Gene Symbol: GNAQ
Description: G protein subunit alpha q
Alias: CMC1, G-ALPHA-q, GAQ, SWS, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide, guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-q
Species: human
Products:     GNAQ

Top Publications

  1. Gudi S, Huvar I, White C, McKnight N, Dusserre N, Boss G, et al. Rapid activation of Ras by fluid flow is mediated by Galpha(q) and Gbetagamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins in human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:994-1000 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the rapid, shear-induced activation of Ras is mediated by Galpha(q) through the activity of Gbetagamma subunits in human vascular endothelial cells. ..
  2. Johnson G, Leis L, Dunlop P. Specificity of G alpha q and G alpha 11 gene expression in platelets and erythrocytes. Expressions of cellular differentiation and species differences. Biochem J. 1996;318 ( Pt 3):1023-31 pubmed
    b>G alpha q and G alpha 11, members of the Gq family of G-proteins, transduce signals from receptors to the beta isoenzymes of phosphatidyl-inositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC)...
  3. Petit A, Geoffroy P, Belisle S. Expression of angiotensin II type-I receptor and phospholipase C-linked G alpha q/11 protein in the human placenta. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 1996;3:316-21 pubmed
    ..We also studied the ontogenesis of phospholipase C-linked G alpha q/11 protein, which is known to transduce ANG II type-1 (AT1) receptor signal...
  4. Küsters Vandevelde H, van Engen van Grunsven I, Kusters B, van Dijk M, Groenen P, Wesseling P, et al. Improved discrimination of melanotic schwannoma from melanocytic lesions by combined morphological and GNAQ mutational analysis. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;120:755-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we described the presence of activating codon 209 mutations in the GNAQ gene in primary leptomeningeal melanocytic lesions. Identical codon 209 mutations have been described in blue nevi...
  5. Berstein G, Blank J, Jhon D, Exton J, Rhee S, Ross E. Phospholipase C-beta 1 is a GTPase-activating protein for Gq/11, its physiologic regulator. Cell. 1992;70:411-8 pubmed
    ..Such GAP activity by an effector coupled to a trimeric G protein can reconcile slow GTP hydrolysis by pure G proteins in vitro with fast physiologic deactivation of G protein-mediated signaling. ..
  6. Van Raamsdonk C, Fitch K, Fuchs H, de Angelis M, Barsh G. Effects of G-protein mutations on skin color. Nat Genet. 2004;36:961-8 pubmed
    ..We identified three of four such mutations as hypermorphic alleles of Gnaq and Gna11, which encode widely expressed Galphaq subunits, act in an additive and quantitative manner, and require ..
  7. Van Raamsdonk C, Bezrookove V, Green G, Bauer J, Gaugler L, O Brien J, et al. Frequent somatic mutations of GNAQ in uveal melanoma and blue naevi. Nature. 2009;457:599-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report frequent somatic mutations in the heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit, GNAQ, in blue naevi (83%) and ocular melanoma of the uvea (46%)...
  8. Ngai J, Inngjerdingen M, Berge T, Tasken K. Interplay between the heterotrimeric G-protein subunits Galphaq and Galphai2 sets the threshold for chemotaxis and TCR activation. BMC Immunol. 2009;10:27 pubmed publisher
    ..This is compatible with the notion that the level of Galphaq activation contributes to determining the commitment of the T cell either to migration or activation through the TCR. ..
  9. Lamba S, Felicioni L, Buttitta F, Bleeker F, Malatesta S, Corbo V, et al. Mutational profile of GNAQQ209 in human tumors. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6833 pubmed publisher
    ..mutations have recently been identified in the ras-like domain of the heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit (GNAQ) in blue naevi 83%, malignant blue naevi (50%) and ocular melanoma of the uvea (46%)...

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Mudhar H, Doherty R, Salawu A, Sisley K, Rennie I. Immunohistochemical and molecular pathology of ocular uveal melanocytoma: evidence for somatic GNAQ mutations. Br J Ophthalmol. 2013;97:924-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We wanted to gain an understanding of the role of GNAQ, GNA11 and BRAF V600E in the pathogenesis of uveal melanocytoma and in cases of transformation to uveal melanoma ..
  2. Dong Q, Shenker A, Way J, Haddad B, Lin K, Hughes M, et al. Molecular cloning of human G alpha q cDNA and chromosomal localization of the G alpha q gene (GNAQ) and a processed pseudogene. Genomics. 1995;30:470-75 pubmed
    b>G alpha q is the alpha subunit of one of the heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins that mediates stimulation of phospholipase C beta...
  3. Heximer S, Watson N, Linder M, Blumer K, Hepler J. RGS2/G0S8 is a selective inhibitor of Gqalpha function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14389-93 pubmed
    ..These results identify a clear physiological role for RGS2, and describe the first example of an RGS protein that is a selective inhibitor of Gqalpha function. ..
  4. Ma Y, Huang X. Identification of the binding site for Gqalpha on its effector Bruton's tyrosine kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:12197-201 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose an activation model that entails binding of Gqalpha to the TH-SH3 region, thereby disrupting the TH-SH3 intramolecular interaction and activating Btk. ..
  5. Barnes W, Reiter E, Violin J, Ren X, Milligan G, Lefkowitz R. beta-Arrestin 1 and Galphaq/11 coordinately activate RhoA and stress fiber formation following receptor stimulation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:8041-50 pubmed
  6. Rojas R, Yohe M, Gershburg S, Kawano T, Kozasa T, Sondek J. Galphaq directly activates p63RhoGEF and Trio via a conserved extension of the Dbl homology-associated pleckstrin homology domain. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29201-10 pubmed
    ..This unique extension is conserved in the related Dbl-family members Trio and Kalirin and we show that the C-terminal Rho-specific DH-PH cassette of Trio is similarly activated by Galpha(q). ..
  7. Onken M, Worley L, Long M, Duan S, Council M, Bowcock A, et al. Oncogenic mutations in GNAQ occur early in uveal melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:5230-4 pubmed publisher
    ..For GNAQ, a stimulatory alpha(q) G-protein subunit which was recently found to be mutated in UMs, resequencing was expanded ..
  8. Ngai J, Methi T, Andressen K, Levy F, Torgersen K, Vang T, et al. The heterotrimeric G-protein alpha-subunit Galphaq regulates TCR-mediated immune responses through an Lck-dependent pathway. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:3208-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data argue for a role of Galphaq in the fine-tuning of proximal TCR signals at the level of Lck and a negative regulatory role of Galphaq in transcriptional activation of cytokine responses. ..
  9. Bauer J, Kilic E, Vaarwater J, Bastian B, Garbe C, de Klein A. Oncogenic GNAQ mutations are not correlated with disease-free survival in uveal melanoma. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:813-5 pubmed publisher
    Recently, oncogenic G protein alpha subunit q (GNAQ) mutations have been described in about 50% of uveal melanomas and in the blue nevi of the skin...
  10. Pópulo H, Vinagre J, Lopes J, Soares P. Analysis of GNAQ mutations, proliferation and MAPK pathway activation in uveal melanomas. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011;95:715-9 pubmed publisher
    To study the GNAQ mutational status in a series of uveal melanomas and evaluate possible associations with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway protein expression and tumour proliferation markers...
  11. Van Raamsdonk C, Griewank K, Crosby M, Garrido M, Vemula S, Wiesner T, et al. Mutations in GNA11 in uveal melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2191-9 pubmed publisher
    Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular cancer. There are no effective therapies for metastatic disease. Mutations in GNAQ, the gene encoding an alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, are found in 40% of uveal melanomas.
  12. Koopmans A, Vaarwater J, Paridaens D, Naus N, Kilic E, de Klein A. Patient survival in uveal melanoma is not affected by oncogenic mutations in GNAQ and GNA11. Br J Cancer. 2013;109:493-6 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, encoding the oncogenic G-protein alpha subunit q and 11, respectively, occur frequently in the majority of uveal melanomas...
  13. Chikumi H, Vazquez Prado J, Servitja J, Miyazaki H, Gutkind J. Potent activation of RhoA by Galpha q and Gq-coupled receptors. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27130-4 pubmed
  14. Lutz S, Shankaranarayanan A, Coco C, Ridilla M, Nance M, Vettel C, et al. Structure of Galphaq-p63RhoGEF-RhoA complex reveals a pathway for the activation of RhoA by GPCRs. Science. 2007;318:1923-7 pubmed
    ..We propose that this structure represents the crux of an ancient signal transduction pathway that is expected to be important in an array of physiological processes. ..
  15. Swenson Fields K, Sandquist J, Rossol Allison J, Blat I, Wennerberg K, Burridge K, et al. MLK3 limits activated Galphaq signaling to Rho by binding to p63RhoGEF. Mol Cell. 2008;32:43-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a scaffolding role for MLK3 in controlling the extent of Rho activation that modulates cell migration. Moreover, they suggest that MLK3 functions as a network hub that links a number of signaling pathways. ..
  16. Liang W, Ji L, Zhang Y, Zhen Y, Zhang Q, Xu X, et al. Transcriptome Differences in Porcine Alveolar Macrophages from Tongcheng and Large White Pigs in Response to Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..While, 898 specific DEGs were identified in LW pigs, including GNAQ, GNB5, GNG2, CALM4 and RHOQ, which were involved in suppression of Gαq and PI3K-AKT signaling...
  17. Ruggieri M, Praticò A. Mosaic Neurocutaneous Disorders and Their Causes. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2015;22:207-33 pubmed publisher
    ..pathways encompassing receptor-protein and protein-to-protein cascades (eg, RAS, MAPK, mTOR, PI3K/AKT and GNAQ pathways), which are often responsible of the mosaic distribution of cutaneous and extra-cutaneous features...
  18. Padol A, Sukumaran S, Sadam A, Kesavan M, Arunvikram K, Verma A, et al. Hypercholesterolemia impairs oxytocin-induced uterine contractility in late pregnant mouse. Reproduction. 2017;153:565-576 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, hypercholesterolemia dampened concentration-dependent uterine contractions elicited by a GNAQ protein activator, Pasteurella multocida toxin...
  19. Zimpfer A, Schneider B, Blanck O, Riedel K, Zhivov A, Jonigk D, et al. Pathologic Features of Tumor Activity and Stability in Uveal Melanoma Specimens after Fractionated CyberKnife Radiosurgery. Pathol Oncol Res. 2019;25:731-740 pubmed publisher
    ..index, DNA cytophotometry, fluorescence in-situ hybridization evaluation for chromosome 3 loss, GNA11and GNAQ mutation analysis were performed...
  20. Wang Y, Qin T, Hu W, Chen B, Dai M, Xu G. Genome-Wide Methylation Patterns in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cells: A Comprehensive Analysis Combining MeDIP-Bisulfite, RNA, and microRNA Sequencing Data. Genes (Basel). 2018;9: pubmed publisher
    ..time-course analysis of genes in the networks, NEDD4L and PBX3 were targeted by SOX5, while GNAQ, ANLN, and KIF11 were targeted by miR-429...
  21. Coupland S, Lake S, Zeschnigk M, Damato B. Molecular pathology of uveal melanoma. Eye (Lond). 2013;27:230-42 pubmed publisher
    ..protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase pathway pathways that are disturbed as a result of PTEN and GNAQ/11 mutations, respectively...
  22. Mouti M, Dee C, Coupland S, Hurlstone A. Minimal contribution of ERK1/2-MAPK signalling towards the maintenance of oncogenic GNAQQ209P-driven uveal melanomas in zebrafish. Oncotarget. 2016;7:39654-39670 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, no changes were observed in pERK1/2 levels upon transient knockdown of GNAQ or phospholipase C-beta (PLC-?) inhibition in the majority of human UM cell lines we tested harbouring GNAQ ..
  23. Liu X, Chen J, Guan T, Yao H, Zhang W, Guan Z, et al. miRNAs and target genes in the blood as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. BMC Syst Biol. 2019;13:10 pubmed publisher
    ..34 miRNA-mRNA pairs were obtained. We found GNAQ and TMTC2 were the most important mRNAs in the network analyzed by Cytoscape APP centiscape, and their degrees in ..
  24. Warner J, Wang L, Pao W, Sosman J, Atreya R, Carney P, et al. CUSTOM-SEQ: a prototype for oncology rapid learning in a comprehensive EHR environment. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016;23:692-700 pubmed publisher
    ..53 (P?<?.001), validating the approach. Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide (GNAQ) mutations in melanoma were associated with inferior overall survival, a novel finding (HR?=?3.42, P?<?.001)...
  25. Palicelli A, Disanto M, Panzarasa G, Veggiani C, Galizia G, Dal Cin S, et al. Orbital meningeal melanocytoma: Histological, immunohistochemical and molecular characterization of a case and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract. 2016;212:946-953 pubmed publisher
    ..chain reaction amplification and sequence analysis (BRAF, exon 15; NRAS exons 2 and 3; c-KIT, exons 11, 13, 17, 18; GNAQ, exons 4 and 5; GNA11, exons 4 and 5) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (RREB1, 6p25; MYB, 6q23; CCND1, 11q13; ..
  26. Yeh H, Kojima K, Mobley J. Epitope mapping of Salmonella flagellar hook-associated protein, FlgK, with mass spectrometry-based immuno-capture proteomics using chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) sera. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018;201:20-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, this study identified four peptides (AEG, GAQ, TAD and LEI) in the rFlgK protein that were captured by sera from chickens immunized with the rFlgK protein...
  27. Neves de Oliveira B, Dalmaz C, Zeidán Chuliá F. Network-Based Identification of Altered Stem Cell Pluripotency and Calcium Signaling Pathways in Metastatic Melanoma. Med Sci (Basel). 2018;6: pubmed publisher
    ..From those representative genes, CTNNB1, GNAQ, GSK3B, GSTP1, MAPK3, PPP1CC, PRKACA, and SMAD4 showed equal up- or ..
  28. Comi A. Sturge-Weber syndrome. Handb Clin Neurol. 2015;132:157-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Sturge-Weber syndrome and isolated port-wine birthmarks was recently discovered and is an activating mutation in GNAQ. When a newborn presents with a facial port-wine birthmark on the upper face, that child has a 15-50% risk of ..
  29. Angelino G, De Pasquale M, De Sio L, Serra A, Massimi L, De Vito R, et al. NRAS(Q61K) mutated primary leptomeningeal melanoma in a child: case presentation and discussion on clinical and diagnostic implications. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:512 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular investigations were performed post-mortem on tumor tissue and revealed absence of BRAF(V600E), GNAQ(Q209) and GNA11(Q209) mutations but the presence of a NRAS(Q61K) mutation...
  30. Gill R, Buelow B, Mather C, Joseph N, Alves V, Brunt E, et al. Hepatic small vessel neoplasm, a rare infiltrative vascular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential. Hum Pathol. 2016;54:143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..using an assay that targets the coding regions of more than 500 cancer genes) identified an activating hotspot GNAQ mutation in 2 of 3 (67%) tested samples, and one of these cases also had a hotspot mutation in PIK3CA...
  31. Singh A, Schoenfield L, Bastian B, Aziz H, Marino M, Biscotti C. Congenital uveal melanoma?. Surv Ophthalmol. 2016;61:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The tumor was investigated intensively for the panel of genes (BAP1, BRAF, NRAS12, NRAS61, GNAQ, Kit 9,11,13,17,18) implicated in pathogenesis of blue nevus, cutaneous melanoma, and mucosal melanomas with ..
  32. Yang H, Liu X, Hu G, Xie Y, Lin S, Zhao Z, et al. Identification and analysis of microRNAs-mRNAs pairs associated with nutritional status in seasonal sheep. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;499:321-327 pubmed publisher
    ..Ultimately, the miR-200b-GNAQ pair was screened and validated as differentially expressed, and a dual luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-..
  33. Sick E, Boukhari A, Deramaudt T, Ronde P, Bucher B, Andre P, et al. Activation of CD47 receptors causes proliferation of human astrocytoma but not normal astrocytes via an Akt-dependent pathway. Glia. 2011;59:308-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that CD47 receptors have a stimulatory role in cell proliferation and demonstrate for the first time that CD47 signals via the PI3K/Akt pathway in cancerous cells but not normal cells. ..
  34. Liao Y, Lu B, Ma Q, Wu G, Lai X, Zang J, et al. Human Neuropeptide S Receptor Is Activated via a Gαq Protein-biased Signaling Cascade by a Human Neuropeptide S Analog Lacking the C-terminal 10 Residues. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:7505-16 pubmed publisher
    ..It may represent a valuable chemical probe for further investigation of the therapeutic potential of human NPS receptor-directed signalingin vivo. ..
  35. Gagnon A, Murray D, Leadley R. Cloning and characterization of a novel regulator of G protein signalling in human platelets. Cell Signal. 2002;14:595-606 pubmed
    ..RGS18 is expressed in platelet, leukocyte, and megakaryocyte cell lines and binds to endogenous Galphai1, Galphai2, Galphai3, and Galphaq but not Galphaz, Galphas or Galpha12 in vitro. ..
  36. Liu Y, Wang D, Li F, Shi G. G?q controls rheumatoid arthritis via regulation of Th17 differentiation. Immunol Cell Biol. 2015;93:616-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We then investigated the mechanism of how G?q regulated Th17 differentiation by using Gnaq(-/-) mice...
  37. Thomas A, Zeng Z, Rivière J, O Shaughnessy R, Al Olabi L, St Onge J, et al. Mosaic Activating Mutations in GNA11 and GNAQ Are Associated with Phakomatosis Pigmentovascularis and Extensive Dermal Melanocytosis. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:770-778 pubmed publisher
    ..dermal melanocytosis and phakomatosis pigmentovascularis are associated with activating mutations in GNA11 and GNAQ, genes that encode Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins...
  38. Cerne J, Hartig S, Hamilton M, Chew S, Mitsiades N, Poulaki V, et al. Protein kinase C inhibitors sensitize GNAQ mutant uveal melanoma cells to ionizing radiation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:2130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..50% of UM patients present with activating somatic mutations in the gene encoding for G protein ?q-subunit (GNAQ), which lead to constitutive activation of downstream pathways, including protein kinase C (PKC)...
  39. Jia N, Li G, Huang P, Guo J, Wei L, Lu D, et al. Protective role and related mechanism of Gnaq in neural cells damaged by oxidative stress. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2017;49:428-434 pubmed publisher
    b>Gnaq is a member of G protein family and is rich in brain tissue. It has attracted the attention of many researchers in melanoma due to its high ratio of mutation...
  40. Thomas C, Dunn M, Mattera R. Ca2+ signalling in K562 human erythroleukaemia cells: effect of dimethyl sulphoxide and role of G-proteins in thrombin- and thromboxane A2-activated pathways. Biochem J. 1995;312 ( Pt 1):151-8 pubmed
    ..We have thus identified Ca(2+)-mobilizing agonists and related G-proteins in K562 cells, together with changes induced by DMSO in this signalling pathway. ..
  41. Yilmaz I, Gamsizkan M, Sari S, Yaman B, Demirkesen C, Heper A, et al. Molecular alterations in malignant blue nevi and related blue lesions. Virchows Arch. 2015;467:723-732 pubmed
    ..These mutations are rarely observed in blue nevi, which have recently been shown to carry activating mutations in GNAQ/GNA11 genes. Only few small molecular studies of MBN have been published...
  42. Shenker A, Goldsmith P, Unson C, Spiegel A. The G protein coupled to the thromboxane A2 receptor in human platelets is a member of the novel Gq family. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:9309-13 pubmed
    ..Pretreatment of membranes with QL, but not QN or AS, caused marked inhibition of TXA2 receptor-stimulated GTPase. This identifies the G protein coupled to human platelet TXA2 receptors as a member of the novel Gq family. ..
  43. Takeishi Y, Jalili T, Hoit B, Kirkpatrick D, Wagoner L, Abraham W, et al. Alterations in Ca2+ cycling proteins and G alpha q signaling after left ventricular assist device support in failing human hearts. Cardiovasc Res. 2000;45:883-8 pubmed
    ..Activation of the G alpha q signaling pathway, including protein kinase C, appears to be involved in the progression of heart failure...
  44. Vader M, Madigan M, Versluis M, Suleiman H, Gezgin G, Gruis N, et al. GNAQ and GNA11 mutations and downstream YAP activation in choroidal nevi. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:884-887 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in GNAQ/11 genes are considered an early event in the development of uveal melanoma that may derive from a pre-existing nevus...
  45. Moon K, Choi Y, Kim J, Jin S, Shin M, Shim H, et al. Genetic Alterations in Primary Acral Melanoma and Acral Melanocytic Nevus in Korea: Common Mutated Genes Show Distinct Cytomorphological Features. J Invest Dermatol. 2018;138:933-945 pubmed publisher
    ..1%]). The five most common mutations were BRAF (22 [34.4%]), NRAS (14, [21.9%]), NF1 (11, [17.2%]), GNAQ (12, [17.2%]), and KIT (7, [10.9%]). In the 21 acral melanocytic nevi, those five gene mutations were also common...
  46. Banno Y, Yada Y, Nozawa Y. Purification and characterization of membrane-bound phospholipase C specific for phosphoinositides from human platelets. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:11459-65 pubmed
    ..The mPLC-I and mPLC-II activities were increased by Ca2+, but not by Mg2+, while Hg2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, and La3+ were inhibitory. GTP-binding proteins (Gi, Go, and Ki-ras protein) had no significant effects on the mPLC-II activity. ..
  47. Salmanian S, Najafi S, Rafipour M, Arjomand M, Shahheydari H, Ansari S, et al. Regulation of GSK-3beta and beta-Catenin by Galphaq in HEK293T cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;395:577-82 pubmed publisher
  48. Drastichova Z, Novotny J. Identification and subcellular localization of molecular complexes of Gq/11? protein in HEK293 cells. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2012;44:641-9 pubmed publisher
  49. Couto J, Huang L, Vivero M, Kamitaki N, Maclellan R, Mulliken J, et al. Endothelial Cells from Capillary Malformations Are Enriched for Somatic GNAQ Mutations. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016;137:77e-82e pubmed publisher
    A somatic mutation in GNAQ (c.548G>A; p.R183Q), encoding Gαq, has been found in syndromic and sporadic capillary malformation tissue. However, the specific cell type containing the mutation is unknown...
  50. Europe Finner G, Phaneuf S, Watson S, Lopez Bernal A. Identification and expression of G-proteins in human myometrium: up-regulation of G alpha s in pregnancy. Endocrinology. 1993;132:2484-90 pubmed
    We report that human myometrium contains G alpha i1, G alpha i3, and G alpha q, and G alpha 11, which are expressed at similar levels in tissues from pregnant and nonpregnant women...
  51. Witherow D, Tovey S, Wang Q, Willars G, Slepak V. G beta 5.RGS7 inhibits G alpha q-mediated signaling via a direct protein-protein interaction. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:21307-13 pubmed
    ..Gbeta5 complex and cyan fluorescence protein-tagged Galphaq, indicating a direct interaction between these molecules. ..
  52. Badolia R, Inamdar V, Manne B, Dangelmaier C, Eble J, Kunapuli S. Gq pathway regulates proximal C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) signaling in platelets. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14516-14531 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results provide evidence for novel Gq-PLC?-PKC?-mediated regulation of proximal CLEC-2 signaling by Gq-coupled receptors. ..
  53. Tall G, Krumins A, Gilman A. Mammalian Ric-8A (synembryn) is a heterotrimeric Galpha protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8356-62 pubmed
    ..Ric-8A interacts with GDP-bound Galpha proteins, stimulates release of GDP, and forms a stable nucleotide-free transition state complex with the Galpha protein; this complex dissociates upon binding of GTP to Galpha. ..
  54. Fan G, Ballou L, Lin R. Phospholipase C-independent activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and C-terminal Src kinase by Galphaq. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52432-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that activation of Csk and GSK-3beta by Galphaq may contribute to the physiological and pathological effects of Gq-coupled receptors. ..
  55. Sugawara Y, Nishii H, Takahashi T, Yamauchi J, Mizuno N, Tago K, et al. The lipid raft proteins flotillins/reggies interact with Galphaq and are involved in Gq-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation through tyrosine kinase. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1301-8 pubmed
    ..These lines of evidence suggested that a Gq-coupled receptor activates specifically p38 MAPK through lipid rafts and Src kinase activation, in which flotillins positively modulate the Gq signaling. ..
  56. van de Nes J, Gessi M, Sucker A, Möller I, Stiller M, Horn S, et al. Targeted next generation sequencing reveals unique mutation profile of primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system. J Neurooncol. 2016;127:435-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to uveal melanoma and blue nevi, they frequently harbor activating GNAQ or GNA11 mutations. Rare NRAS mutations have also been reported. Other mutations have not yet been described...
  57. Ayturk U, Couto J, Hann S, Mulliken J, Williams K, Huang A, et al. Somatic Activating Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 Are Associated with Congenital Hemangioma. Am J Hum Genet. 2016;98:789-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified mutually exclusive, mosaic missense mutations that alter glutamine at amino acid 209 (Glu209) in GNAQ or GNA11 in all tested samples, at variant allele frequencies (VAF) ranging from 3% to 33%...
  58. Zhang L, Xu D, Cui M, Tang L, Hou T, Zhang Q. The guanine nucleotide-binding protein α subunit protein ChGnaq positively regulates Hsc70 transcription in Crassostrea hongkongensis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;499:215-220 pubmed publisher
    b>Gnaq, one of Guanine nucleotide-binding protein α subunits, was isolated from cellular nucleus extracts of oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis gills with biotin-labeled ChHsc70 promoter by means of DNA-affinity purification, and ..
  59. Salah Uddin H, Thomas D, Davies C, Hagan J, Wood M, Watson J, et al. Pharmacological assessment of m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-gq/11 protein coupling in membranes prepared from postmortem human brain tissue. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;325:869-74 pubmed publisher
  60. AbdAlla S, Lother H, el Missiry A, Sergeev P, Langer A, el Faramawy Y, et al. Dominant negative AT2 receptor oligomers induce G-protein arrest and symptoms of neurodegeneration. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6566-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, AT2 oligomers inducing Galphaq/11 arrest are causally involved in inducing symptoms of neurodegeneration. ..
  61. Goon Goh F, Sloss C, Cunningham M, Nilsson M, Cadalbert L, Plevin R. G-protein-dependent and -independent pathways regulate proteinase-activated receptor-2 mediated p65 NFkappaB serine 536 phosphorylation in human keratinocytes. Cell Signal. 2008;20:1267-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall these novel data demonstrate an IKK2-dependent, predominantly G-protein-independent pathway involved in PAR-2 regulation of NFkappaB phosphorylation in keratinocytes. ..
  62. Lesch K, Manji H. Signal-transducing G proteins and antidepressant drugs: evidence for modulation of alpha subunit gene expression in rat brain. Biol Psychiatry. 1992;32:549-79 pubmed
    ..administration of a wide spectrum of antidepressant drugs regulate G alpha s, G alpha i1, G alpha i2, G alpha o, G alpha q, and G alpha 12 mRNA and protein expression in various areas of the rat brain...
  63. Miotti S, Bagnoli M, Tomassetti A, Colnaghi M, Canevari S. Interaction of folate receptor with signaling molecules lyn and G(alpha)(i-3) in detergent-resistant complexes from the ovary carcinoma cell line IGROV1. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 Pt 2:349-57 pubmed
    ..These findings point to the functional interaction between folate receptor and associated signaling molecules. ..
  64. Sallese M, Mariggio S, D Urbano E, Iacovelli L, De Blasi A. Selective regulation of Gq signaling by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2: direct interaction of kinase N terminus with activated galphaq. Mol Pharmacol. 2000;57:826-31 pubmed
    ..We conclude that GRK2, besides desensitizing the GPCR by phosphorylation, is able to selectively bind to Galphaq and to regulate its signaling. ..
  65. Zhou J, Moroi K, Nishiyama M, Usui H, Seki N, Ishida J, et al. Characterization of RGS5 in regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Life Sci. 2001;68:1457-69 pubmed
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    ..GPR43 might therefore constitute a target allowing us to modulate immune responses in these pathological situations. ..
  67. Mueller A, Strange P. CCL3, acting via the chemokine receptor CCR5, leads to independent activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Gi proteins. FEBS Lett. 2004;570:126-32 pubmed
    ..Gi protein activation was not prevented by inhibition of JAK, showing that heterotrimeric G protein activation and activation of the JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway are independent of each other. ..
  68. Lee I, Song S, Campbell C, Kumar S, Cook D, Dinudom A. Regulation of the epithelial Na+ channel by the RH domain of G protein-coupled receptor kinase, GRK2, and Galphaq/11. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of G?q on ENaC activity is not due to change in ENaC membrane expression and is independent of Nedd4-2. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which GRK2 and Gq/11 ?-subunits regulate the activity ENaC. ..
  69. Christopher B, Cebulla C, Wakely P, Davidorf F, Abdel Rahman M. Molecular genetic testing of uveal melanoma from routinely processed and stained cytology specimens. Exp Eye Res. 2011;93:720-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational screening for alterations in GNAQ and GNA11 genes was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism...
  70. Svensson L, Stanley P, Willenbrock F, Hogg N. The Gαq/11 proteins contribute to T lymphocyte migration by promoting turnover of integrin LFA-1 through recycling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38517 pubmed publisher
    ..These G proteins participate directly in the initial phase of recycling and this has an impact on later stages of the endo-exocytic pathway. ..
  71. Cohen J, Joseph N, North J, Onodera C, Zembowicz A, LeBoit P. Genomic Analysis of Pigmented Epithelioid Melanocytomas Reveals Recurrent Alterations in PRKAR1A, and PRKCA Genes. Am J Surg Pathol. 2017;41:1333-1346 pubmed publisher
    ..Two lesions may represent misdiagnosed "blue nevus with epithelioid features" as they demonstrated GNAQ hotspot mutations. A conceivable explanation, but one we do not favor is that rare PEM are caused by GNAQ mutations...
  72. Allgeier A, Offermanns S, Van Sande J, Spicher K, Schultz G, Dumont J. The human thyrotropin receptor activates G-proteins Gs and Gq/11. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:13733-5 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest the concept that phospholipase C and adenylyl cyclase activation through the TSH receptor are mediated by Gq/11 and Gs, respectively. ..
  73. Wedegaertner P, Chu D, Wilson P, Levis M, Bourne H. Palmitoylation is required for signaling functions and membrane attachment of Gq alpha and Gs alpha. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:25001-8 pubmed
    ..These findings identify palmitoylation as a critical determinant of membrane attachment for alpha q and alpha s and show that this modification is required for normal signaling by these proteins. ..
  74. Caricasole A, Sala C, Roncarati R, Formenti E, Terstappen G. Cloning and characterization of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC beta 1). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1517:63-72 pubmed
    ..Finally, we characterized the structure of the PLC beta 1 locus and confirmed its mapping to human chromosome 20. ..
  75. Sagi S, Seasholtz T, Kobiashvili M, Wilson B, Toksoz D, Brown J. Physical and functional interactions of Galphaq with Rho and its exchange factors. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:15445-52 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Galpha(q)-generated signals enhance responses downstream of Rho activation. ..
  76. Itoh Y, Kawamata Y, Harada M, Kobayashi M, Fujii R, Fukusumi S, et al. Free fatty acids regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells through GPR40. Nature. 2003;422:173-6 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that GPR40 agonists and/or antagonists show potential for the development of new anti-diabetic drugs. ..
  77. Thériault C, Rochdi M, Parent J. Role of the Rab11-associated intracellular pool of receptors formed by constitutive endocytosis of the beta isoform of the thromboxane A2 receptor (TP beta). Biochemistry. 2004;43:5600-7 pubmed
  78. Cumbay M, Watts V. Galphaq potentiation of adenylate cyclase type 9 activity through a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent pathway. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;69:1247-56 pubmed
    ..This data provides evidence for Ca2+-mediated potentiation of AC9 activity. ..
  79. Shoushtari A, Carvajal R. GNAQ and GNA11 mutations in uveal melanoma. Melanoma Res. 2014;24:525-34 pubmed publisher G-protein-coupled receptors and/or G-α proteins, best exemplified by recurrent activating mutations in GNAQ or GNA11 in uveal melanomas...
  80. Pappa K, Vlachos G, Roubelakis M, Vlachos D, Kalafati T, Loutradis D, et al. Low mutational burden of eight genes involved in the MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and GNAQ/11 pathways in female genital tract primary melanomas. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:303791 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the status of eight genes whose products are critically involved in the MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and GNAQ/11 pathways, including BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, c-KIT, PI3K, GNAQ, and GNA11, in a series of 16 primary ..
  81. Delgado S, Rodríguez Reyes A, Mora Ríos L, Duenas Gonzalez A, Taja Chayeb L, Moragrega Adame E. Ultrasound, histopathological, and genetic features of uveal melanoma in a Mexican-Mestizo population. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2018;93:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..assessment of the tumours show the presence of an unreported polymorphism (T>C IVS5+34) and one sample with GNAQ mutation (A>C CAA>CCA Gln 209 Pro). Ultrasound is a reliable method to identify the size of the tumour...
  82. Perri A, Ilacqua A, Valenti M, Aversa A. Effects of nutraceuticals on sexual satisfaction and lower urinary tract symptoms in a cohort of young-old men. Phytother Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Sexual desire (SD; IIEF-SD domain) and satisfaction (Global Assessment Question; GAQ), the capacity to perform daily activities (evaluated by 6-min walking test [6MWT]), and International Prostate ..
  83. Gomeza J, Mary S, Brabet I, Parmentier M, Restituito S, Bockaert J, et al. Coupling of metabotropic glutamate receptors 2 and 4 to G alpha 15, G alpha 16, and chimeric G alpha q/i proteins: characterization of new antagonists. Mol Pharmacol. 1996;50:923-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the exchange of a few carboxyl-terminal residues of G alpha q by those of G alpha 12 or G alpha o allows the resulting chimeric G alpha subunits (G alpha ql and G alpha qol ..
  84. Evanko D, Thiyagarajan M, Takida S, Wedegaertner P. Loss of association between activated Galpha q and Gbetagamma disrupts receptor-dependent and receptor-independent signaling. Cell Signal. 2005;17:1218-28 pubmed
    ..Taken together, results presented here suggest that alpha-betagamma binding is necessary at a point downstream from receptor activation of the heterotrimeric G protein for signal transduction by alpha q. ..
  85. López de Jesús M, Zalduegui A, Ruiz de Azua I, Callado L, Meana J, Salles J. Levels of G-protein alpha q/11 subunits and of phospholipase C-beta(1-4), -gamma, and -delta1 isoforms in postmortem human brain caudate and cortical membranes: potential functional implications. Neurochem Int. 2006;49:72-9 pubmed
  86. Ruiz Holst C, Bölck B, Ghanem A, Tiemann K, Brokat S, Regitz Zagrosek V, et al. eNOS phosphorylation and translocation are altered in male but not female mice by increased activation of the G?q protein. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;88:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that sex differences exist in cardiac eNOS protein expression and phosphorylation. Increased activation of the Galphaq protein appears to alter eNOS protein expression and phosphorylation only in males. ..
  87. Zuo H, Chan A, Ammer H, Wong Y. Activation of G?q subunits up-regulates the expression of the tumor suppressor Fhit. Cell Signal. 2013;25:2440-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we showed that activated G?q could increase cell-cell adhesion through Fhit. These findings provide a possible handle to modulate the level of the Fhit tumor suppressor by manipulating the activity of Gq-coupled receptors. ..
  88. Bellono N, Najera J, Oancea E. UV light activates a G?q/11-coupled phototransduction pathway in human melanocytes. J Gen Physiol. 2014;143:203-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that melanocytes use a UVR phototransduction mechanism that involves the activation of a G?q/11-dependent phosphoinositide cascade, and resembles light phototransduction cascades of the eye. ..
  89. Lyu J, Wu Y, Li C, Wang R, Song H, Ren G, et al. Mutation scanning of BRAF, NRAS, KIT, and GNAQ/GNA11 in oral mucosal melanoma: a study of 57 cases. J Oral Pathol Med. 2016;45:295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, our aim was to investigate the incidence of activating mutations of oncogenes BRAF, NRAS, KIT, and GNAQ/GNA11 in oral mucosal melanoma...
  90. Yoo J, Shi D, Grossmann A, Sorensen L, Tong Z, Mleynek T, et al. ARF6 Is an Actionable Node that Orchestrates Oncogenic GNAQ Signaling in Uveal Melanoma. Cancer Cell. 2016;29:889-904 pubmed publisher
    ..ARF6 activates these diverse pathways through a common mechanism: the trafficking of GNAQ and β-catenin from the plasma membrane to cytoplasmic vesicles and the nucleus, respectively...
  91. Lee C, Wang H, Seo S, Kim S, Kim I, Kim S, et al. Cancer related gene alterations can be detected with next-generation sequencing analysis of bile in diffusely infiltrating type cholangiocarcinoma. Exp Mol Pathol. 2016;101:150-6 pubmed publisher
    ..STK11, GNAQ, RB1, KDR, and SMO genes were revealed in both groups...
  92. Staby K, Gravdal K, Mørk S, Heegaard S, Vintermyr O, Krohn J. Prognostic impact of chromosomal aberrations and GNAQ, GNA11 and BAP1 mutations in uveal melanoma. Acta Ophthalmol. 2018;96:31-38 pubmed publisher
    ..a well-defined series of posterior uveal melanoma (UM) with focus on chromosomal aberrations and mutations in the GNAQ, GNA11 and BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) genes...