Gene Symbol: GnRH II
Description: gonadotropin releasing hormone 2
Alias: GnRH-II, LH-RHII, progonadoliberin-2, GnRH-associated peptide 2, GnRH-associated peptide II, Gonadoliberin II, Gonadoliberin-2, luliberin II, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone II, progonadoliberin II
Species: human
Products:     GnRH II

Top Publications

  1. Gründker C, Günthert A, Millar R, Emons G. Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone II (GnRH-II) receptor in human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells and effects of GnRH-II on tumor cell proliferation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:1427-30 pubmed
    ..001). In the GnRH-II receptor positive but GnRH-I receptor negative ovarian cancer cell line SK-OV-3 native GnRH-II but not GnRH-I agonist Triptorelin had antiproliferative effects. ..
  2. Fister S, Günthert A, Aicher B, Paulini K, Emons G, Gründker C. GnRH-II antagonists induce apoptosis in human endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer cells via activation of stress-induced MAPKs p38 and JNK and proapoptotic protein Bax. Cancer Res. 2009;69:6473-81 pubmed publisher
  3. Neill J. GnRH and GnRH receptor genes in the human genome. Endocrinology. 2002;143:737-43 pubmed
    ..Of the four GnRHs reportedly expressed in mammals, only GnRH I (mammalian GnRH) and GnRH II (chicken GnRH II) genes were identified in the human genome...
  4. Leung P, Cheng C, Zhu X. Multi-factorial role of GnRH-I and GnRH-II in the human ovary. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;202:145-53 pubmed
  5. Limonta P, Moretti R, Montagnani Marelli M, Motta M. The biology of gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone: role in the control of tumor growth and progression in humans. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2003;24:279-95 pubmed
    ..The specific biological functions of GnRH-II in humans are presently under investigation. ..
  6. Chou C, Beristain A, MacCalman C, Leung P. Cellular localization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) I and GnRH II in first-trimester human placenta and decidua. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:1459-66 pubmed
    ..evidence to suggest that the classical form of GnRH (GnRH I) and the second mammalian form of this hormone, GnRH II, play regulatory roles in human implantation and placentation...
  7. Liu J, MacCalman C, Wang Y, Leung P. Promotion of human trophoblasts invasion by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) I and GnRH II via distinct signaling pathways. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1014-21 pubmed publisher
    The potential roles of GnRH I and GnRH II have been assigned in promoting the invasive capacity of human trophoblasts by regulating matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9, type I tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase, and urokinase ..
  8. White R, Eisen J, Kasten T, Fernald R. Second gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:305-9 pubmed
    ..Molecular phylogenetic analysis shows that this second gene is likely the result of a duplication before the appearance of vertebrates, and predicts the existence of a third GnRH form in humans and other vertebrates. ..
  9. Chen A, Ganor Y, Rahimipour S, Ben Aroya N, Koch Y, Levite M. The neuropeptides GnRH-II and GnRH-I are produced by human T cells and trigger laminin receptor gene expression, adhesion, chemotaxis and homing to specific organs. Nat Med. 2002;8:1421-6 pubmed

More Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. Islami D, Bischof P, Chardonnens D. Possible interactions between leptin, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH-I and II) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003;110:169-75 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we observe that leptin has a significant stimulatory effect on hCG pulsatility. ..
  2. Wu H, Wang H, Huang H, Lai C, Lee C, Soong Y, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the invasiveness of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:300 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals, expression of GnRH-II is higher than GnRH-I in reproductive tissues. Here, we examined the effect of a GnRH-II agonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer therapy...
  3. Qin Q, Liu Q, Zhou Y, Wang C, Qin H, Zhao C, et al. Differential expression of HPG-axis genes in autotetraploids derived from red crucian carp Carassius auratus red var., ♀ × blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala, ♂. J Fish Biol. 2018;93:1082-1089 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the reproductive development of autotetraploid fish and is expected to be of great significance for subsequent research on polyploidization. ..
  4. Ding H, Liu M, Zhou C, You X, Suo Z, Zhang C, et al. Expression and regulation of GnRHR2 gene and testosterone secretion mediated by GnRH2 and GnRHR2 within porcine testes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019;190:161-172 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also explores the regulation mechanism of testosterone secretion mediated by GnRH2 and GnRHR2 in porcine Leydig cells. ..
  5. Chaube R, Rawat A, Sharma S, Senthilkumaran B, Bhat S, Joy K. Molecular cloning and characterization of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 precursor cDNA in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: expression profile and regulation by ovarian steroids. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of the gnrh2 mRNA in the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis and its regulation by gonadal steroids suggest that Gnrh2 may have a reproductive role in the catfish. ..
  6. Marvel M, Spicer O, Wong T, Zmora N, Zohar Y. Knockout of Gnrh2 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) reveals its roles in regulating feeding behavior and oocyte quality. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest a role for Gnrh2 in controlling satiation in zebrafish along with a minor role in maintaining optimal oocyte quality in females. ..
  7. Cao J, Wang G, Wang T, Chen J, Wenjing G, Wu P, et al. Copper caused reproductive endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2019;211:124-136 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that Cu adversely affects the reproductive endocrine system in zebrafish and could pose a potential threat to fish populations inhabiting Cu-contaminated waters. ..
  8. Amano M, Amiya N, Yokoyama T. Immunohistochemical localization of GnRH-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers in the nerve ganglion of Perinereis aibuhitensis (Annelida: Polychaeta). Acta Histochem. 2019;121:234-239 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that mwGnRH is synthesized in the cerebral ganglion, is transported through the subpharyngeal ganglion and the ventral nerve cord, and functions either as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. ..
  9. Rodriguez R, Felip A, Zanuy S, Carrillo M. Advanced puberty triggered by bi-weekly changes in reproductive factors during the photolabile period in a male teleost fish, Dicentrarchus labrax L. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2019;275:82-93 pubmed publisher
  10. Shao Y, Tseng Y, Chang C, Yan H, Hwang P, Borg B. GnRH mRNA levels in male three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, under different reproductive conditions. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2015;180:6-17 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate this, full-length gnrh2 (chicken GnRH II) and gnrh3 (salmon GnRH) sequences of male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), which are ..
  11. Amano M, Amiya N, Okubo K, Yamashita J, Kuriu A, Yasuta A, et al. Localization of three forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the brain and pituitary of the self-fertilizing fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that GnRH1 and possibly GnRH3 are responsible for gonadal maturation through LH secretion and that all three forms of GnRH function as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in the brain of K. marmoratus. ..
  12. Honji R, Caneppele D, Pandolfi M, Lo Nostro F, Moreira R. Characterization of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone system in the Neotropical teleost, Steindachneridion parahybae during the annual reproductive cycle in captivity. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2019;273:73-85 pubmed publisher
    ..parahybae females in captivity, whereas GnRH2 may act as a neuromodulator and/or neurotransmitter. ..
  13. Busby E, Soeta S, Sherwood N, Johnston S. Molecular analysis of the koala reproductive hormones and their receptors: gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone β and luteinising hormone β with localisation of GnRH. J Neuroendocrinol. 2014;26:870-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, GnRH1 and 2 are shown by immunohistochemistry to be expressed as proteins in the brain. ..
  14. Banerjee S, Shahin S, Chaturvedi C. Age dependent variations in the deep brain photoreceptors (DBPs), GnRH-GnIH system and testicular steroidogenesis in Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. Exp Gerontol. 2018;108:7-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, it can be concluded from our findings that the testicular steroidogenesis and its neuroendocrine regulation varies with age, in Japanese quail. ..
  15. London S, Volkoff H. Cloning and effects of fasting on the brain expression levels of appetite-regulators and reproductive hormones in glass catfish (Kryptopterus vitreolus). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2019;228:94-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results suggest that fasting affects the expression of peptides involved in both feeding and reproduction, and provides new insights on the endocrine mechanisms that regulate feeding and reproduction in catfish. ..
  16. Urbanski H. Selective targeting of GnRH-II neurons to block ovulation. Contraception. 2015;91:423-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective silencing of GnRH-II neurons in women could serve as a novel contraceptive, by blocking ovulation while leaving the rest of the reproductive axis relatively unperturbed. ..
  17. Lumayno S, Ohga H, Selvaraj S, Nyuji M, Yamaguchi A, Matsuyama M. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of pituitary GnRH receptor in a commercial scombroid fish, chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;247:143-151 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the cloned receptor is likely involved in the regulation of pubertal onset in this species. Therefore, we have designated the receptor cmGnRHR1. ..
  18. Lin W, Guo H, Li Y, Wang L, Zhang D, Hou J, et al. Single and combined exposure of microcystin-LR and nitrite results in reproductive endocrine disruption via hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis. Chemosphere. 2018;211:1137-1146 pubmed publisher
  19. Crago J, Schlenk D. The effect of bifenthrin on the dopaminergic pathway in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquat Toxicol. 2015;162:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the estrogenic-effects of bifenthrin may result in part from changes in signaling within the dopaminergic pathway, but that other feedback pathways may also be involved. ..
  20. Chianese R, Ciaramella V, Fasano S, Pierantoni R, Meccariello R. Kisspeptin drives germ cell progression in the anuran amphibian Pelophylax esculentus: a study carried out in ex vivo testes. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;211:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Kp-10 modulated the expression of pcna, erβ, gnrhs and gnrhrs, inducing the progression of the spermatogenesis. ..
  21. Takahashi A, Islam M, Abe H, Okubo K, Akazome Y, Kaneko T, et al. Morphological analysis of the early development of telencephalic and diencephalic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal systems in enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic medaka lines. J Comp Neurol. 2016;524:896-913 pubmed publisher
  22. Yang G, Song Q, Sun C, Qin J, Jia J, Yuan X, et al. Ctrp9 and adiponectin receptors in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and effects on reproductive genes. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;265:160-173 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data provides novel data indicating, for the first time, a regulatory effect of CTRP9 on teleost reproduction. ..
  23. Espigares F, Carrillo M, Gómez A, Zanuy S. The forebrain-midbrain acts as functional endocrine signaling pathway of Kiss2/Gnrh1 system controlling the gonadotroph activity in the teleost fish European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Biol Reprod. 2015;92:70 pubmed publisher
    ..This hypothesis was confirmed by a surge of plasma Lh in response to Kiss2, which presumably has a strong stimulatory effect on testosterone release, and thus on sperm quality parameters. ..
  24. Paullada Salmerón J, Cowan M, Aliaga Guerrero M, Morano F, Zanuy S, Muñoz Cueto J. Gonadotropin Inhibitory Hormone Down-Regulates the Brain-Pituitary Reproductive Axis of Male European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Biol Reprod. 2016;94:121 pubmed publisher
  25. Desaulniers A, Cederberg R, Mills G, Lents C, White B. Production of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 receptor knockdown (GNRHR2 KD) swine line. Transgenic Res. 2017;26:567-575 pubmed publisher
    ..001) by 69% in testicular tissue from mature GNRHR2 KD (n = 5) versus littermate control (n = 4) animals. These swine represent the first genetically-engineered model to elucidate the function of GNRH2 and its receptor in mammals. ..
  26. Gharaei A, Mahboudi F, Esmaili Sari A, Edalat R, Adeli A, Keyvanshokooh S. Molecular cloning of cDNA of mammalian and chicken II gonadotropin-releasing hormones (mGnRHs and cGnRH-II) in the beluga (Huso huso) and the disruptive effect of methylmercury on gene expression. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2010;36:803-817 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These findings demonstrate a disruptive role of MeHg on the level of brain mGnRH and cGnRH-II mRNAs in immature beluga. ..
  27. Di Yorio M, Pérez Sirkin D, Muñoz Cueto J, Delgadin T, Tsutsui K, Somoza G, et al. Morphological relationship between GnIH and GnRH neurons in the brain of the neotropical cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2019;273:144-151 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, new clues were provided to investigate the role of nucleus olfacto-retinalis cells and putative GnIH and GnRH3 interactions in the modulation of the reproductive network in teleost fish. ..
  28. Faheem M, Jahan N, Khaliq S, Lone K. Modulation of brain kisspeptin expression after bisphenol-A exposure in a teleost fish, Catla catla. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2019;45:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that BPA exposure can disrupt organization of the kisspeptin signaling pathways. This neuroendocrine disruption may be the underlying mechanism by which a suite of reproductive abnormalities are induced. ..
  29. Northcutt R, Muske L. Multiple embryonic origins of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) immunoreactive neurons. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1994;78:279-90 pubmed
    ..against different molecular forms of GnRH support the interpretation that GnRH-ir neurons of placodal origin express mammalian GnRH, whereas GnRH-ir neurons of non-placodal origin, in the posterior tubercle, express chicken GnRH II.
  30. Morin S, Decatur W, Breton T, Marquis T, Hayes M, Berlinsky D, et al. Identification and expression of GnRH2 and GnRH3 in the black sea bass (Centropristis striata), a hermaphroditic teleost. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2015;41:383-95 pubmed publisher
  31. Liang Y, Huang G, Ying G, Liu S, Jiang Y, Liu S, et al. A time-course transcriptional kinetics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes in zebrafish eleutheroembryos after exposure to norgestrel. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015;34:112-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the overall results imply that the transcriptional changes in zebrafish eleutheroembryos may pose a potential effect on embryonic development, in particular in the brain and gonadogenesis. ..
  32. Branco G, Melo A, Ricci J, Digmayer M, de Jesus L, Habibi H, et al. Effects of GnRH and the dual regulatory actions of GnIH in the pituitary explants and brain slices of Astyanax altiparanae males. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2019;273:209-217 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provided basic information on endocrine regulation of A. altiparanae reproduction, and the obtained results will expand our knowledge, improving the reproductive management of this economically important freshwater species. ..
  33. Piazza Y, Pandolfi M, Da Cuña R, Genovese G, Lo Nostro F. Endosulfan affects GnRH cells in sexually differentiated juveniles of the perciform Cichlasoma dimerus. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2015;116:150-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to ES altered nuclear area, cell area and nucleus/cytoplasm ratio of GnRH II neurons, and cell and nuclear area and diameter of GnRH III neurons...
  34. Zhang Q, Li Y, Liu Z, Chen Q. Reproductive toxicity of inorganic mercury exposure in adult zebrafish: Histological damage, oxidative stress, and alterations of sex hormone and gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Aquat Toxicol. 2016;177:417-24 pubmed publisher
  35. Feng K, Luo H, Hou M, Li Y, Chen J, Zhu Z, et al. Alternative splicing of GnRH2 and GnRH2-associated peptide plays roles in gonadal differentiation of the rice field eel, Monopterus albus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;267:9-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that both GAP2 and New GAP2 play a crucial role in inducing expression changes of sex-differentiation related genes, and may be involved in the gonadal development and sex reversal in the rice field eel. ..
  36. Selvaraj S, Kitano H, Ohga H, Yamaguchi A, Matsuyama M. Expression changes of mRNAs encoding kisspeptins and their receptors and gonadotropin-releasing hormones during early development and gonadal sex differentiation periods in the brain of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;222:20-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest possible involvement of Kiss-KissR-GnRH systems during early development and gonadal sex differentiation in the chub mackerel. ..
  37. Breton T, DiMaggio M, Sower S, Berlinsky D. Brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (gnrh2 and gnrh3) expression during reproductive development and sex change in black sea bass (Centropristis striata). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2015;181:45-53 pubmed publisher
  38. Morales M, Ávila J, González Fernández R, Boronat L, Soriano M, Martín Vasallo P. Differential transcriptome profile of peripheral white cells to identify biomarkers involved in oxaliplatin induced neuropathy. J Pers Med. 2014;4:282-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The quantification of their expression in peripheral white cells may help to predict non-desirable side effects and, consequently, allow a better, more personalized chemotherapy. ..
  39. Liang Y, Huang G, Ying G, Liu S, Jiang Y, Liu S, et al. The effects of progesterone on transcriptional expression profiles of genes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes during the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2015;128:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall results from the present study indicate that P4 at environmentally relevant concentrations could cause the potential effects on zebrafish reproductive and adrenal endocrine systems by interfering with the HPG and HPA axes. ..
  40. Strandabø R, Grønlien H, Ager Wick E, Nourizadeh Lillabadi R, Hildahl J, Weltzien F, et al. Identified lhb-expressing cells from medaka (Oryzias latipes) show similar Ca(2+)-response to all endogenous Gnrh forms, and reveal expression of a novel fourth Gnrh receptor. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;229:19-31 pubmed publisher
  41. Murányi J, Varga A, Gurbi B, Gyulavári P, Mező G, Vántus T. In Vitro Imaging and Quantification of the Drug Targeting Efficiency of Fluorescently Labeled GnRH Analogues. J Vis Exp. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..These results could predict the drug targeting efficiency of GnRH conjugates on the given cell culture, and offer a good basis for further experiments in the examination of GnRH-based drug delivery systems. ..
  42. Wang B, Liu Q, Liu X, Xu Y, Shi B. Molecular characterization of Kiss2 receptor and in vitro effects of Kiss2 on reproduction-related gene expression in the hypothalamus of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;249:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study provides novel information on the role of Kiss2/Kiss2R system in the reproductive function of teleosts. ..
  43. Ubuka T, Son Y, Tsutsui K. Molecular, cellular, morphological, physiological and behavioral aspects of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;227:27-50 pubmed publisher
    ..GnIH may inhibit male socio-sexual behavior by stimulating the activity of cytochrome P450 aromatase in the brain and stimulates feeding behavior by modulating the activities of hypothalamic and central amygdala neurons. ..
  44. Ciaramella V, Meccariello R, Chioccarelli T, Sirleto M, Fasano S, Pierantoni R, et al. Anandamide acts via kisspeptin in the regulation of testicular activity of the frog, Pelophylax esculentus. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;420:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, for the first time we show in a vertebrate that AEA regulates testicular activity through kisspeptin system. ..
  45. Corchuelo S, Martinez E, Butzge A, Doretto L, Ricci J, Valentin F, et al. Characterization of Gnrh/Gnih elements in the olfacto-retinal system and ovary during zebrafish ovarian maturation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;450:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that Gnrh/Gnih elements are involved in the neuromodulation of the sensorial system particularly at the final stages of maturation, playing also a paracrine role in the ovary. ..
  46. Kagawa N, Hirose S, Fujimoto K, Nomura C, Fujita Y, Honda A, et al. Social rank-dependent expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormones and kisspeptin in the medaka brain. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;249:48-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that social hierarchy regulates the expression of GnRH1, GnRH3, and Kiss1 without affecting 11-KT level in male medaka. ..
  47. Yao Z, Si W, Tian W, Ye J, Zhu R, Li X, et al. Effect of active immunization using a novel GnRH vaccine on reproductive function in rats. Theriogenology. 2018;111:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GnRH2-MAP may be an effective antigen and a potential immunocastration vaccine with higher effectiveness. ..
  48. Zmora N, Stubblefield J, Wong T, Levavi Sivan B, Millar R, Zohar Y. Kisspeptin Antagonists Reveal Kisspeptin 1 and Kisspeptin 2 Differential Regulation of Reproduction in the Teleost, Morone saxatilis. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate differential actions of Kiss1 and Kiss2 systems along the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and interactions with other neuropeptides, and further reinforce the importance of kisspeptin in the execution of spawning. ..
  49. Liu W, Chen C, Chen L, Wang L, Li J, Chen Y, et al. Sex-dependent effects of microcystin-LR on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis and gametogenesis of adult zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22819 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study first investigated the sex-dependent effects of microcystins on fish reproduction and revealed some important molecular biomarkers related to gametogenesis in zebrafish suffered from MC-LR. ..
  50. Neglia G, Gasparrini B, Salzano A, Vecchio D, De Carlo E, Cimmino R, et al. Relationship between the ovarian follicular response at the start of an Ovsynch-TAI program and pregnancy outcome in the Mediterranean river buffalo. Theriogenology. 2016;86:2328-2333 pubmed publisher
    ..6%], respectively). The present findings have demonstrated a strong direct relationship between the ovarian follicular response at the start of an OVsynch-TAI program and pregnancy outcome in the Mediterranean river buffalo. ..
  51. Khor Y, Soga T, Parhar I. Early-life stress changes expression of GnRH and kisspeptin genes and DNA methylation of GnRH3 promoter in the adult zebrafish brain. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;227:84-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, early-life DEX treatment can alter methylation of GnRH3 gene promoter, which subsequently affects gene regulation and reproductive functions. ..
  52. Cowan M, Paullada Salmerón J, López Olmeda J, Sánchez Vázquez F, Muñoz Cueto J. Effects of pinealectomy on the neuroendocrine reproductive system and locomotor activity in male European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2017;207:1-12 pubmed publisher
  53. Prasad P, Ogawa S, Parhar I. Serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram inhibits GnRH synthesis and spermatogenesis in the male zebrafish. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:102 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show morphological and functional associations between the 5-HT and the hypophysiotropic GnHR3 system, which involve SSRI-induced reproductive failures. ..
  54. Espigares F, Rocha A, Gomez A, Carrillo M, Zanuy S. Photoperiod modulates the reproductive axis of European sea bass through regulation of kiss1 and gnrh2 neuronal expression. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;240:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study establishes that photoperiod modulates the expression of kiss1 and gnrh2 in the forebrain-midbrain, which may be involved in the translation of the light stimulus to activate the reproductive axis. ..
  55. Liu Z, Chen Q, Chen Q, Li F, Li Y. Diethylstilbestrol arrested spermatogenesis and somatic growth in the juveniles of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), a fish with sexual dimorphic growth. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2018;44:789-803 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study greatly extended our understanding on the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of DES on spermatogenesis and somatic growth of fish. ..
  56. Desaulniers A, Cederberg R, Mills G, Ford J, Lents C, White B. LH-Independent Testosterone Secretion Is Mediated by the Interaction Between GNRH2 and Its Receptor Within Porcine Testes. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:45 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, our data are the first to suggest a biological function of a novel GNRH2-GNRHR2 system in the testes of swine. ..
  57. Brauer V, Wiarda Bell J, Desaulniers A, Cederberg R, White B. Functional activity of the porcine Gnrhr2 gene promoter in testis-derived cells is partially conferred by nuclear factor-?B, specificity protein 1 and 3 (SP1/3) and overlapping early growth response 1/SP1/3 binding sites. Gene. 2016;587:137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Thus, NF-?B, SP1/3 and overlapping EGR1/SP1/3 binding sites are critical to expression of the porcine Gnrhr2 gene in ST cells. ..
  58. Meng S, Qiu L, Hu G, Fan L, Song C, Zheng Y, et al. Effects of methomyl on steroidogenic gene transcription of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad-liver axis in male tilapia. Chemosphere. 2016;165:152-162 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we concluded that 200 ?g/L was the threshold concentration for methomyl-induced irreversible endocrine disruption in male tilapia. ..
  59. Chen A, Zi K, Laskar Levy O, Koch Y. The transcription of the hGnRH-I and hGnRH-II genes in human neuronal cells is differentially regulated by estrogen. J Mol Neurosci. 2002;18:67-76 pubmed
    ..Luciferase activity of GnRH promoter constructs treated with estrogen demonstrates that the differential regulation of the GnRH genes by estrogen is mediated at the transcription level. ..
  60. Cheng C, Hoo R, Chow B, Leung P. Functional cooperation between multiple regulatory elements in the untranslated exon 1 stimulates the basal transcription of the human GnRH-II gene. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1175-91 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our present data demonstrate a novel mechanism in stimulating basal human GnRH-II gene transcription mediated by cooperative actions of multiple regulatory elements within the untranslated first exon of the gene. ..
  61. Darby S, Stockley J, Khan M, Robson C, Leung H, Gnanapragasam V. Expression of GnRH type II is regulated by the androgen receptor in prostate cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2007;14:613-24 pubmed
    b>GnRH II has important functional effects in steroid hormone-dependent tumours. Here we investigated the expression and regulation of GnRH II in prostate cancer...
  62. Liu J, Cao B, Li Y, Wu X, Wang Y. GnRH I and II up-regulate MMP-26 expression through the JNK pathway in human cytotrophoblasts. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2010;8:5 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH I) and GnRH II have been shown to regulate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), and ..
  63. Ramoun A, Emara A, Heleil B, Darweish S, Abou Ghait H. Hormonal profile and follicular dynamics concurrent with CIDR and insulin modified Ovsync TAI programs and their impacts on the fertility response in buffaloes. Theriogenology. 2017;104:205-210 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that modified CIDR-sync and Insulin-sync could improve fertility response through modulating hormonal profile and follicular dynamics in buffaloes during low breeding season. ..
  64. Chen A, Laskar Levy O, Ben Aroya N, Koch Y. Transcriptional regulation of the human GnRH II gene is mediated by a putative cAMP response element. Endocrinology. 2001;142:3483-92 pubmed
    ..These results clearly demonstrate the importance of the putative cAMP response element site for the basal activity as well as for induction of the GnRH-II promoter by cAMP. ..
  65. Parker J, Malik M, Catherino W. Human myometrium and leiomyomas express gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 receptor. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:39-46 pubmed
    ..We speculate that an autocrine loop exists. Our findings provide further evidence that GnRH agonists may interact directly with GnRH receptors present in uterine fibroids. ..
  66. Hoo R, Chan K, Leung F, Lee L, Leung P, Chow B. Involvement of NF-kappaB subunit p65 and retinoic acid receptors, RARalpha and RXRalpha, in transcriptional regulation of the human GnRH II gene. FEBS J. 2007;274:2695-706 pubmed
    ..In this study, transcriptional regulation of the human GnRH II gene was investigated...
  67. Hong I, Cheung A, Leung P. Gonadotropin-releasing hormones I and II induce apoptosis in human granulosa cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:3179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..FSH protects human granulosa cells from apoptosis induced by GnRH-I or -II. This raises potentially important roles of GnRH-I and GnRH-II in regulating follicle development and atresia together with FSH. ..
  68. Poon S, Hammond G, Leung P. Epidermal growth factor-induced GnRH-II synthesis contributes to ovarian cancer cell invasion. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1646-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that EGF is an upstream regulator of the autocrine actions of GnRH-II on the invasive properties of ovarian cancer cells. ..
  69. Ling Poon S, Lau M, Hammond G, Leung P. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-II increases membrane type I metalloproteinase production via beta-catenin signaling in ovarian cancer cells. Endocrinology. 2011;152:764-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that GnRH-II stimulates the PI3K/Akt pathway, and the phosphorylation of GSK3?, thereby enhancing the ?-catenin-dependent up-regulation of MT1-MMP production, which contributes to ovarian cancer metastasis. ..
  70. Hong I, Klausen C, Cheung A, Leung P. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I or -II interacts with IGF-I/Akt but not connexin 43 in human granulosa cell apoptosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:525-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Cx43-induced gap junctional changes do not initiate granulosa cell apoptosis but likely result from apoptosis induced by GnRH-I or -II. ..
  71. Phang Y, Soga T, Kitahashi T, Parhar I. Cloning and functional expression of novel cholesterol transporters ABCG1 and ABCG4 in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of the tilapia. Neuroscience. 2012;203:39-49 pubmed publisher
  72. Pazaitou Panayiotou K, Chemonidou C, Poupi A, Koureta M, Kaprara A, Lambropoulou M, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuropeptides and receptor in human breast cancer: correlation to poor prognosis parameters. Peptides. 2013;42:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Their expression correlated to tumor characteristics of poor prognosis and was therefore related to more aggressive malignancies. Concomitant expression of peptides and receptor supports an autocrine/paracrine regulating role. ..
  73. Huang F, Wang H, Zou Y, Liu Q, Cao J, Yin T. Effect of GnRH-II on the ESC proliferation, apoptosis and VEGF secretion in patients with endometriosis in vitro. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:2487-96 pubmed
  74. Saussez S, Laumbacher B, Chantrain G, Rodriguez A, Gu S, Wank R, et al. Towards neuroimmunotherapy for cancer: the neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine and GnRH-II augment substantially the ability of T cells of few head and neck cancer patients to perform spontaneous migration, chemotactic migration and migration towar. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2014;121:1007-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the T cells are autologous, since the Neurotransmitters are physiological molecules, and since the ex vivo 'parking period' is very short, such Neuroimmunotherapy is expected to be very safe. ..
  75. Roch G, Busby E, Sherwood N. GnRH receptors and peptides: skating backward. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2014;209:118-34 pubmed publisher
    ..During the transition to vertebrates both the invertebrate-type peptide and receptor were lost, leaving only the vertebrate-type system that presently exists. ..
  76. Roufidou C, Schmitz M, Mayer I, Sebire M, Katsiadaki I, Shao Y, et al. Hormonal changes over the spawning cycle in the female three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;257:97-105 pubmed publisher
  77. Jiang J, Hu G, Zhang C, Zhao X, Wang Q, Chen L. Toxicological analysis of triadimefon on endocrine disruption and oxidative stress during rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) larvae development. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:26681-26691 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes in transcript and biological levels represented the potential adaptive or compensatory responses to impaired oxidative stress and endocrine system after TDF exposure in rare minnow during its larvae development. ..
  78. An B, Choi J, Choi K, Leung P. Differential role of progesterone receptor isoforms in the transcriptional regulation of human gonadotropin-releasing hormone I (GnRH I) receptor, GnRH I, and GnRH II. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:1106-13 pubmed
    ..It is hypothesized that sex steroids may regulate GnRH I (a classical form of GnRH), GnRH II (a second form of GnRH), and GnRH I receptor (GnRHRI) at the transcriptional level in target tissues...
  79. Tanriverdi F, Gonzalez Martinez D, Silveira L, Hu Y, Maccoll G, Travers P, et al. Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-I (GnRH-I) and type-II (GnRH-II) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) and regulation of B-lymphoblastoid cell proliferation by GnRH-I and GnRH-II. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2004;112:587-94 pubmed
    ..Further investigation is required to clarify the physiological relevance of local GnRH-I/GnRH-II in immune system responsiveness. ..
  80. Serin I, Tanriverdi F, Ata C, Akalin H, Ozcelik B, Ozkul Y, et al. GnRH-II mRNA expression in tumor tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with malignant and benign ovarian tumors. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2010;149:92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of GnRH-II in PBMCs did not reflect the local GnRH-II expression levels in ovarian tissue. These preliminary data suggest that local GnRH-II may participate in the regulation of ovarian tumor growth in post-menopausal women. ..
  81. Lee H, Snegovskikh V, Park J, Foyouzi N, Han K, Hodgson E, et al. Role of GnRH-GnRH receptor signaling at the maternal-fetal interface. Fertil Steril. 2010;94:2680-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of GnRH-GnRHR signaling at the maternal-fetal interface therefore appears to be limited to the regulation of trophoblast hCG production. ..
  82. Poon S, Klausen C, Hammond G, Leung P. 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor mediates GnRH-II-induced MMP-2 expression and invasiveness in ovarian cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:327-38 pubmed publisher
  83. Reutter M, Emons G, Gründker C. Starving tumors: inhibition of glycolysis reduces viability of human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells and enhances antitumor efficacy of GnRH receptor-targeted therapies. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:34-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, cotreatment of a glycolysis inhibitor with GnRH receptor-targeted therapies might be a suitable therapy for GnRH receptor-positive human endometrial and ovarian cancers. ..
  84. Park S, Han J, Cheon J, Hwang J, Seong J. Apoptotic death of prostate cancer cells by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone-II antagonist. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e99723 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that SN09-2 directly induces mitochondrial dysfunction and the consequent ROS generation, leading to not only growth inhibition but also apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. ..
  85. Wu H, Huang H, Lee C, Soong Y, Leung P, Wang H. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone type II (GnRH-II) agonist regulates the motility of human decidual endometrial stromal cells: possible effect on embryo implantation and pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 2015;92:98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings represent a new concept regarding the mechanisms of GnRH-II-promoted cell motility, suggesting that GnRH-II agonist has strong effects on embryo implantation and decidual programming of human pregnancy. ..
  86. Wang B, Liu Q, Liu X, Xu Y, Song X, Shi B. Molecular characterization of kiss2 and differential regulation of reproduction-related genes by sex steroids in the hypothalamus of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2017;213:46-55 pubmed publisher
    ..However, E2 markedly stimulated both gnrh2 and gnrh3 mRNAs levels. Overall, this study provides insights into the role of sex steroids in the reproductive function of Pleuronectiform teleosts. ..
  87. Chen W, Lau S, Fan Y, Wu R, Ge W. Juvenile exposure to bisphenol A promotes ovarian differentiation but suppresses its growth - Potential involvement of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;193:111-121 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data in the zebrafish suggest that sex differentiation involves estrogens and it is a sensitive window for evaluating estrogenic activities of compounds and their impacts on wildlife reproduction...
  88. Bloch B, Gaillard R, Culler M, Negro Vilar A. Immunohistochemical detection of proluteinizing hormone-releasing hormone peptides in neurons in the human hypothalamus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992;74:135-8 pubmed
  89. Baldwin E, Wegorzewska I, Flora M, Wu T. Regulation of type II luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH-II) gene expression by the processed peptide of LHRH-I, LHRH-(1-5) in endometrial cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232:146-55 pubmed
    ..Further investigations are needed to determine the role of this processed metabolite and to identify specific pathways involved in LHRH-(1-5) signaling. ..
  90. Lopez de Maturana R, Pawson A, Lu Z, Davidson L, Maudsley S, Morgan K, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog structural determinants of selectivity for inhibition of cell growth: support for the concept of ligand-induced selective signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1711-22 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GnRH II was more potent than GnRH I in inhibiting cell growth in the cell lines...
  91. Poon S, An B, So W, Hammond G, Leung P. Temporal recruitment of transcription factors at the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-response element of the human GnRH-II promoter. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5162-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that p-CREB, C/EBPbeta, and CBP are recruited to the CRE of the GnRH-II promoter in a temporarily defined manner to enhance its transcription in JEG-3 and OVCAR-3 cells in response to cAMP. ..
  92. Park D, Choi K, MacCalman C, Leung P. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-I and GnRH-II induce cell growth inhibition in human endometrial cancer cells: involvement of integrin beta3 and focal adhesion kinase. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:81 pubmed publisher
    ..This knowledge could contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms implicated in the therapeutic action of GnRH and its biomedical application for the treatment against endometrial cancer. ..