Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: GNG2
Description: G protein subunit gamma 2
Alias: guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2, g gamma-I, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2, guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma 2, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(O) gamma-2 subunit
- Lutz V, Stratz P, Preuß S, Tetens J, Grashorn M, Bessei W, et al. A genome-wide association study in a large F2-cross of laying hens reveals novel genomic regions associated with feather pecking and aggressive pecking behavior. Genet Sel Evol. 2017;49:18 pubmed publisher..One gene, SLC12A9, and the positional candidate gene for APD, GNG2, may be linked to the monomanine signaling pathway, which is involved in feather pecking and aggressive behavior...
- Goedert L, Pereira C, Roszik J, Plaça J, Cardoso C, Chen G, et al. RMEL3, a novel BRAFV600E-associated long noncoding RNA, is required for MAPK and PI3K signaling in melanoma. Oncotarget. 2016;7:36711-36718 pubmed publisher..led to downregulation of activators or effectors of these pathways, including FGF2, FGF3, DUSP6, ITGB3 and GNG2. RMEL3 knockdown induces gain of protein levels of tumor suppressor PTEN and the G1/S cyclin-Cdk inhibitors p21 and ..
- Liang B, Li C, Zhao J. Identification of key pathways and genes in colorectal cancer using bioinformatics analysis. Med Oncol. 2016;33:111 pubmed publisher..The top 10 hub genes, GNG2, AGT, SAA1, ADCY5, LPAR1, NMU, IL8, CXCL12, GNAI1, and CCR2 were identified from the PPI network, and sub-networks ..
- Gales C, Rebois R, Hogue M, Trieu P, Breit A, Hebert T, et al. Real-time monitoring of receptor and G-protein interactions in living cells. Nat Methods. 2005;2:177-84 pubmed
- Stott J, Povstyan O, Carr G, Barrese V, Greenwood I. G-protein Î²Î³ subunits are positive regulators of Kv7.4 and native vascular Kv7 channel activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:6497-502 pubmed publisher..These results reveal that GÎ²Î³ subunits are fundamental for Kv7.4 activation and crucial for vascular Kv7 channel activity, which has major consequences for the regulation of arterial tone. ..
- Ho M, Wong Y. G(z) signaling: emerging divergence from G(i) signaling. Oncogene. 2001;20:1615-25 pubmed..In this review, we have drawn a sketch of a signaling network with G(z) as the centerpiece. The emerging picture is one that distinguishes G(z) from other members of the G(i) subfamily. ..
- Díaz Añel A. Phospholipase C beta3 is a key component in the Gbetagamma/PKCeta/PKD-mediated regulation of trans-Golgi network to plasma membrane transport. Biochem J. 2007;406:157-65 pubmed..In conclusion, we demonstrate that fission of transport carriers at the TGN is dependent on PI-PLCs, specifically PLCbeta3, which is necessary to activate PKCeta and PKD in that Golgi compartment, via DAG production. ..
- Hollopeter G, Jantzen H, Vincent D, Li G, England L, Ramakrishnan V, et al. Identification of the platelet ADP receptor targeted by antithrombotic drugs. Nature. 2001;409:202-7 pubmed..Cloning of the P2Y12 receptor should facilitate the development of better antiplatelet agents to treat cardiovascular diseases. ..
- Kinsella B, O Mahony D, Fitzgerald G. The human thromboxane A2 receptor alpha isoform (TP alpha) functionally couples to the G proteins Gq and G11 in vivo and is activated by the isoprostane 8-epi prostaglandin F2 alpha. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997;281:957-64 pubmed..These results demonstrate that the TP alpha isoform functionally couples with either Gq or G11 in vivo, whether activated by a PG/TXA2 analog or by the F2 isoprostane 8-epi PGF2 alpha. ..
- Tsukada S, Simon M, Witte O, Katz A. Binding of beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins to the PH domain of Bruton tyrosine kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:11256-60 pubmed..The interaction of Btk with beta gamma suggests the existence of a unique connection between cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases and G proteins in cellular signal transduction. ..
- Zhang M, Song F, Liang L, Nan H, Zhang J, Liu H, et al. Genome-wide association studies identify several new loci associated with pigmentation traits and skin cancer risk in European Americans. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2948-59 pubmed publisher..0 × 10(-8); P = 6.6 × 10(-7) in the discovery set and P = 3.0 × 10(-3) in the replication set) and rs8015138 upstream of GNG2 (P = 6.6 × 10(-8); P = 5.3 × 10(-7) in the discovery set and P = 0.01 in the replication set).
- Gutman O, Walliser C, Piechulek T, Gierschik P, Henis Y. Differential regulation of phospholipase C-beta2 activity and membrane interaction by Galphaq, Gbeta1gamma2, and Rac2. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3905-15 pubmed publisher..Finally, activation by betagamma recruits PLCbeta(2) to the membrane by transient interactions, leading to fast "surfing" diffusion along the membrane, sampling large regions for dispersed PtdInsP(2) populations. ..
- Carman C, Barak L, Chen C, Liu Chen L, Onorato J, Kennedy S, et al. Mutational analysis of Gbetagamma and phospholipid interaction with G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:10443-52 pubmed..Thus, we have (i) identified several specific GRK2 binding determinants for Gbetagamma and phospholipids, and (ii) demonstrated that Gbetagamma binding is the limiting step for GRK2-dependent receptor phosphorylation in cells. ..
- Snow B, Betts L, Mangion J, Sondek J, Siderovski D. Fidelity of G protein beta-subunit association by the G protein gamma-subunit-like domains of RGS6, RGS7, and RGS11. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6489-94 pubmed
- Reid T, Terry K, Casey P, Beese L. Crystallographic analysis of CaaX prenyltransferases complexed with substrates defines rules of protein substrate selectivity. J Mol Biol. 2004;343:417-33 pubmed
- Evanko D, Thiyagarajan M, Siderovski D, Wedegaertner P. Gbeta gamma isoforms selectively rescue plasma membrane localization and palmitoylation of mutant Galphas and Galphaq. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:23945-53 pubmed
- Yan K, Kalyanaraman V, Gautam N. Differential ability to form the G protein betagamma complex among members of the beta and gamma subunit families. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:7141-6 pubmed..The strong preference of all gamma subunit types for the beta1 subunit type explains the preponderence of this subunit type in most G proteins. ..
- Ong O, Hu K, Rong H, Lee R, Fung B. Gene structure and chromosome localization of the G gamma c subunit of human cone G-protein (GNGT2). Genomics. 1997;44:101-9 pubmed..The elucidation of the G gamma c gene structure would facilitate the identification of genetic defects associated with cone degeneration. ..
- Wall M, Coleman D, Lee E, Iñiguez Lluhí J, Posner B, Gilman A, et al. The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2. Cell. 1995;83:1047-58 pubmed..Repeated WD motifs in beta form a circularized sevenfold beta propeller. The conserved cores of these motifs are a scaffold for display of their more variable linkers on the exterior face of each propeller blade. ..
- Wolfe J, Wang H, Howard J, Garrison J, Barrett P. T-type calcium channel regulation by specific G-protein betagamma subunits. Nature. 2003;424:209-13 pubmed..These studies identify the alpha1H channel as a new effector for G-protein betagamma subunits, and highlight the selective signalling roles available for particular betagamma combinations. ..
- Cuello F, Schulze R, Heemeyer F, Meyer H, Lutz S, Jakobs K, et al. Activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by a high energy phosphate transfer via nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) B and Gbeta subunits. Complex formation of NDPK B with Gbeta gamma dimers and phosphorylation of His-266 IN Gbeta. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7220-6 pubmed..We conclude that NDPK B forms complexes with Gbetagamma dimers and contributes to G protein activation by increasing the high energetic phosphate transfer onto GDP via intermediately phosphorylated His-266 in Gbeta(1) subunits. ..
- Howlett A, Gray A, Hunter J, Willardson B. Role of molecular chaperones in G protein beta5/regulator of G protein signaling dimer assembly and G protein betagamma dimer specificity. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16386-99 pubmed publisher..These findings point to a general role for PhLP1 in the assembly of all Gbetagamma combinations and suggest a CCT-dependent mechanism for Gbeta5-RGS7 assembly that utilizes the co-chaperone activity of PhLP1 in a unique way. ..
- Sun Z, Tang X, Lin F, Chen S. The WD40 repeat protein WDR26 binds G?? and promotes G??-dependent signal transduction and leukocyte migration. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:43902-12 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these experiments identify WDR26 as a novel G??-binding protein that is required for the efficacy of G?? signaling and leukocyte migration. ..
- Lukov G, Hu T, McLaughlin J, Hamm H, Willardson B. Phosducin-like protein acts as a molecular chaperone for G protein betagamma dimer assembly. EMBO J. 2005;24:1965-75 pubmed
- Lambright D, Noel J, Hamm H, Sigler P. Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein. Nature. 1994;369:621-8 pubmed..The changes are distinct from those observed in other members of the GTPase superfamily. ..
- Nishida K, Kaziro Y, Satoh T. Association of the proto-oncogene product dbl with G protein betagamma subunits. FEBS Lett. 1999;459:186-90 pubmed..However, GEF activity of Dbl toward Rho as measured by in vitro GDP binding assays remained unaffected following Gbetagamma binding, suggesting that additional signals may be required for the regulation of Dbl. ..
- Lowry W, Huang X. G Protein beta gamma subunits act on the catalytic domain to stimulate Bruton's agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:1488-92 pubmed..These data support a dual role for Gbetagamma in the activation of Btk signaling function, namely membrane translocation and direct regulation of Btk catalytic activity. ..
- Knezevic N, Tauseef M, Thennes T, Mehta D. The G protein betagamma subunit mediates reannealing of adherens junctions to reverse endothelial permeability increase by thrombin. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2761-77 pubmed publisher..Rescuing FAK activation in fyn(-/-) mice attenuated the rise in lung vascular permeability. Our results demonstrate that Gbeta1-mediated Fyn activation integrates FAK with AJ, preventing persistent endothelial barrier leakiness. ..
- Nagai Y, Nishimura A, Tago K, Mizuno N, Itoh H. Ric-8B stabilizes the alpha subunit of stimulatory G protein by inhibiting its ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:11114-20 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results suggest that Ric-8B plays a critical and specific role in the control of G alpha(s) protein levels by modulating G alpha(s) ubiquitination and positively regulates G(s) signaling. ..
- Melliti K, Grabner M, Seabrook G. The familial hemiplegic migraine mutation R192Q reduces G-protein-mediated inhibition of P/Q-type (Ca(V)2.1) calcium channels expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. J Physiol. 2003;546:337-47 pubmed..Altered G-protein modulation and the consequent reduced presynaptic inhibition may contribute to migraine attacks by favouring a persistent state of hyperexcitability. ..
- Pumiglia K, Levine H, Haske T, Habib T, Jove R, Decker S. A direct interaction between G-protein beta gamma subunits and the Raf-1 protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:14251-4 pubmed..The identification and characterization of this novel interaction raises several possibilities for signaling cross-talk between growth factor receptors and those receptors coupled to heterotrimeric G-proteins. ..
- Oldham W, Van Eps N, Preininger A, Hubbell W, Hamm H. Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:772-7 pubmed..These data provide the first direct observation of R*-mediated conformational changes in G proteins and define the structural basis for GDP release from G alpha. ..
- Bonacci T, Ghosh M, Malik S, Smrcka A. Regulatory interactions between the amino terminus of G-protein betagamma subunits and the catalytic domain of phospholipase Cbeta2. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10174-81 pubmed
- Mahon M, Bonacci T, Divieti P, Smrcka A. A docking site for G protein ?? subunits on the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor supports signaling through multiple pathways. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:136-46 pubmed..Herein, we define a domain on the PTH1R that is capable of binding G protein heterotrimeric complexes via direct Gbetagamma interactions. ..
- Yajima I, Kumasaka M, Tamura H, Ohgami N, Kato M. Functional analysis of GNG2 in human malignant melanoma cells. J Dermatol Sci. 2012;68:172-8 pubmed publisher..Our recent study showed reduced G protein ?2 subunit (Gng2/GNG2) expression levels in malignant melanoma cells compared with those in benign melanocytic cells in both mice ..
- Snow B, Krumins A, Brothers G, Lee S, Wall M, Chung S, et al. A G protein gamma subunit-like domain shared between RGS11 and other RGS proteins specifies binding to Gbeta5 subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13307-12 pubmed..RGS proteins that contain GGL domains appear to act as GAPs for Galpha proteins and form complexes with specific Gbeta subunits, adding to the combinatorial complexity of G protein-mediated signaling pathways. ..
- Modarressi M, Taylor K, Wolfe J. Cloning, characterization, and mapping of the gene encoding the human G protein gamma 2 subunit. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;272:610-5 pubmed..previously been published, the cDNA sequence, expression pattern, genomic structure, and localisation of the human GNG2 gene have not been described...
- Pirone A, Cozzi B, Edelstein L, Peruffo A, Lenzi C, Quilici F, et al. Topography of Gng2- and NetrinG2-expression suggests an insular origin of the human claustrum. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44745 pubmed publisher..Recently, the G-protein gamma2 subunit (Gng2) was proposed as a specific claustrum marker in the rat, and used to better delineate its anatomical boundaries and ..
- Zhang L, DiLizio C, Kim D, Smyth E, Manning D. The G12 family of G proteins as a reporter of thromboxane A2 receptor activity. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;69:1433-40 pubmed..These data establish that G12 and G13 can report differentially potency and efficacy and underscore the relevance of receptor and G protein context. ..
- Yang M, He R, Benovic J, Ye R. beta-Arrestin1 interacts with the G-protein subunits beta1gamma2 and promotes beta1gamma2-dependent Akt signalling for NF-kappaB activation. Biochem J. 2009;417:287-96 pubmed publisher..These results identify novel functions of beta-arrestin1 in binding to the beta1gamma2 subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins and promoting G(betagamma)-mediated Akt signalling for NF-kappaB activation. ..
- Rosskopf D, Nikula C, Manthey I, Joisten M, Frey U, Kohnen S, et al. The human G protein beta4 subunit: gene structure, expression, Ggamma and effector interaction. FEBS Lett. 2003;544:27-32 pubmed
- Baljinnyam E, Umemura M, De Lorenzo M, Xie L, NOWYCKY M, Iwatsubo M, et al. G?? subunits inhibit Epac-induced melanoma cell migration. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:256 pubmed publisher..We found the cross talk of Ca 2+ signaling between G?? and Epac, which plays a major role in melanoma cell migration. ..
- Whorton M, MacKinnon R. X-ray structure of the mammalian GIRK2-βγ G-protein complex. Nature. 2013;498:190-7 pubmed publisher..The structures also permit a conceptual understanding of how the signalling lipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and intracellular Na(+) ions participate in multi-ligand regulation of GIRK channels. ..
- Brock C, Schaefer M, Reusch H, Czupalla C, Michalke M, Spicher K, et al. Roles of G beta gamma in membrane recruitment and activation of p110 gamma/p101 phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:89-99 pubmed..e., membrane recruitment is mediated via the noncatalytic p101 subunit, and direct stimulation of G beta gamma with p110 gamma contributes to activation of PI3K gamma. ..
- Ueda H, Nagae R, Kozawa M, Morishita R, Kimura S, Nagase T, et al. Heterotrimeric G protein betagamma subunits stimulate FLJ00018, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1 and Cdc42. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1946-53 pubmed..These results provide evidence for a signaling pathway by which G(i)-coupled receptor specifically induces Rac and Cdc42 activation through direct interaction of Gbetagamma with FLJ00018. ..
- Offermanns S, Laugwitz K, Spicher K, Schultz G. G proteins of the G12 family are activated via thromboxane A2 and thrombin receptors in human platelets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:504-8 pubmed..Our results provide evidence that G12 and G13 play a functional role in transmembrane signal transduction and suggest that both proteins are involved in pathways leading to platelet activation. ..
- Sun N, Fastje C, Wong S, Sheppard P, Macdonald S, Ridenour G, et al. Dose-dependent transcriptome changes by metal ores on a human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. Toxicol Ind Health. 2003;19:157-63 pubmed..Twenty-eight metals of both ores were quantified and their presence may be associated with the cell growth rate and dose-dependent activation of transcriptomes in immature T-cells...
- Manganello J, Huang J, Kozasa T, Voyno Yasenetskaya T, Le Breton G. Protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of the Galpha13 switch I region alters the Galphabetagamma13-G protein-coupled receptor complex and inhibits Rho activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:124-30 pubmed..4). These results therefore suggest that PKA blocks Rho activation by phosphorylation of Galpha(13) Thr(203). ..
- Huang Y, Zhou Z, Xu M, Ma Q, Yan J, Wang J, et al. Alteration of gene expression profiling including GPR174 and GNG2 is associated with vasovagal syncope. Pediatr Cardiol. 2015;36:475-80 pubmed publisher..Significantly, two G-proteins related genes, GPR174 and GNG2 that have not been related to VVS were among the differently expressed genes...
- Zha Z, Han X, Smith M, Liu Y, GiguÃ¨re P, Kopanja D, et al. A Non-Canonical Function of GÎ² as a Subunit of E3 Ligase in Targeting GRK2Â Ubiquitylation. Mol Cell. 2015;58:794-803 pubmed publisher..These results reveal a non-canonical function of the GÎ² protein as a ubiquitin ligase component and a mechanism of feedback regulation of GPCR signaling. ..
- Doering C, Kisilevsky A, Feng Z, Arnot M, Peloquin J, Hamid J, et al. A single Gbeta subunit locus controls cross-talk between protein kinase C and G protein regulation of N-type calcium channels. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:29709-17 pubmed..Overall, our results significantly advance our understanding of the molecular details underlying the integration of G protein and PKC signaling pathways at the level of the N-type calcium channel alpha(1) subunit. ..
- Kostenis E, Conklin B, Wess J. Molecular basis of receptor/G protein coupling selectivity studied by coexpression of wild type and mutant m2 muscarinic receptors with mutant G alpha(q) subunits. Biochemistry. 1997;36:1487-95 pubmed..Given the high degree of structural homology among different G protein-coupled receptors and among different classes of G protein alpha subunits, our results should be of broad general relevance. ..
- French S, Mendoza A, Afifiyan N, Tillman B, Vitocruz E, French B. The role of the IL-8 signaling pathway in the infiltration of granulocytes into the livers of patients with alcoholic hepatitis. Exp Mol Pathol. 2017;103:137-140 pubmed publisher..This correlated with up regulation of the proteins downstream from the IL-8 pathways including LIMK2, GNG2 (guanine nucleotide binding proteins) and PIK3CB (phosphatidyl isitol-4, 5-biophosphate-3-kinase, catalytic subunit ..
- Zhou J, Toth P, Miller R. Direct interactions between the heterotrimeric G protein subunit G beta 5 and the G protein gamma subunit-like domain-containing regulator of G protein signaling 11: gain of function of cyan fluorescent protein-tagged G gamma 3. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305:460-6 pubmed