Gene Symbol: GNAT3
Description: G protein subunit alpha transducin 3
Alias: GDCA, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-3, guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 3, gustatory G protein, gustducin alpha-3 chain, gustducin, alpha polypeptide
Species: human
Products:     GNAT3

Top Publications

  1. Fushan A, Simons C, Slack J, Drayna D. Association between common variation in genes encoding sweet taste signaling components and human sucrose perception. Chem Senses. 2010;35:579-92 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis revealed significant correlation of sucrose AUC scores with genetic variation occurring in the GNAT3 gene (single point P = 10(-3) to 10(-4)), which encodes the taste-specific G(alpha) protein subunit gustducin...
  2. Jang H, Kokrashvili Z, Theodorakis M, Carlson O, Kim B, Zhou J, et al. Gut-expressed gustducin and taste receptors regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15069-74 pubmed
    ..Modulating GLP-1 secretion in gut "taste cells" may provide an important treatment for obesity, diabetes and abnormal gut motility. ..
  3. Suga T, Yamaguchi H, Ogura J, Mano N. Characterization of conjugated and unconjugated bile acid transport via human organic solute transporter α/β. Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Saturable OSTα/β-mediated transports of CDCA, DCA, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA), glycolithocholic acid (GLCA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA), and taurolithocholic acid (TLCA) were observed...
  4. . Continuum of Host-Gut Microbial Co-metabolism: Host CYP3A4/3A7 are Responsible for Tertiary Oxidations of Deoxycholate Species. Drug Metab Dispos. 2019;47:283-294 pubmed publisher
    ..CYP3A7 were responsible for the regioselective oxidations of both DCA and its conjugated forms, glycodeoxycholate (GDCA) and taurodeoxycholate (TDCA)...
  5. Barnett S, Ogungbenro K, Menochet K, Shen H, Humphreys W, Galetin A. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Utility of 20 Endogenous Molecules as Biomarkers of OATP1B Inhibition Compared with Rosuvastatin and Coproporphyrin I. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2019;368:125-135 pubmed publisher
    ..biomarkers investigated tetradecanedioate (TDA), hexadecanedioate (HDA), glycocholic acid, glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), and coproporphyrin III (CPIII) showed the high AUCR (2.1-8.5) and fT (0...
  6. Lake A, Novak P, Shipkova P, Aranibar N, Robertson D, Reily M, et al. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;268:132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver...
  7. Woolbright B, McGill M, Staggs V, Winefield R, Gholami P, Olyaee M, et al. Glycodeoxycholic acid levels as prognostic biomarker in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure patients. Toxicol Sci. 2014;142:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) was significantly increased in non-surviving AALF patients compared with survivors...
  8. Gheran C, Rigaux G, Callewaert M, Berquand A, Molinari M, Chuburu F, et al. Biocompatibility of Gd-Loaded Chitosan-Hyaluronic Acid Nanogels as Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Cancer Imaging. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2018;8: pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the biocompatibility of Gd-loaded hyaluronic acid-chitosan-based nanogels (GdCA⊂CS-TPP/HA) with two chitosan concentrations (2.5 and 1...
  9. Li X, Staszewski L, Xu H, Durick K, Zoller M, Adler E. Human receptors for sweet and umami taste. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4692-6 pubmed
    ..The ligand specificities of rat T1R2/T1R3 and T1R1/T1R3 correspond to those of their human counterparts. These findings implicate the T1Rs in umami taste and suggest that sweet and umami taste receptors share a common subunit. ..

More Information


  1. Takami S, Getchell T, McLaughlin S, Margolskee R, Getchell M. Human taste cells express the G protein alpha-gustducin and neuron-specific enolase. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1994;22:193-203 pubmed
    ..The patterns of expression of alpha-gustducin, and coexpression with NSE, may correlate with specialized subtypes or developmental stages of taste receptor cells. ..
  2. Tizzano M, Grigereit L, Shultz N, Clary M, Finger T. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Human Vallate Taste Buds. Chem Senses. 2015;40:655-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The typical taste cell markers PLCβ2, GNAT3 (gustducin) and the T1R3 receptor stain elongated cells in human taste buds consistent with the Type II cells in ..
  3. Lambright D, Noel J, Hamm H, Sigler P. Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein. Nature. 1994;369:621-8 pubmed
    ..The changes are distinct from those observed in other members of the GTPase superfamily. ..
  4. Thakare R, Gao H, Kosa R, Bi Y, Varma M, Cerny M, et al. Leveraging of Rifampicin-Dosed Cynomolgus Monkeys to Identify Bile Acid 3-O-Sulfate Conjugates as Potential Novel Biomarkers for Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides. Drug Metab Dispos. 2017;45:721-733 pubmed publisher
    ..maximal ≥50-fold increase in plasma AUC) was observed for the sulfates of five BAs [glycodeoxycholate (GDCA-S), glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDCA-S), taurochenodeoxycholate, deoxycholate (DCA-S), and taurodeoxycholate (TDCA-S)]...
  5. Zapata I, Serpell J, Alvarez C. Genetic mapping of canine fear and aggression. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:572 pubmed publisher
    ..with separation anxiety, touch-sensitivity, owner directed aggression and dog rivalry; and ii) two loci, between GNAT3 and CD36 on chr18, and near IGSF1 on chrX, are associated with several traits, including touch-sensitivity, non-..
  6. Wang C, Liu S, Peng J, Tang C, Zhu W. Bile acids cycle disruption in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma promotes the elevation of interleukin-10 secretion. Afr Health Sci. 2015;15:1200-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with healthy volunteers, the level of DCA and GDCA exhibited higher abundance in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (p<0.01)...
  7. Oldham W, Van Eps N, Preininger A, Hubbell W, Hamm H. Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:772-7 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first direct observation of R*-mediated conformational changes in G proteins and define the structural basis for GDP release from G alpha. ..
  8. Rozengurt N, Wu S, Chen M, Huang C, Sternini C, Rozengurt E. Colocalization of the alpha-subunit of gustducin with PYY and GLP-1 in L cells of human colon. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G792-802 pubmed
  9. Margolskee R, Dyer J, Kokrashvili Z, Salmon K, Ilegems E, Daly K, et al. T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na+-glucose cotransporter 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15075-80 pubmed
  10. Oizumi K, Sekine S, Fukagai M, Susukida T, Ito K. Identification of Bile Acids Responsible for Inhibiting the Bile Salt Export Pump, Leading to Bile Acid Accumulation and Cell Toxicity in Rat Hepatocytes. J Pharm Sci. 2017;106:2412-2419 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, 3 BAs (chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA], DCA, and glyco-DCA [GDCA]) showed increased toxicity in the presence of 10 μM CsA, whereas the other BAs did not...
  11. Fehr J, Meyer D, Widmayer P, Borth H, Ackermann F, Wilhelm B, et al. Expression of the G-protein alpha-subunit gustducin in mammalian spermatozoa. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2007;193:21-34 pubmed
  12. Ginos B, Navarro S, Schwarz Y, Gu H, Wang D, Randolph T, et al. Circulating bile acids in healthy adults respond differently to a dietary pattern characterized by whole grains, legumes and fruits and vegetables compared to a diet high in refined grains and added sugars: A randomized, controlled, crossover feeding. Metabolism. 2018;83:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..acid (UDCA), 5β‑cholanic acid‑3β,12α‑diol, 5‑cholanic acid‑3β‑ol, and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were statistically significantly positively associated with HOMA-IR individually, and as a group, total, 12α‑..
  13. Yamamoto Y, Ozawa Y, Yokoyama T, Nakamuta N. Immunohistochemical characterization of brush cells in the rat larynx. J Mol Histol. 2018;49:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..showed villin-immunoreactive cells were not immunoreactive for the markers of solitary chemosensory cells, GNAT3 and phospholipase C, ?2-subunit (PLC?2), or for that of neuroendocrine cells, synaptosome-associated protein 25kD...
  14. Caricasole A, Sala C, Roncarati R, Formenti E, Terstappen G. Cloning and characterization of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC beta 1). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1517:63-72 pubmed
    ..Finally, we characterized the structure of the PLC beta 1 locus and confirmed its mapping to human chromosome 20. ..
  15. Steinert R, Gerspach A, Gutmann H, Asarian L, Drewe J, Beglinger C. The functional involvement of gut-expressed sweet taste receptors in glucose-stimulated secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY). Clin Nutr. 2011;30:524-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose-stimulated secretion of GLP-1 and PYY is reduced by a sweet taste antagonist, suggesting the functional involvement of gut-expressed sweet taste receptors in glucose-stimulated secretion of both peptides in humans. ..
  16. Farook V, Puppala S, Schneider J, Fowler S, Chittoor G, Dyer T, et al. Metabolic syndrome is linked to chromosome 7q21 and associated with genetic variants in CD36 and GNAT3 in Mexican Americans. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20:2083-92 pubmed publisher
    ..the fatty acid translocase (FAT or CD36, 18 SNPs) gene and guanine nucleotide binding protein, ? transducing 3 (GNAT3, 11 SNPs) gene, located within the 1-LOD support interval region for their association with MS and its related ..
  17. Wang G, Li D, Ma X, An H, Zhai Z, Ren F, et al. Functional role of oppA encoding an oligopeptide-binding protein from Lactobacillus salivarius Ren in bile tolerance. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015;42:1167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..while no significant change was observed when exposed to sodium glycocholate and sodium glycodeoxycholate (GDCA). Our results indicate that OppA confers specific resistance to taurine-conjugated bile salts in L. salivarius Ren...
  18. Liu C, Lin X, Wan Z, Zou Y, Cheng F, Yang X. The physicochemical properties, in vitro binding capacities and in vivo hypocholesterolemic activity of soluble dietary fiber extracted from soy hulls. Food Funct. 2016;7:4830-4840 pubmed
    ..62 mg g-1 sample at pH 7), bile acid-binding capacity (3.3, 1.73 and 6.65 ?M of GCA, GCDCA and GDCA per 100 mg of sample), glucose dialysis retardation index (64.76%), and in vivo hypocholesterolemic activity (16...
  19. Wendell S, Wang X, Brown M, Cooper M, DeSensi R, Weyant R, et al. Taste genes associated with dental caries. J Dent Res. 2010;89:1198-202 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore hypothesized that genetic variation in taste pathway genes (TAS2R38, TAS1R2, GNAT3) may be associated with dental caries risk and/or protection...
  20. Li L, Wang Y, Liu Y, Zhao S, Zheng W. Efficient self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCOB green laser at 545??nm pumped by a 796??nm laser diode. Appl Opt. 2017;56:4025-4028 pubmed publisher
    A 796 nm laser-diode (LD)-pumped self-frequency-doubling Nd:GdCa4O(BO3)3 (Nd:GdCOB) green laser is first demonstrated. With 2...
  21. Moine F, Brechbühl J, Nenniger Tosato M, Beaumann M, Broillet M. Alarm pheromone and kairomone detection via bitter taste receptors in the mouse Grueneberg ganglion. BMC Biol. 2018;16:12 pubmed publisher
    ..transcripts of the taste receptors Tas2r115, Tas2r131, Tas2r143 and their associated G protein α-gustducin (Gnat3). We were further able to confirm their expression at the protein level...
  22. Shoji N, Kaneta N, Satoh Kuriwada S, Tsuchiya M, Hashimoto N, Uneyama H, et al. Expression of umami-taste-related genes in the tongue: a pilot study for genetic taste diagnosis. Oral Dis. 2015;21:801-6 pubmed publisher
    ..G protein, and gene expression analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction of β-actin, gustducin (GNAT3) and umami receptors (T1R1, T1R3 and mGluR1) were performed...
  23. Huang L, Shanker Y, Dubauskaite J, Zheng J, Yan W, Rosenzweig S, et al. Ggamma13 colocalizes with gustducin in taste receptor cells and mediates IP3 responses to bitter denatonium. Nat Neurosci. 1999;2:1055-62 pubmed
    ..We conclude that gustducin heterotrimers transduce responses to bitter and sweet compounds via alpha-gustducin's regulation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) and Gbetagamma's activation of phospholipase C (PLC). ..
  24. Wall M, Coleman D, Lee E, Iñiguez Lluhí J, Posner B, Gilman A, et al. The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2. Cell. 1995;83:1047-58 pubmed
    ..Repeated WD motifs in beta form a circularized sevenfold beta propeller. The conserved cores of these motifs are a scaffold for display of their more variable linkers on the exterior face of each propeller blade. ..
  25. Knaapila A, Hwang L, Lysenko A, Duke F, Fesi B, Khoshnevisan A, et al. Genetic analysis of chemosensory traits in human twins. Chem Senses. 2012;37:869-81 pubmed publisher
    ..of basil and a bitter taste receptor gene, TAS2R60, and between cilantro and variants in three genes (TRPA1, GNAT3, and TAS2R50)...