Gene Symbol: GNB3
Description: G protein subunit beta 3
Alias: CSNB1H, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3, G protein, beta-3 subunit, GTP-binding regulatory protein beta-3 chain, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 3, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) beta subunit 3, hypertension associated protein, transducin beta chain 3
Species: human
Products:     GNB3

Top Publications

  1. Bagos P, Elefsinioti A, Nikolopoulos G, Hamodrakas S. The GNB3 C825T polymorphism and essential hypertension: a meta-analysis of 34 studies including 14,094 cases and 17,760 controls. J Hypertens. 2007;25:487-500 pubmed
    The C825T single nucleotide polymorphism of the G-protein beta3 (GNB3) has been implicated in susceptibility to essential hypertension, through the expression of an alternatively spliced truncated variant...
  2. Chistiakov D, Spitsina E, Nikitin A, Strokov I, Nosikov V. A splice variant of GNB3 and peripheral polyneuropathy in type 1 diabetes. Dis Markers. 2009;26:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we test whether the GNB3 C825T variant confers susceptibility to DPN in type 1 diabetes (T1D) mellitus...
  3. Suwazono Y, Kobayashi E, Uetani M, Miura K, Morikawa Y, Ishizaki M, et al. G-protein beta3 subunit variant C825T is a risk factor for hypertension in Japanese females--a prospective cohort study over 5 years. Ann Hum Genet. 2006;70:767-77 pubmed
  4. Li B, Ge D, Wang Y, Zhao W, Zhou X, Gu D, et al. G protein beta 3 subunit gene variants and essential hypertension in the northern Chinese Han population. Ann Hum Genet. 2005;69:468-73 pubmed
    ..To examine the contribution of GNB3 polymorphisms to the development of hypertension in the northern Chinese Han population, we conducted a case-..
  5. Thibaudin L, Berthoux P, Thibaudin D, Mariat C, Berthoux F. G protein beta3 subunit C825T polymorphism in primary IgA nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2004;66:322-8 pubmed
    The T allele of the G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) C825T polymorphism has been associated with increased signal transduction, increased activity of the kidney Na+/H+ exchanger, and also with late-onset essential hypertension...
  6. de Vries D, Ter Linde J, van Herwaarden M, Smout A, Samsom M. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with the C825T polymorphism in the G-protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3). Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A functional polymorphism in the G-protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) is associated with functional dyspepsia (FD), in which visceral hypersensitivity is implicated in symptom ..
  7. Muller D, De Luca V, Sicard T, King N, Hwang R, Volavka J, et al. Suggestive association between the C825T polymorphism of the G-protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) and clinical improvement with antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005;15:525-31 pubmed
    ..The functional C825T polymorphism of the beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) has recently been shown to modulate antidepressant response, with the T-allele conferring an increased signaling ..
  8. Zeltner R, Delles C, Schneider M, Siffert W, Schmieder R. G-protein beta(3) subunit gene (GNB3) 825T allele is associated with enhanced renal perfusion in early hypertension. Hypertension. 2001;37:882-6 pubmed
    The C825T polymorphism of the gene encoding the G-protein beta(3) subunit (GNB3) is associated with increased intracellular signal transduction and arterial hypertension...
  9. Holtmann G, Siffert W, Haag S, Mueller N, Langkafel M, Senf W, et al. G-protein beta 3 subunit 825 CC genotype is associated with unexplained (functional) dyspepsia. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:971-9 pubmed
    ..altered alpha-adrenoreceptor function and depression are prevalent, features that are linked to a G-protein beta 3 (GNB3) subunit gene polymorphism (C825T)...

More Information


  1. Stefan N, Stumvoll M, Machicao F, Koch M, Häring H, Fritsche A. C825T polymorphism of the G protein beta3 subunit is associated with obesity but not with insulin sensitivity. Obes Res. 2004;12:679-83 pubmed
    ..However, it probably had no direct effects on insulin sensitivity of lipolysis and glucose disposal. ..
  2. Hengstenberg C, Schunkert H, Mayer B, Doring A, Lowel H, Hense H, et al. Association between a polymorphism in the G protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) with arterial hypertension but not with myocardial infarction. Cardiovasc Res. 2001;49:820-7 pubmed
    A polymorphism at position 825(C-->T) of the G protein beta3 (GNB3) gene was found to be associated with enhanced transmembrane signalling as well as with an increased prevalence of arterial hypertension...
  3. Wascher T, Paulweber B, Malaimare L, Stadlmayr A, Iglseder B, Schmoelzer I, et al. Associations of a human G protein beta3 subunit dimorphism with insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis. Stroke. 2003;34:605-9 pubmed
    The C825T dimorphism of the gene encoding the human G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) is associated with hypertension and obesity...
  4. Pemberton T, Mehta N, Witonsky D, Di Rienzo A, Allayee H, Conti D, et al. Prevalence of common disease-associated variants in Asian Indians. BMC Genet. 2008;9:13 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphisms that have been associated with diseases, such as atherosclerosis (ALOX5), hypertension (CYP3A5, AGT, GNB3), diabetes (CAPN10, TCF7L2, PTPN22), prostate cancer (DG8S737, rs1447295), Hirschsprung disease (RET), and age-..
  5. Hanon O, Luong V, Mourad J, Bortolotto L, Safar M, Girerd X. Association between the G protein beta3 subunit 825t allele and radial artery hypertrophy. J Vasc Res. 2002;39:497-503 pubmed
    The GNB3 C825T gene polymorphism has recently been identified and associated with hypertension, obesity and left ventricular hypertrophy...
  6. Pamies Andreu E, Ramirez Lorca R, Stiefel García Junco P, Muñiz Grijalbo O, Vallejo Maroto I, Garcia Morillo S, et al. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and G-protein beta-3 subunit gene polymorphisms in salt-sensitive essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens. 2003;17:187-91 pubmed
    ..intron 2 conversion (IC) of the aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), and C825T of the beta-3 subunit of the protein G (GNB3). 41 patients (40.19%) were salt sensitive...
  7. Camilleri C, Carlson P, Camilleri M, Castillo E, Locke G, Geno D, et al. A study of candidate genotypes associated with dyspepsia in a U.S. community. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:581-92 pubmed
    ..S. community study is associated with the homozygous 825T or C alleles of GNbeta3 protein. Candidate genes controlling adrenergic, serotonergic, and CCKergic functions do not appear to be associated with dyspepsia. ..
  8. Hayakawa T, Takamura T, Abe T, Kaneko S. Association of the C825T polymorphism of the G-protein beta3 subunit gene with hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, diabetic complications, and diabetic therapies among Japanese. Metabolism. 2007;56:44-8 pubmed
    A C825T polymorphism of the gene encoding the G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) is associated with increased intracellular signal transduction. We know that this C825T polymorphism may influence hypertension and obesity...
  9. Dai S, Shi J, Ding Q, Wang H, Dong L, Sun D, et al. [Polymorphism analysis of 825C/T of the G-protein beta 3 subunit in high risk population of hypertension in the northeast China]. Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 2002;29:294-8 pubmed
    PCR-RFLP was used for genotyping of GNB3 C/T in 133 patients with EH and 257 healthy control subjects in the high risk population and in 98 patients with EH and 110 healthy control subjects in general population...
  10. Tahara T, Arisawa T, Shibata T, Wang F, Nakamura M, Sakata M, et al. Homozygous 825T allele of the GNB3 protein influences the susceptibility of Japanese to dyspepsia. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53:642-6 pubmed
    ..Recently, two different associations were reported between FD and G-protein beta3 (GNB3) subunit gene polymorphism...
  11. Kelly T, Rice T, Gu D, Hixson J, Chen J, Liu D, et al. Novel genetic variants in the alpha-adducin and guanine nucleotide binding protein beta-polypeptide 3 genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure. Am J Hypertens. 2009;22:985-92 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs) in the alpha-adducin (ADD1) and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) beta-polypeptide 3 (GNB3) genes and systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) pressure responses to salt intake...
  12. Lee H, Lee S, Choi J, Kim J, Sung I, Park H, et al. G protein beta3 subunit, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms in Koreans with irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:758-63 pubmed publisher
    The association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) based on Rome III criteria and G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3), interleukin (IL)-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha gene polymorphisms is uncertain...
  13. Sarzynski M, Rankinen T, Sternfeld B, Fornage M, Sidney S, Bouchard C. SNP-by-fitness and SNP-by-BMI interactions from seven candidate genes and incident hypertension after 20 years of follow-up: the CARDIA Fitness Study. J Hum Hypertens. 2011;25:509-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The association of baseline BMI with risk of hypertension was nominally modified by GNB3 rs2301339 genotype in whites...
  14. Lu J, Guo Q, Zhang L, Wang W. Association between the G-protein ?3 subunit C825T polymorphism with essential hypertension: a meta-analysis in Han Chinese population. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:8937-44 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to evaluate the contribution of the G-protein ?3 subunit C825T (GNB3-C825T) polymorphism to essential hypertension (EH) in Han Chinese population by performing meta-analysis...
  15. Bishop J, Moline J, Ellingrod V, Schultz S, Clayton A. Serotonin 2A -1438 G/A and G-protein Beta3 subunit C825T polymorphisms in patients with depression and SSRI-associated sexual side-effects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006;31:2281-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of the 5HT2A -1438 G/A and GNB3 C825T single nucleotide polymorphisms with overall sexual well-being and individual components of sexual health as ..
  16. Weinstein L, Chen M, Xie T, Liu J. Genetic diseases associated with heterotrimeric G proteins. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006;27:260-6 pubmed
    ..Common polymorphisms of the GNAS and GNB3 (which encodes Gbeta3) genes have been associated with multigenic disorders (e.g...
  17. Marcun Varda N, Zagradisnik B, Herodez S, Kokalj Vokac N, Gregoric A. Polymorphisms in four candidate genes in young patients with essential hypertension. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:353-8 pubmed
    ..We found no association between the investigated gene variants and EH, so we conclude that they do not confer a significantly increased risk of the development of EH in the Slovenian population of hypertensive children. ..
  18. Schurks M, Kurth T, Stude P, Rimmbach C, De Jesus J, Jonjic M, et al. G protein beta3 polymorphism and triptan response in cluster headache. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007;82:396-401 pubmed
    ..We analyzed whether a common polymorphism in the gene for the G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3 C825T) modulates responder rates to triptans among a cohort of 231 unrelated Caucasian CH patients...
  19. Kiani J, Saeed M, Parvez S, Frossard P. Association of G-protein beta-3 subunit gene (GNB3) T825 allele with Type II diabetes. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005;26:87-8 pubmed
    To date, the human G-protein beta 3 subunit (GNB3) gene and some of its variants represent some of the best examples of genetic influences that are involved in the determination of hypertension and obesity, which make it a sensible ..
  20. Wang X, Wang S, Lin R, Jiang X, Cheng Z, Turdi J, et al. GNB3 gene C825T and ACE gene I/D polymorphisms in essential hypertension in a Kazakh genetic isolate. J Hum Hypertens. 2004;18:663-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate whether the polymorphisms in the G-protein beta-3 subunit (GNB3) gene and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene are associated with essential hypertension (EH), we carried out ..
  21. Brand E, Wang J, Herrmann S, Staessen J. An epidemiological study of blood pressure and metabolic phenotypes in relation to the Gbeta3 C825T polymorphism. J Hypertens. 2003;21:729-37 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the higher blood pressure in TT homozygous men might arise via a metabolic pathway characterized by obesity and insulin resistance as well as via increased peripheral resistance secondary to the higher haematocrit. ..
  22. Turner S, Schwartz G, Chapman A, Boerwinkle E. C825T polymorphism of the G protein beta(3)-subunit and antihypertensive response to a thiazide diuretic. Hypertension. 2001;37:739-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, the C825T polymorphism of the G protein beta(3)-subunit may help identify patients with essential hypertension who are more responsive to diuretic therapy. ..
  23. Morrison A, Doris P, Folsom A, Nieto F, Boerwinkle E. G-protein beta3 subunit and alpha-adducin polymorphisms and risk of subclinical and clinical stroke. Stroke. 2001;32:822-9 pubmed
    ..This association does not appear to be mediated by established stroke risk factors, specifically blood pressure levels or hypertension status. ..
  24. Wenzel R, Siffert W, Bruck H, Philipp T, Schäfers R. Enhanced vasoconstriction to endothelin-1, angiotensin II and noradrenaline in carriers of the GNB3 825T allele in the skin microcirculation. Pharmacogenetics. 2002;12:489-95 pubmed
    ..The GNB3 C825T polymorphism is potentially an attractive pharmacogenetic marker to predict hormone-mediated responses in ..
  25. Rosskopf D, Manthey I, Siffert W. Identification and ethnic distribution of major haplotypes in the gene GNB3 encoding the G-protein beta3 subunit. Pharmacogenetics. 2002;12:209-20 pubmed
    The 825T-allele of the gene GNB3 encoding the G protein beta3 subunit is associated with hypertension and obesity, and identifies individuals highly responsive to diuretic therapy...
  26. Panoulas V, Smith J, Stavropoulos Kalinoglou A, Douglas K, Nightingale P, Kitas G. Lack of an association of GNB3 C825T polymorphism and blood pressure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2009;31:428-39 pubmed
    G-protein beta 3 subunit (GNB3) C825T (rs5443) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been implicated as a risk factor for essential hypertension in the general population...
  27. Oshima T, Nakajima S, Yokoyama T, Toyoshima F, Sakurai J, Tanaka J, et al. The G-protein beta3 subunit 825 TT genotype is associated with epigastric pain syndrome-like dyspepsia. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Several reports indicate an association between FD and G-protein beta3 (GNB3) subunit gene polymorphism (C825T); however, these studies had small sample sizes and the findings are inconclusive...
  28. Yamamoto M, Abe M, Jin J, Wu Z, Tabara Y, Mogi M, et al. Association of GNB3 gene with pulse pressure and clustering of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Japanese. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;316:744-8 pubmed
    ..The C825T polymorphism in the gene coding for the beta3 subunit of G proteins (GNB3) has been shown to be associated with several phenotypes such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus ..
  29. Ruixing Y, Jinzhen W, Weixiong L, Yuming C, Dezhai Y, Shangling P. The environmental and genetic evidence for the association of hyperlipidemia and hypertension. J Hypertens. 2009;27:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that hyperlipidemia and hypertension have many common risk factors. Hyperlipidemia is associated with hypertension in many aspects. ..
  30. Naber C, Husing J, Wolfhard U, Erbel R, Siffert W. Interaction of the ACE D allele and the GNB3 825T allele in myocardial infarction. Hypertension. 2000;36:986-9 pubmed
    ..The 825T allele of the G-protein ss(3)-subunit gene (GNB3) associated with enhanced G-protein signaling is a candidate to interact with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (..
  31. Hager A, Bildau J, Kreuder J, Kaemmerer H, Hess J. Impact of genomic polymorphism on arterial hypertension after aortic coarctation repair. Int J Cardiol. 2011;151:63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1166A>C), aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2, c.-344C>T), endothelin 1 (EDN1, EDN1/ex5-c.5665G>T), G protein (GNB3, c.825C>T), G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4, c...
  32. Huang X, Ju Z, Song Y, Zhang H, Sun K, Lu H, et al. Lack of association between the G protein beta3 subunit gene and essential hypertension in Chinese: a case-control and a family-based study. J Mol Med (Berl). 2003;81:729-35 pubmed
    A C825T polymorphism of the gene encoding the G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) is associated with enhanced G protein activity and increased intracellular signal transduction...
  33. Hauner H, Meier M, Jöckel K, Frey U, Siffert W. Prediction of successful weight reduction under sibutramine therapy through genotyping of the G-protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) C825T polymorphism. Pharmacogenetics. 2003;13:453-9 pubmed
    ..We genotyped 111 participants of a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial for the GNB3 C825T polymorphism and analysed associations of genotypes with treatment outcome...
  34. Lin C, Tsai S, Hong C. Association analysis of a functional G protein beta3 subunit gene polymorphism (C825T) in mood disorders. Neuropsychobiology. 2001;44:118-21 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a functional polymorphism (C825T) in the G protein beta3 gene subunit (GNB3) confers susceptibility to mood disorders...
  35. Lee H, Sung S, Han C, Kim Y, Kim S, Lee M, et al. G-protein beta3 subunit C825T polymorphism tends to be associated with seasonal variation in young male college students. Neuropsychobiology. 2005;52:135-9 pubmed
    This study investigated the relationship between G-protein beta(3) subunit (GNB3) C825T polymorphism and seasonal variation in 189 young male college students...
  36. Serretti A, Lorenzi C, Cusin C, Zanardi R, Lattuada E, Rossini D, et al. SSRIs antidepressant activity is influenced by G beta 3 variants. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2003;13:117-22 pubmed
    ..009) and this effect was independent from analyzed demographic and clinical variables. These results confirm preliminary reports and shed further light on the genetics of the response to antidepressant treatments. ..
  37. Grove M, Morrison A, Folsom A, Boerwinkle E, Hoelscher D, Bray M. Gene-environment interaction and the GNB3 gene in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007;31:919-26 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between the G-protein beta-3 (GNB3) 825C>T polymorphism and physical activity in relation to prevalent obesity and hypertension...
  38. Sun C, Wang J, Islam F, Heckbert S, Klein R, Siscovick D, et al. Hypertension genes and retinal vascular calibre: the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Hum Hypertens. 2009;23:578-84 pubmed publisher
    ..alpha-adducin (ADD1/G460W), beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2/Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu) and G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3/C825T), with retinal arteriolar calibre (an intermediate marker of chronic hypertension) and venular calibre...
  39. van Lelyveld N, Linde J, Schipper M, Samsom M. Candidate genotypes associated with functional dyspepsia. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:767-73 pubmed publisher
    ..serotonin receptor type three A subunit (HTR3A), the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) were analysed...
  40. Lee J, Kim S, Cho J, Woo S, Kang H. GNB3 C825T polymorphism and elevated blood pressure. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30:892-7 pubmed publisher
    Unlike in Europeans and Africans, the relationship between the human guanine nucleotide binding beta polypeptide 3 (GNB3) C825T gene polymorphism (rs5443) and blood pressures is inconsistent in Asians...
  41. Tozawa Y. G protein beta3 subunit variant: tendency of increasing susceptibility to hypertension in Japanese. Blood Press. 2001;10:131-4 pubmed
    ..together with the finding that the T825 variant might be associated with the occurrence of a splice variant GNB3-s in a white population...
  42. Alioglu E, Ercan E, Tengiz I, Yildiz A, Onsel Türk U, Saygi S, et al. G protein beta3 subunit gene polymorphism in Turkish hypertensives. Anadolu Kardiyol Derg. 2008;8:331-5 pubmed
    ..It seems that the G protein b3 subunit C825T gene polymorphism is associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Furthermore, the study indicates that the G protein b3 subunit may be a susceptible gene to essential hypertension. ..
  43. Lee H, Paik J, Kang S, Lim S, Kim L. Allelic variants interaction of CLOCK gene and G-protein beta3 subunit gene with diurnal preference. Chronobiol Int. 2007;24:589-97 pubmed
    ..C/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CLOCK gene and the 825C/T SNP in the G-protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) have been reported to influence diurnal preference...
  44. Izawa H, Yamada Y, Okada T, Tanaka M, Hirayama H, Yokota M. Prediction of genetic risk for hypertension. Hypertension. 2003;41:1035-40 pubmed
  45. Pitsavos C, Papadimitriou L, Panagiotakos D, Chrysohoou C, Skoumas J, Dedoussis G, et al. Lack of association between the C825T polymorphism in G-protein beta-3 subunit and arterial blood pressure levels in cardiovascular disease free individuals: the ATTICA epidemiological study. J Hum Hypertens. 2006;20:303-5 pubmed
  46. Niu W, Qi Y. Association of ?-adducin and G-protein ?3 genetic polymorphisms with hypertension: a meta-analysis of Chinese populations. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17052 pubmed publisher
    Mounting evidence has suggested that ?-adducin and G-protein ?3 (GNB3) genes are logical candidates for salt-sensitive hypertension...
  47. Khamidullaeva G, Eliseyeva M, Nagay A, Abdullaeva G. C825T polymorphism of the G-protein ?3 subunit and its association with essential hypertension in Uzbek males. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2011;39:198-204 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the association between the C825T polymorphism of the G-protein ?3 subunit (GNB3) gene with essential hypertension (EH) and cardiovascular remodeling markers in Uzbek males...
  48. Matsunaga T, Nagasumi K, Yamamura T, Gu N, Nishikino M, Ueda Y, et al. Association of C825T polymorphism of G protein beta3 subunit with the autonomic nervous system in young healthy Japanese individuals. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18:523-9 pubmed
    The T allele of the C825T polymorphism of the G protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) is reported to be associated with increased intracellular signal transduction and the prevalence of essential hypertension...
  49. Markoutsaki T, Karantanos T, Gazouli M, Anagnou N, Ladas S, Karamanolis D. Serotonin transporter and G protein beta 3 subunit gene polymorphisms in Greeks with irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci. 2011;56:3276-80 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter (SERT) and G protein ?3 subunit (GNB3) genes might contribute to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
  50. Klenke S, Kussmann M, Siffert W. The GNB3 C825T polymorphism as a pharmacogenetic marker in the treatment of hypertension, obesity, and depression. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:594-606 pubmed publisher
    ..The ?3-subunit encoded by the gene GNB3 is widely expressed and, therefore, involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes...
  51. Zhang L, Zhang H, Sun K, Song Y, Hui R, Huang X. The 825C/T polymorphism of G-protein beta3 subunit gene and risk of ischaemic stroke. J Hum Hypertens. 2005;19:709-14 pubmed
    ..01-1.82, P=0.046). After further adjustment with traditional risk factors to stroke, the association is not significant. In conclusion, the GNB3 825T allele is not an independent risk factor to ischaemic stroke in the Chinese population.
  52. Klintschar M, Stiller D, Schwaiger P, Kleiber M. DNA polymorphisms in the tyrosine hydroxylase and GNB3 genes: association with unexpected death from acute myocardial infarction and increased heart weight. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;153:142-6 pubmed
    ..a tetrameric microsatellite in the tyrosine hydroxylase gene and the single nucleotide polymorphism C825T in the GNB3 gene in 116 sudden deaths from MI (78 males, 38 females) and in a control group of 137 deaths from natural causes ..
  53. Lee H, Cha J, Ham B, Han C, Kim Y, Lee S, et al. Association between a G-protein beta 3 subunit gene polymorphism and the symptomatology and treatment responses of major depressive disorders. Pharmacogenomics J. 2004;4:29-33 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether the C825T polymorphism of the beta3 subunit of G protein (GNB3) gene is associated with the symptom severity or treatment response of major depressive disorders (MDDs) in a ..
  54. Johansson C, Willeit M, Aron L, Smedh C, Ekholm J, Paunio T, et al. Seasonal affective disorder and the G-protein beta-3-subunit C825T polymorphism. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55:317-9 pubmed
    ..8, Bonferroni corrected p =.045). These results suggest that the G-protein beta-3-subunit 825 T-allele does not play a major role in susceptibility to seasonal affective disorder in the population studied. ..
  55. Saito Y, Locke G, Zimmerman J, Holtmann G, Slusser J, de Andrade M, et al. A genetic association study of 5-HTT LPR and GNbeta3 C825T polymorphisms with irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2007;19:465-70 pubmed
    ..05). This study suggests that the 5-HTT LPR polymorphism may be associated with mixed-IBS, but not IBS overall. No association was observed for the GNbeta3 C825T polymorphism with IBS overall or subtypes. ..
  56. Yamagishi K, Tanigawa T, Cui R, Tabata M, Ikeda A, Yao M, et al. G-protein beta-3 subunit C825T polymorphism, sodium and arterial blood pressure: a community-based study of Japanese men and women. Ann Hum Genet. 2006;70:759-66 pubmed
    ..This finding helps to explain part of the discrepancy between the previously reported genetic association among different ethnic groups. ..
  57. Gentile G, Missori S, Borro M, Sebastianelli A, Simmaco M, Martelletti P. Frequencies of genetic polymorphisms related to triptans metabolism in chronic migraine. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:151-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Such genomic analysis is part of an integrated platform able to evaluate different levels of metabolic pathways of drugs in CM and their influence in the chronicization process. ..
  58. Benjafield A, Lin R, Dalziel B, Gosby A, Caterson I, Morris B. G-protein beta3 subunit gene splice variant in obesity and overweight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001;25:777-80 pubmed
    To determine whether the C825T polymorphism of the G-protein beta3 subunit gene (GNB3) is associated with overweight and obesity...
  59. Kedzierska K, Ciechanowski K, Safranow K, Bober J, Gołembiewska E, Kwiatkowska E, et al. GNB3 C825T and ACE I/D polymorphisms on the sodium-proton exchanger and the prevalence of essential hypertension in males. Arch Med Res. 2006;37:150-7 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis if the interaction between the G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) C825T polymorphism and ACE I/D polymorphism could lead to the disclosure of increased activity of sodium-proton exchanger and ..
  60. Souza R, De Luca V, Muscettola G, Rosa D, de Bartolomeis A, Romano Silva M, et al. Association of antipsychotic induced weight gain and body mass index with GNB3 gene: a meta-analysis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2008;32:1848-53 pubmed publisher
    It has been reported that C825T variant in the gene encoding the G-protein subunit beta3 (GNB3) is associated with antipsychotic-induced weight gain and obesity...
  61. Holmen O, Romundstad S, Melien O. Association between the G protein ?3 subunit C825T polymorphism and the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in hypertensives: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:1121-7 pubmed publisher
    Several studies examining the C825T polymorphism of the G protein ?3 subunit (GNB3) have shown inconsistent results regarding susceptibility to hypertension...
  62. Suwazono Y, Okubo Y, Kobayashi E, Miura K, Morikawa Y, Ishizaki M, et al. Lack of association of human G-protein beta 3 subunit variant with hypertension in Japanese workers. J Hypertens. 2004;22:493-500 pubmed
    ..Targeting of this polymorphism is therefore unlikely to be beneficial when attempting to prevent hypertension in the general Japanese population. ..
  63. Hauge Opdal S, Melien Ø, Rootwelt H, Vege A, Arnestad M, Ole Rognum T. The G protein beta3 subunit 825C allele is associated with sudden infant death due to infection. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:1129-32 pubmed
    ..The C allele, on the other hand, appears to represent a disadvantage in this regard. ..
  64. Bae Y, Park C, Han J, Hong Y, Song H, Shin E, et al. Interaction between GNB3 C825T and ACE I/D polymorphisms in essential hypertension in Koreans. J Hum Hypertens. 2007;21:159-66 pubmed
    ..The G-protein beta3-subunit (GNB3) 825T allele, associated with enhanced G-protein signalling, is a strong candidate for interactions with ..
  65. Shioji K, Kokubo Y, Mannami T, Inamoto N, Morisaki H, Mino Y, et al. Association between hypertension and the alpha-adducin, beta1-adrenoreceptor, and G-protein beta3 subunit genes in the Japanese population; the Suita study. Hypertens Res. 2004;27:31-7 pubmed
    ..the alpha-adducin (ADD1/Gly460Trp), beta1-adrenoreceptor (ADRB1/Arg389Gly), and G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3/C825T) gene polymorphisms...
  66. Kuo T, Kang M, Chen J, Ho H, Ting C, Lin T, et al. A two-stage matched case-control study on multiple hypertensive candidate genes in Han Chinese. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:804-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The first SNP (rs2301339) is located at guanine nucleotide-binding protein ?3 subunit (GNB3) and the other one (rs17254521) is located at insulin receptor (INSR)...
  67. Siffert W, Rosskopf D, Siffert G, Busch S, Moritz A, Erbel R, et al. Association of a human G-protein beta3 subunit variant with hypertension. Nat Genet. 1998;18:45-8 pubmed
    ..a novel polymorphism (C825T) in exon 10 of the gene encoding the beta3 subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins (GNB3)...