Gene Symbol: GNGT2
Description: G protein subunit gamma transducin 2
Alias: G-GAMMA-8, G-GAMMA-C, GNG8, GNG9, GNGT8, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2, G protein cone gamma 8 subunit, G-gamma-9, g gamma-C, gamma-T2 subunit, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2, guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma 9, guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2
Species: human
Products:     GNGT2

Top Publications

  1. Cook L, Schey K, Cleator J, Wilcox M, Dingus J, Hildebrandt J. Identification of a region in G protein gamma subunits conserved across species but hypervariable among subunit isoforms. Protein Sci. 2001;10:2548-55 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the N-terminus of gamma is a functionally important part of the protein exhibiting substantial isoform-specific variation. ..
  2. Cuello F, Schulze R, Heemeyer F, Meyer H, Lutz S, Jakobs K, et al. Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by a high energy phosphate transfer via nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) B and Gbeta subunits. Complex formation of NDPK B with Gbeta gamma dimers and phosphorylation of His-266 IN Gbeta. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7220-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that NDPK B forms complexes with Gbetagamma dimers and contributes to G protein activation by increasing the high energetic phosphate transfer onto GDP via intermediately phosphorylated His-266 in Gbeta(1) subunits. ..
  3. Fowler C, Aryal P, Suen K, Slesinger P. Evidence for association of GABA(B) receptors with Kir3 channels and regulators of G protein signalling (RGS4) proteins. J Physiol. 2007;580:51-65 pubmed
    ..2a and RGS4 nor between Kir3.2a and Galphao. These data are discussed in terms of a model in which GABA(B) receptors, G proteins, RGS4 proteins and Kir3 channels are closely associated in a signalling complex. ..
  4. Yan K, Kalyanaraman V, Gautam N. Differential ability to form the G protein betagamma complex among members of the beta and gamma subunit families. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:7141-6 pubmed
    ..The strong preference of all gamma subunit types for the beta1 subunit type explains the preponderence of this subunit type in most G proteins. ..
  5. Huang C, Jan Y, Jan L. Binding of the G protein betagamma subunit to multiple regions of G protein-gated inward-rectifying K+ channels. FEBS Lett. 1997;405:291-8 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the idea that the N- and C-terminal domains of the cardiac G protein-gated K+ channel subunits may interact with each other to form higher affinity binding site(s) for G betagamma. ..
  6. Ong O, Hu K, Rong H, Lee R, Fung B. Gene structure and chromosome localization of the G gamma c subunit of human cone G-protein (GNGT2). Genomics. 1997;44:101-9 pubmed
    ..We have previously identified in bovine retinas a cone-specific G-protein gamma subunit (G gamma c, previously named G gamma b), which may play a key role in coupling the cone visual pigment to phosphodiesterase ..
  7. Huang L, Shanker Y, Dubauskaite J, Zheng J, Yan W, Rosenzweig S, et al. Ggamma13 colocalizes with gustducin in taste receptor cells and mediates IP3 responses to bitter denatonium. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:1055-62 pubmed
    ..We conclude that gustducin heterotrimers transduce responses to bitter and sweet compounds via alpha-gustducin's regulation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) and Gbetagamma's activation of phospholipase C (PLC). ..
  8. Ivanina T, Rishal I, Varon D, Mullner C, Frohnwieser Steinecke B, Schreibmayer W, et al. Mapping the Gbetagamma-binding sites in GIRK1 and GIRK2 subunits of the G protein-activated K+ channel. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:29174-83 pubmed
  9. Yang M, He R, Benovic J, Ye R. beta-Arrestin1 interacts with the G-protein subunits beta1gamma2 and promotes beta1gamma2-dependent Akt signalling for NF-kappaB activation. Biochem J. 2009;417:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify novel functions of beta-arrestin1 in binding to the beta1gamma2 subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins and promoting G(betagamma)-mediated Akt signalling for NF-kappaB activation. ..

More Information


  1. Poon L, Chan A, Wong Y. Gbeta3 forms distinct dimers with specific Ggamma subunits and preferentially activates the beta3 isoform of phospholipase C. Cell Signal. 2009;21:737-44 pubmed publisher
  2. Howlett A, Gray A, Hunter J, Willardson B. Role of molecular chaperones in G protein beta5/regulator of G protein signaling dimer assembly and G protein betagamma dimer specificity. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16386-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings point to a general role for PhLP1 in the assembly of all Gbetagamma combinations and suggest a CCT-dependent mechanism for Gbeta5-RGS7 assembly that utilizes the co-chaperone activity of PhLP1 in a unique way. ..
  3. Cohen N, Sha Q, Makhina E, Lopatin A, Linder M, Snyder S, et al. Inhibition of an inward rectifier potassium channel (Kir2.3) by G-protein betagamma subunits. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:32301-5 pubmed
    ..1 and Kir2.3 subunits were coexpressed, the G-protein inhibitory phenotype of Kir2.3 was dominant, suggesting that co-expression of Kir2.3 with other Kir subunits might give rise to novel G-protein-inhibitable inward rectifier currents. ..
  4. DePuy S, Yao J, Hu C, McIntire W, Bidaud I, Lory P, et al. The molecular basis for T-type Ca2+ channel inhibition by G protein beta2gamma2 subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14590-5 pubmed
    ..These amino acids on the beta-torus identify a region that is distinct from those regions that contact the Galpha subunit or other effectors. ..