiss S, Ortmann O, Grundker C, Schulz K. LHRH might act as a negative autocrine regulator of proliferation of human ovarian cancer. Eur J Endocrinol. 2000;142:665-70 pubmed
    More than 80% of human ovarian cancers express LHRH and its receptor. The proliferation of human ovarian cancer cell lines is reduced by both LHRH agonists and antagonists...
  2. Günthert A, Gründker C, Hollmann K, Emons G. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone induces JunD-DNA binding and extends cell cycle in human ovarian cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;294:11-5 pubmed
    Expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and its receptor as part of an autocrine regulatory system of cell proliferation has been demonstrated in a number of human malignant tumors, including cancers of the ovary...
  3. Vagenakis G, Sgourou A, Papachatzopoulou A, Kourounis G, Papavassiliou A, Georgopoulos N. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-1 gene, the GnRH receptor gene, and their promoters in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without resistance to GnRH action. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:1762-5 pubmed
    ..hormone receptor (GnRHR) gene in two sisters as well as in their mother, and one polymorphism in the GnRH1 gene (the Trp16Ser) was identified in four patients...
  4. Bouligand J, Ghervan C, Tello J, Brailly Tabard S, Salenave S, Chanson P, et al. Isolated familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and a GNRH1 mutation. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2742-8 pubmed publisher
    We investigated whether mutations in the gene encoding gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1) might be responsible for idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) in humans...
  5. Iremonger K, Constantin S, Liu X, Herbison A. Glutamate regulation of GnRH neuron excitability. Brain Res. 2010;1364:35-43 pubmed publisher
    The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal network is the master controller of the reproductive axis...
  6. Dong K, Yu K, Roberts J. Identification of a major up-stream transcription start site for the human progonadotropin-releasing hormone gene used in reproductive tissues and cell lines. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:1654-66 pubmed
    Previous studies suggested that GnRH gene transcripts in human tissues may be derived from an upstream transcriptional start site in addition to the well characterized hypothalamic start site...
  7. Iwasaki H, Emi M, Ezura Y, Ishida R, Kajita M, Kodaira M, et al. Association of a Trp16Ser variation in the gonadotropin releasing hormone signal peptide with bone mineral density, revealed by SNP-dependent PCR typing. Bone. 2003;32:185-90 pubmed
    ..Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus is the primary determinant in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal feedback system...
  8. Sedlmeyer I, Pearce C, Trueman J, Butler J, Bersaglieri T, Read A, et al. Determination of sequence variation and haplotype structure for the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor genes: investigation of role in pubertal timing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:1091-9 pubmed
    ..mutations in GNRHR lead to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, we investigated whether genetic variation in GNRHR or GNRH1 affects pubertal timing in the general population...
  9. Montagnani Marelli M, Moretti R, Mai S, Januszkiewicz Caulier J, Motta M, Limonta P. Type I gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mediates the antiproliferative effects of GnRH-II on prostate cancer cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:1761-7 pubmed publisher
    b>GnRH-II has been shown to exert a strong antiproliferative action on tumors of the female reproductive system. The data so far reported on the effects of GnRH-II on prostate cancer growth are controversial...

More Information

Publications135 found, 100 shown here

  1. Chan Y, de Guillebon A, Lang Muritano M, Plummer L, Cerrato F, Tsiaras S, et al. GNRH1 mutations in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11703-8 pubmed publisher
    ..be mutated in patients with IHH, yet to date no mutations have been identified in the most obvious candidate gene, GNRH1 itself, which encodes the preprohormone that is ultimately processed to produce GnRH...
  2. Chan Y. A needle in a haystack: mutations in GNRH1 as a rare cause of isolated GnRH deficiency. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;346:51-6 pubmed publisher
    b>GNRH1, the human gene that gives rise to GnRH, has long been an obvious candidate gene for idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, particularly because the hpg mouse, a mouse model of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, carries a ..
  3. Panossian A, Seo E, Efferth T. Novel molecular mechanisms for the adaptogenic effects of herbal extracts on isolated brain cells using systems biology. Phytomedicine. 2018;50:257-284 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, melatonin activated adaptive signaling pathways and upregulated expression of UCN, GNRH1, TLR9, GP1BA, PLXNA4, CHRM4, GPR19, VIPR2, RORA, STAT5A, ZFPM2, ZNF396, FLT1, MAPK10, MERTK, PRKCH, and TTN, which ..
  4. Han X, Lei E, Lam M, Wu R. A whole life cycle assessment on effects of waterborne PBDEs on gene expression profile along the brain-pituitary-gonad axis and in the liver of zebrafish. Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;63:160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In male fish, up-regulation of GnRH in brain, FSHβ and LHβ in pituitary, FSH-receptor, LH-receptor, and CYP19a in testis was clearly evident, while ..
  5. Corbett S, Shmorgun D, Claman P. The prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2014;36:1024-1033 pubmed publisher
    ..II-2) 8. Pregnancy rates are not affected when using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists in GnRH antagonist protocols for final egg maturation when embryos are frozen by vitrification for later ..
  6. Akhter N, CarlLee T, Syed M, Odle A, Cozart M, Haney A, et al. Selective deletion of leptin receptors in gonadotropes reveals activin and GnRH-binding sites as leptin targets in support of fertility. Endocrinology. 2014;155:4027-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum levels of LEP and ACTH and mRNA levels of Gnrhr were unchanged. However, binding to GnRH receptors was reduced in LEPR-null LH or FSH gonadotropes by 82% or 89%, respectively, in females (P < ...
  7. Gao D, Lin J, Ou K, Chen Y, Li H, Dai Q, et al. Embryonic exposure to benzo(a)pyrene inhibits reproductive capability in adult female zebrafish and correlation with DNA methylation. Environ Pollut. 2018;240:403-411 pubmed publisher
    ..The methylation levels of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) gene gnrh3 were significantly increased in the adult zebrafish brain, and those of the GnRH receptor gene gnrhr3 ..
  8. Cederberg R, Smith J, McDonald E, Lee C, Perkins A, White B. Activity of the porcine gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene promoter is partially conferred by a distal gonadotrope specific element (GSE) within an upstream enhancing region, two proximal GSEs and a retinoid X receptor binding site. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2015;13:45 pubmed publisher
    Regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor (GnRHR) numbers on gonadotropes within the anterior pituitary gland represents a critical point for control of reproductive function...
  9. Arukha A, Minhas V, Shrestha A, Gupta S. Contraceptive efficacy of recombinant fusion protein comprising zona pellucida glycoprotein-3 fragment and gonadotropin releasing hormone. J Reprod Immunol. 2016;114:18-26 pubmed publisher
    ..aa residues 307-346), triglycine spacer (GGG), T cell epitope of bovine RNase (bRNase; aa residues 94-104), GnRH, T cell epitope of circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum (CSP; aa residues 362-383), and GnRH...
  10. Busby E, Sherwood N. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (Gnrhr) gene knock out: Normal growth and development of sensory, motor and spatial orientation behavior but altered metabolism in neonatal and prepubertal mice. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174452 pubmed publisher
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in the control of reproduction, but its actions in non-reproductive processes are less well known...
  11. Yang R, Wang Y, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhao Z, Zhao J, et al. Delay of the onset of puberty in female rats by prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7:4668-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were ..
  12. Li X, Shen B, Chen Q, Zhang X, Ye Y, Wang F, et al. Antitumor effects of cecropin B-LHRH' on drug-resistant ovarian and endometrial cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:251 pubmed publisher
    ..We coupled cecropin B, an antimicrobial peptide, to LHRH', a form of LHRH modified at carboxyl-terminal residues 4-10, which binds to LHRHr without interfering with ..
  13. Tortonese D. Intrapituitary mechanisms underlying the control of fertility: key players in seasonal breeding. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2016;56 Suppl:S191-203 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have shown that, in conjunction with dynamic changes in the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus, paracrine interactions within the pituitary gland play an important role in the regulation of fertility during the annual ..
  14. Korf H. Signaling pathways to and from the hypophysial pars tuberalis, an important center for the control of seasonal rhythms. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;258:236-243 pubmed publisher
    ..mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) appears to activate the gonadal axis by affecting the neuro-glial interaction between GnRH terminals and tanycytes in the median eminence...
  15. Kaprara A, Huhtaniemi I. The hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis: Tales of mice and men. Metabolism. 2018;86:3-17 pubmed publisher
    Reproduction is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons play a central role in this axis through production of GnRH, which binds to a membrane receptor on pituitary ..
  16. Tata B, Mimouni N, Barbotin A, Malone S, Loyens A, Pigny P, et al. Elevated prenatal anti-Müllerian hormone reprograms the fetus and induces polycystic ovary syndrome in adulthood. Nat Med. 2018;24:834-846 pubmed publisher
    ..exhibit higher levels of circulating luteinizing hormone, suggestive of heightened gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) as compared to healthy women...
  17. Samoylov A, Napier I, Morrison N, Martin D, Cox N, Samoylova T. Molecular cloning, sequencing, and distribution of feline GnRH receptor (GnRHR) and resequencing of canine GnRHR. Theriogenology. 2015;83:266-75 pubmed publisher
    b>GnRH receptors play vital roles in mammalian reproduction via regulation of gonadotropin secretion, which is essential for gametogenesis and production of gonadal steroids...
  18. Wang Y, Li Y, Zhang B, Zhang F. The preclinical evaluation of immunocontraceptive vaccines based on canine zona pellucida 3 (cZP3) in a mouse model. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018;16:47 pubmed publisher
    ..To enhance the immune responses and contraceptive effects of canine ZP3 (cZP3), dog gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and a T cell epitope of chicken ovalbumin (OVA) were selected to construct two fusion proteins with cZP3, ..
  19. Balen A, Morley L, Misso M, Franks S, Legro R, Wijeyaratne C, et al. The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an analysis of the evidence to support the development of global WHO guidance. Hum Reprod Update. 2016;22:687-708 pubmed
    ..therapy or have additional infertility factors, IVF can be used with the safer gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol...
  20. Schäfer Somi S, Kaya D, Sozmen M, Kaya S, Aslan S. Pre-pubertal treatment with a GnRH agonist in bitches-Effect on the uterus and hormone receptor expression. Reprod Domest Anim. 2018;53 Suppl 3:103-109 pubmed publisher
    ..and sections from the uterine tissue were subjected to immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detection of GnRH receptor (R), Kisspeptin (KP)10, Kisspeptin receptor (GPR54), androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor (ER) α,β,..
  21. Xie H, Hoffmann H, Meadows J, Mayo S, Trang C, Leming S, et al. Homeodomain Proteins SIX3 and SIX6 Regulate Gonadotrope-specific Genes During Pituitary Development. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:842-55 pubmed publisher
    ..in an immature gonadotrope cell line and represses transcription of the early lineage-specific pituitary genes, GnRH receptor (GnRHR) and the common α-subunit (Cga), whereas Six6 is expressed in a mature gonadotrope cell line and ..
  22. McDonald E, Smith J, Cederberg R, White B. Divergent activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene promoter among genetic lines of pigs is partially conferred by nuclear factor (NF)-B, specificity protein (SP)1-like and GATA-4 binding sites. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2016;14:36 pubmed publisher
    Binding of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to its receptor (GnRHR) on gonadotropes within the anterior pituitary gland is essential to reproduction...
  23. Haas J, Ophir L, Barzilay E, Machtinger R, Yung Y, Orvieto R, et al. Standard human chorionic gonadotropin versus double trigger for final oocyte maturation results in different granulosa cells gene expressions: a pilot study. Fertil Steril. 2016;106:653-659.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..genes in granulosa cells (GCs) of patients triggered with hCG compared with patients triggered with GnRH agonist and hCG (double trigger) for final oocyte maturation...
  24. Brown J, Xie J, Brieño Enriquez M, Sones J, Angulo C, Boehm U, et al. Sex- and Age-Specific Impact of ERK Loss Within the Pituitary Gonadotrope in Mice. Endocrinology. 2018;159:1264-1276 pubmed publisher
    ..subunits) were reduced in pituitaries at estrus in ERKdko females, and the postcastration response to endogenous GnRH hyperstimulation was blunted...
  25. Cordeddu L, Bergvall M, Sand E, Roth B, Papadaki E, Li L, et al. Severe gastrointestinal dysmotility developed after treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2015;50:291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..complaints after treatment with GnRH analogs, to describe the expression of antibodies against progonadoliberin-2, GnRH1, GnRH receptor (GnRHR), luteinizing hormone (LH), and LH receptor in serum in these patients, and to search for ..
  26. Poulsen C, Mortensen M, Koechling W, Sørensen C, Bentzon J. Differences in Hypercholesterolemia and Atherogenesis Induced by Common Androgen Deprivation Therapies in Male Mice. J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    Treatment of prostate cancer often involves androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor agonists, GnRH receptor antagonists, or orchiectomy...
  27. Silveira L, Trarbach E, Latronico A. Genetics basis for GnRH-dependent pubertal disorders in humans. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;324:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in GNRH1, KISS1R and GNRHR genes cause normosmic IHH, interfering with the normal synthesis, secretion or action of GnRH...
  28. Cortés Campos C, Letelier J, Ceriani R, Whitlock K. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Biol Open. 2015;4:1077-86 pubmed publisher
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates...
  29. Suwansa Ard S, Zhao M, Thongbuakaew T, Chansela P, Ventura T, Cummins S, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-related peptide in the female prawn. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;236:70-82 pubmed publisher
    ..a gene transcript that encoded a precursor protein with striking similarity to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)...
  30. Turan I, Hutchins B, Hacihamdioglu B, Kotan L, Gurbuz F, Ulubay A, et al. CCDC141 Mutations in Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:1816-1825 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that CCDC141 knockdown leads to impaired migration of GnRH neurons but not of olfactory receptor neurons...
  31. Lalani S, Black A, Hodge M, Tulandi T, Chen I. Dienogest Therapy as a Treatment for Catamenial Pneumothorax: Case Report and Review of Hormonal Options. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2017;39:764-768 pubmed publisher
    ..For women with recurrent catamenial pneumothorax, dienogest may be an effective hormonal treatment option and alternative to long-term GnRH agonist therapy for long-term suppression.
  32. Morote J, Comas I, Planas J, Maldonado X, Celma A, Placer J, et al. Serum Testosterone Levels in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Agonist Therapy. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2018;16:e491-e496 pubmed publisher
    ..levels measured using LC MSMS and CLIAs in 126 patients with PCa undergoing luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy. The median serum testosterone level was 14.0 ng/dL (range, 2.0-67.0 ng/dL) with LC MSMS and 31...
  33. Sancho J, Delgado V, Valero M, Soteras M, Amate V, Carrascosa A. Hysteroscopic myomectomy outcomes after 3-month treatment with either Ulipristal Acetate or GnRH analogues: a retrospective comparative study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2016;198:127-30 pubmed publisher
    ..To confirm that pre-treatment with UPA is as safe and effective an option as pre-treatment with GnRH analogues, considered the gold standard...
  34. Say E, Çoban S, Nak Y, Nak D, Kara U, White S, et al. Fertility of Holstein heifers after two doses of PGF2? in 5-day CO-Synch progesterone-based synchronization protocol. Theriogenology. 2016;86:988-993 pubmed publisher
    ..All heifers received a CIDR (1.38 g of progesterone) and GnRH (10 ?g IM of Buserelin [Turkey] or gonadorelin hydrochloride [US]) on Day 0...
  35. Campanile G, Neglia G, D Occhio M. Embryonic and fetal mortality in river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Theriogenology. 2016;86:207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with P4, hCG, and GnRH on Day 5 after mating increases P4 in circulation and reduces early embryonic mortality in circumstances where ..
  36. Navarro V. Interactions between kisspeptins and neurokinin B. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;784:325-47 pubmed publisher
    ..mediated by autosynaptic inputs of NKB on KNDy neurons to induce the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in a kisspeptin--dependent manner, with the coordinated actions of other neuroendocrine factors, such as dynorphin,..
  37. Behrouzi A, Colazo M, Ambrose D. Alterations in bone morphogenetic protein 15, growth differentiation factor 9, and gene expression in granulosa cells in preovulatory follicles of dairy cows given porcine LH. Theriogenology. 2016;85:1249-57 pubmed publisher
    In a previous work, using porcine LH (pLH) in lieu of GnRH for synchronizing ovulation in dairy cows improved pregnancy rates without increasing plasma progesterone concentrations after ovulation...
  38. Santos V, Carvalho P, Maia C, Carneiro B, Valenza A, Crump P, et al. Adding a second prostaglandin F2α treatment to but not reducing the duration of a PRID-Synch protocol increases fertility after resynchronization of ovulation in lactating Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:3869-3879 pubmed publisher
    ..cows (n=821) were assigned randomly at a nonpregnancy diagnosis (d 0) to 3 resynchronization protocols: (1) GnRH, d 0; PGF2α, d 7; GnRH, d 9.5 (7D1PGF); (2) GnRH, d 0; PGF2α, d 7; PGF2α, d 8; GnRH, d 9...
  39. Heppner K, Baquero A, Bennett C, Lindsley S, Kirigiti M, Bennett B, et al. GLP-1R Signaling Directly Activates Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Action in Brain Slices but Does not Rescue Luteinizing Hormone Inhibition in Ovariectomized Mice During Negative Energy Balance. Eneuro. 2017;4: pubmed publisher
    ..axis, as they regulate the basal pulsatile release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)...
  40. Nikolaou M, Androutsopoulos G, Michail G, Papadopoulos V, Adonakis G, Decavalas G. Microwave endometrial ablation after endometrial curettage for the management of heavy menstrual bleeding. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2015;42:469-72 pubmed
    ..The authors chose endometrial curettage rather than hormonal pretreatment (GnRH analogs, danazol) for endometrial preparation...
  41. Tafi E, Leone Roberti Maggiore U, Alessandri F, Bogliolo S, Gardella B, Vellone V, et al. Advances in pharmacotherapy for treating endometriosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2015;16:2465-83 pubmed publisher
    ..most recently proposed for endometriosis will be described in detail, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and the flexible extended combined oral contraceptive...
  42. Satou K, Mochimaru Y, Nakakura T, Kusada T, Negishi J, Musha S, et al. Easy detection of hormone secretion from LβT2 cells by using Gaussia luciferase. J Reprod Dev. 2017;63:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..The production and secretion of gonadotropins are mainly regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)...
  43. Liu Y, Tang H, Xie R, Li S, Liu X, Lin H, et al. Genetic Evidence for Multifactorial Control of the Reproductive Axis in Zebrafish. Endocrinology. 2017;158:604-611 pubmed publisher
    It is generally believed that kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are required for reproduction in vertebrates...
  44. Huang H, Liu Y, Li Y, Kuo H, Wang C. Comparison of three different hemostatic devices in laparoscopic myomectomy. J Chin Med Assoc. 2018;81:178-182 pubmed publisher
    ..scalpel groups had more numbers of removed fibroids, heavier fibroids removed, and higher rate of pretreatment with GnRH agonist (p < 0.001). These patients also had higher amount of intraoperative bleeding (p = 0...
  45. Gilardino A, Catalano F, Ruffinatti F, Alberto G, Nilius B, Antoniotti S, et al. Interaction of SiO2 nanoparticles with neuronal cells: Ionic mechanisms involved in the perturbation of calcium homeostasis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015;66:101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, by using two neuronal cell lines (GT1-7 and GN11 cells), derived from gonadotropin hormone releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, we describe the mechanisms involved in the perturbation of calcium signaling, a key controller of ..
  46. Ye M, Deng X, Zhu X, Xue M. [Clinical study of high intensity focused ultrasound ablation combined with GnRH-a and LNG-IUS for the treatment of adenomyosis]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2016;51:643-649 pubmed publisher
    ..treated by high intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU)ablation combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist(GnRH-a)and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system(LNG-IUS)...
  47. Mijiddorj T, Kanasaki H, Sukhbaatar U, Oride A, Hara T, Kyo S. Mutual regulation by GnRH and kisspeptin of their receptor expression and its impact on the gene expression of gonadotropin subunits. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;246:382-389 pubmed publisher
    ..role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release into the portal circulation, with the subsequent release of gonadotropins...
  48. Meng X, Zhang X, Li J, Liu P. Identification and comparative profiling of ovarian and testicular microRNAs in the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. Gene. 2018;640:6-13 pubmed publisher
    ..were significantly enriched in 14 KEGG pathways, including several pathways important in reproduction, such as GnRH signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway, ovarian steroidogenesis and TGF-beta signaling pathway...
  49. Chu F, Sartor O, Gomella L, Rudo T, Somerville M, Hereghty B, et al. A randomised, double-blind study comparing the addition of bicalutamide with or without dutasteride to GnRH analogue therapy in men with non-metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2015;51:1555-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In men with non-metastatic CRPC, adding dutasteride to bicalutamide did not significantly prolong TDP. Prospective data are provided concerning the common practice of using bicalutamide in this setting. ..
  50. Mounce G, McVeigh E, Turner K, Child T. Randomized, controlled pilot trial of natural versus hormone replacement therapy cycles in frozen embryo replacement in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 2015;104:915-920.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..March 2010 and July 2012 into one of two standard FER treatment groups: natural (n = 80) menstrual (Natural) or GnRH agonist/HRT (n = 79) cycles...
  51. Sinai Talaulikar V. Medical therapy for fibroids: An overview. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2018;46:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..therapies used for uterine fibroids include tranexamic acid, NSAIDs, contraceptive steroids, progesterone coil, GnRH analogues, aromatase inhibitors, SERMs and progesterone receptor modulators...
  52. Morote J, Tabernero A, Alvarez Ossorio J, Ciria J, Domínguez Escrig J, Vazquez F, et al. Cognitive function in patients on androgen suppression: A prospective, multicentric study. Actas Urol Esp. 2018;42:114-120 pubmed publisher
    ..CP) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) after 6 months of treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogues...
  53. Yu C, Ding B, Zhang X, Deng X, Deng K, Cheng Z, et al. Targeted iron nanoparticles with platinum-(IV) prodrugs and anti-EZH2 siRNA show great synergy in combating drug resistance in vitro and in vivo. Biomaterials. 2018;155:112-123 pubmed publisher
    ..cis, trans-diamminedichlorodisuccinato-platinum-(IV), namely Pt(IV)) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) targeting polypeptides...
  54. Sugiyama M, Imai A, Furui T, Tamaya T. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone retards doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and serine/threonine phosphatase inhibition in ovarian cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2005;13:813-7 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to determine whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) affects the membrane PP2A-associated apoptosis and the enzyme activity in ovarian cancer cells...
  55. Li X, Shao B, Lin C, O Byrne K, Lin Y. Stress-induced inhibition of LH pulses in female rats: role of GABA in arcuate nucleus. J Mol Endocrinol. 2015;55:9-19 pubmed publisher
    Stress exerts profound inhibitory effects on reproductive function by suppression of the pulsatile release of GnRH and therefore LH...
  56. Francou B, Paul C, Amazit L, Cartes A, Bouvattier C, Albarel F, et al. Prevalence of KISS1 Receptor mutations in a series of 603 patients with normosmic congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and characterization of novel mutations: a single-centre study. Hum Reprod. 2016;31:1363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The GNRHR, tachykinin receptor 3 (TACR3), gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), tachykinin 3 (TAC3) and KISS1 genes were also sequenced...
  57. Perry G. Factors affecting puberty in replacement beef heifers. Theriogenology. 2016;86:373-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As puberty approaches, a progressive decrease in the negative feedback of estradiol on GnRH secretion allows increased pulse frequency of LH, thus stimulating follicular growth and increased estradiol ..
  58. Espigares F, Rocha A, Gomez A, Carrillo M, Zanuy S. Photoperiod modulates the reproductive axis of European sea bass through regulation of kiss1 and gnrh2 neuronal expression. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;240:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..that AP and LL are able to entrain the rhythms of both kiss1 and gnrh2 mRNA levels in the brain, while kiss2 and gnrh1 mRNA expression does not seem to be directly affected by the photoperiod, at least during testicular growth...
  59. Siristatidis C, Salamalekis G, Vogiatzi P, Vrantza T, Matsota P, Pergialiotis V, et al. Estradiol Pretreatment in an Ultrashort GnRH Combined with a GnRH Antagonist Protocol in A Cohort of Poor Responders Undergoing IVF/ICSI: A Case-control Study. In Vivo. 2016;30:945-950 pubmed
    ..results of the use of estradiol pretreatment in a combination of an ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and antagonist protocol, in an attempt to improve the clinical outcomes in "poor responders", according to ..
  60. Tannus S, Turki R, Cohen Y, Son W, Shavit T, Dahan M. Reproductive outcomes after a single dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist compared with human chorionic gonadotropin for the induction of final oocyte maturation in hyper-responder women aged 35-40 years. Fertil Steril. 2017;107:1323-1328.e2 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the reproductive outcomes after the use of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) compared with hCG for the induction of final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist cycles performed in hyper-responder women aged 35-40 years...
  61. Ozgur K, Bulut H, Berkkanoglu M, Humaidan P, Coetzee K. Frozen embryo transfer can be performed in the cycle immediately following the freeze-all cycle. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2018;35:135-142 pubmed publisher
    ..blastocyst transfers were performed in artificial FET cycles, using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist downregulation and oral estrogen endometrial preparation. The primary outcome measure was LB...
  62. Karami A, Romano N, Galloway T, Hamzah H. Virgin microplastics cause toxicity and modulate the impacts of phenanthrene on biomarker responses in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Environ Res. 2016;151:58-70 pubmed publisher
    ..and globulin, and the transcription levels of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2), and liver glycogen stores...
  63. Karacan M, Erdem E, Usta A, Arvas A, Cebi Z, Çamlıbel T. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist triggering with concomitant administration of low doses of human chorionic gonadotropin or a freeze-all strategy in high responders. Saudi Med J. 2017;38:586-591 pubmed publisher
    ..ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rates of 2 different approaches using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist triggering in high responder women...
  64. Thomsen F, Sandin F, Garmo H, Lissbrant I, Ahlgren G, Van Hemelrijck M, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonists, Orchiectomy, and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Semi-ecologic, Nationwide, Population-based Study. Eur Urol. 2017;72:920-928 pubmed publisher
    In observational studies, men with prostate cancer treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists had a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to men who had undergone orchiectomy...
  65. Taroc E, Prasad A, Lin J, Forni P. The terminal nerve plays a prominent role in GnRH-1 neuronal migration independent from proper olfactory and vomeronasal connections to the olfactory bulbs. Biol Open. 2017;6:1552-1568 pubmed publisher
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1) neurons (GnRH-1 ns) migrate from the developing olfactory pit into the hypothalamus during embryonic development...
  66. Tian S, Egertová M, Elphick M. Functional Characterization of Paralogous Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Type and Corazonin-Type Neuropeptides in an Echinoderm. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2017;8:259 pubmed publisher
    Homologs of the vertebrate neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have been identified in invertebrates, including the insect neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ)...
  67. Takács S, Bardóczi Z, Skrapits K, Göcz B, Váczi V, Maglóczky Z, et al. Post mortem single-cell labeling with DiI and immunoelectron microscopy unveil the fine structure of kisspeptin neurons in humans. Brain Struct Funct. 2018;223:2143-2156 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in the central regulation of fertility; these cells regulate pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and mediate sex steroid feedback signals to GnRH neurons...
  68. Briski K, Shrestha P. Hindbrain estrogen receptor-beta antagonism normalizes reproductive and counter-regulatory hormone secretion in hypoglycemic steroid-primed ovariectomized female rats. Neuroscience. 2016;331:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..PHTPP regularized LH release, but not preoptic GnRH-I precursor protein expression in insulin-injected rats, and reversed hypoglycemic stimulation of glucagon and ..
  69. Beymer M, Henningsen J, Bahougne T, Simonneaux V. The role of kisspeptin and RFRP in the circadian control of female reproduction. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;438:89-99 pubmed publisher
    ..reproduction with the finding that two hypothalamic Arg-Phe-amide peptides, kisspeptin (Kp) and RFRP, regulate GnRH neurons...
  70. Mendonça L, Mantelo F, Stevenson J. Fertility of lactating dairy cows treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone at AI, 5 days after AI, or both, during summer heat stress. Theriogenology. 2017;91:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..after AI of lactating dairy cows under heat stress conditions treated with 100 ?g gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at AI, 5 d after AI, or both. Lactating Holstein cows from two herds were enrolled in the study during summer...
  71. Gárriz Á, Del Fresno P, Miranda L. Exposure to E2 and EE2 environmental concentrations affect different components of the Brain-Pituitary-Gonadal axis in pejerrey fish (Odontesthes bonariensis). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2017;144:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..First, it was observed that at the brain level, gnrh-III and cyp19a1b mRNA expression increased significantly in the exposed fish...
  72. Van Do N, Duc Khue P, Tien Thanh K, Thi Hien N, Kim G, Kim K, et al. Measurement of isomeric yield ratios of 99m,g;101m,g;102m,gRh in the natPd(γ,pxn) reactions with the bremsstrahlung end-point energies of 50-70MeV. Appl Radiat Isot. 2017;128:148-153 pubmed publisher
    ..The new experimental results are compared with the theoretical values of the TALYS-1.6 code. ..
  73. Bhasin S, Woodhouse L, Casaburi R, Singh A, Bhasin D, Berman N, et al. Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001;281:E1172-81 pubmed
    ..randomized to one of five groups to receive monthly injections of a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, to suppress endogenous testosterone secretion, and weekly injections of 25, 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg of ..
  74. Duncan S, Kadaria D. A Woman with a Lung Mass and Multiple Pulmonary Nodules. Am J Case Rep. 2015;16:367-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was started on leuprolide (a GnRH agonist). Follow-up imaging showed decrease in size of lesions...
  75. Wong B, Wang X, Oehninger S, Gibbons W, Dong K. Estrogen down-regulates GnRH gene expression in human placental cytotrophoblast cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;213:199-210 pubmed
    This study aims at investigating and characterizing GnRH gene expression and regulation in human placental cytotrophoblasts by estradiol. RT-PCR analysis demonstrates that the cytotrophoblasts expressed the pro-GnRH gene...
  76. Silva A, Bezerra F, Glanzner W, Dos Santos J, Dau A, Rovani M, et al. mRNA expression profile of the TNF-? system in LH-induced bovine preovulatory follicles and effects of TNF-? on gene expression, ultrastructure and expansion of cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured in vitro. Theriogenology. 2017;90:1-10 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated (1) the effects of in vivo GnRH treatment on mRNA expression of TNF-? system (TNF-?, TNFR1 and TNFR2) in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory follicles, (2) the in vitro influence of gonadotropins on mRNA ..
  77. Zheng J, Mao J, Xu H, Wang X, Huang B, Liu Z, et al. Pulsatile GnRH Therapy May Restore Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Testis Axis Function in Patients With Congenital Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency: A Prospective, Self-Controlled Trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017;102:2291-2300 pubmed publisher
    The effectiveness of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) therapy in patients with congenital combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CCPHD) has not been investigated because of the limited number of patients, as well as these ..
  78. Conte B, Poggio F, Del Mastro L. Luteininzing hormone releasing hormones analogs in combination with tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of premenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017;18:1357-1362 pubmed publisher
    ..To date, no clear recommendations are available for the choice between LHRHa+tamoxifen and LHRH+AI...
  79. Prapas Y, Ravanos K, Petousis S, Panagiotidis Y, Papatheodorou A, Margioula Siarkou C, et al. GnRH antagonist administered twice the day before hCG trigger combined with a step-down protocol may prevent OHSS in IVF/ICSI antagonist cycles at risk for OHSS without affecting the reproductive outcomes: a prospective randomized control trial. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2017;34:1537-1545 pubmed publisher
    ..administered the day before hCG trigger is effective in preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in GnRH antagonist IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles at risk for OHSS...
  80. Dozie Nwachukwu S, Obayemi J, Danyuo Y, Anuku N, Odusanya O, Malatesta K, et al. A comparative study of the adhesion of biosynthesized gold and conjugated gold/prodigiosin nanoparticles to triple negative breast cancer cells. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2017;28:143 pubmed publisher
    ..Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to study the adhesion between the synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)/LHRH-conjugated AuNPs and triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells), as well as the adhesion between LHRH-..
  81. Schneider M, Spritzer P, Soll B, Fontanari A, Carneiro M, Tovar Moll F, et al. Brain Maturation, Cognition and Voice Pattern in a Gender Dysphoria Case under Pubertal Suppression. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017;11:528 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a longitudinal evaluation of a pubertal transgender girl undergoing hormonal treatment with GnRH analog...
  82. Ikeda M, Taga M, Kurogi K, Minaguchi H. Gene expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, but not its receptor, in human endometrium and decidua. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1997;135:165-8 pubmed
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been reported to exist in extrahypothalamic tissues such as the placenta, gonads and mammary glands...
  83. Huang W, Acosta Martinez M, Horton T, Levine J. Fasting-induced suppression of LH secretion does not require activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E1439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..support the hypothesis that K(ATP) channels are linked to the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release but are not obligatory for mediating the effects of fasting on GnRH/LH secretion...
  84. Canzian F, Kaaks R, Cox D, Henderson K, Henderson B, Berg C, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of the GNRH1 and GNRHR genes and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). BMC Cancer. 2009;9:257 pubmed publisher
    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GNRH1) triggers the release of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary...
  85. Bouligand J, Guiochon Mantel A, Young J. [GNRH1 mutation in familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism]. Med Sci (Paris). 2009;25:791-3 pubmed publisher
  86. Cheung L, Leung P, Wong A. Cadherin switching and activation of p120 catenin signaling are mediators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone to promote tumor cell migration and invasion in ovarian cancer. Oncogene. 2010;29:2427-40 pubmed publisher
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor expression is often elevated in ovarian cancer, but its potential role in ovarian cancer metastasis has just begun to be revealed...
  87. Bouligand J, Ghervan C, Guiochon Mantel A, Young J. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and GNRH1 mutations in mice and humans. Front Horm Res. 2010;39:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery in 1977 of a hypogonadal mouse lacking GnRH (hpg mice) and, in 1986, that the gnrh1 gene was deleted in this mouse, suggested that GNRH1 mutations might also cause human congenital idiopathic (or ..
  88. Geller S, Kolasa E, Tillet Y, Duittoz A, Vaudin P. Olfactory ensheathing cells form the microenvironment of migrating GnRH-1 neurons during mouse development. Glia. 2013;61:550-66 pubmed publisher
    During development, GnRH-1 neurons differentiate extracerebraly from the nasal placode and migrate from the vomeronasal organ to the forebrain along vomeronasal and terminal nerves...
  89. Ye H, Liu X, Sun J, Zhu S, Zhu Y, Chang S. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of LHRHa-targeted brucea javanica oil liposomes for ovarian cancer. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:831 pubmed
    ..Our experiment suggests that LHRHa-BJOLs may be a useful targeted drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer. ..
  90. Shahjahan M, Kitahashi T, Ando H. Temperature affects sexual maturation through the control of kisspeptin, kisspeptin receptor, GnRH and GTH subunit gene expression in the grass puffer during the spawning season. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;243:138-145 pubmed publisher
    ..of genes encoding kisspeptin (kiss2), kisspeptin receptor (kiss2r) and three gonadotropin-releasing hormones (gnrh1, gnrh2 and gnrh3) in the brain and genes encoding gonadotropin (GTH) subunits (gpa, fshb and lhb) in the pituitary ..
  91. Messi E, Pimpinelli F, Andrè V, Rigobello C, Gotti C, Maggi R. The alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is involved in a direct inhibitory effect of nicotine on GnRH release: In vitro studies. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2018;460:209-218 pubmed publisher
    ..it is not clear whether nicotine may directly modulate the release of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)...