Gene Symbol: GNAI3
Description: G protein subunit alpha i3
Alias: 87U6, ARCND1, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(k) subunit alpha, g(i) alpha-3, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3
Species: human
Products:     GNAI3

Top Publications

  1. Carty D, Padrell E, Codina J, Birnbaumer L, Hildebrandt J, Iyengar R. Distinct guanine nucleotide binding and release properties of the three Gi proteins. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:6268-73 pubmed
  2. Hunt T, Fields T, Casey P, Peralta E. RGS10 is a selective activator of G alpha i GTPase activity. Nature. 1996;383:175-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that RGS proteins can attenuate signalling pathways involving heterotrimeric G proteins by serving as GTPase-activating proteins for specific types of G alpha subunits. ..
  3. Woulfe D, Stadel J. Structural basis for the selectivity of the RGS protein, GAIP, for Galphai family members. Identification of a single amino acid determinant for selective interaction of Galphai subunits with GAIP. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:17718-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, GAIP was able to discriminate between Galphai1 and Galphai2 in both binding and functional assays, and in both cases residue 229/230 played a critical role in selective recognition. ..
  4. Bernardini L, Moretti Rojas I, Brush M, Rojas F, Balmaceda J. Changes in expression of adenyl cyclase activity in human endometrium during hormone replacement therapy and ovarian stimulation. Mol Hum Reprod. 1999;5:955-60 pubmed
    ..These data strongly support the concept that the transmembrane signalling AC system and its messenger cyclic AMP are major regulators of endometrial function in the human. ..
  5. Hwang I, Park C, Harrision K, Huang N, Kehrl J. Variations in Gnai2 and Rgs1 expression affect chemokine receptor signaling and the organization of secondary lymphoid organs. Genes Immun. 2010;11:384-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination of B cells from mice with varying numbers of intact alleles of Ccr7, Rgs1, Gnai2, and Gnai3 provided the basis for these results...
  6. Gibson S, Gilman A. Gialpha and Gbeta subunits both define selectivity of G protein activation by alpha2-adrenergic receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:212-7 pubmed
    ..The molecular properties of each Gialpha, Gbeta, and alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtype influence signaling efficiency for the alpha2-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling pathway. ..
  7. de Vries L, Elenko E, Hubler L, Jones T, Farquhar M. GAIP is membrane-anchored by palmitoylation and interacts with the activated (GTP-bound) form of G alpha i subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:15203-8 pubmed
    ..This motif, present in cysteine string proteins found on synaptic vesicles, pancreatic zymogen granules, and chromaffin granules, suggests GAIP's possible involvement in membrane trafficking. ..
  8. Kaushik R, Yu F, Chia W, Yang X, Bahri S. Subcellular localization of LGN during mitosis: evidence for its cortical localization in mitotic cell culture systems and its requirement for normal cell cycle progression. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:3144-55 pubmed
    ..The results also show that the cortical localization of LGN is dependent on microfilaments and that interfering with LGN function in cultured cell lines causes early disruption to cell cycle progression. ..
  9. Ghosh P, Garcia Marcos M, Bornheimer S, Farquhar M. Activation of Galphai3 triggers cell migration via regulation of GIV. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:381-93 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Pattingre S, De Vries L, Bauvy C, Chantret I, Cluzeaud F, Ogier Denis E, et al. The G-protein regulator AGS3 controls an early event during macroautophagy in human intestinal HT-29 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20995-1002 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that AGS3 is a novel partner of the Galphai3 protein in the control of a major catabolic pathway. ..
  2. Weiss T, Chamberlain C, Takeda T, Lin P, Hahn K, Farquhar M. Galpha i3 binding to calnuc on Golgi membranes in living cells monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer of green fluorescent protein fusion proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14961-6 pubmed
    ..Calnuc has the properties of a Ca(2+) sensor protein capable of binding to and potentially regulating interactions of Galphai3 on Golgi membranes. ..
  3. de Vries L, Mousli M, Wurmser A, Farquhar M. GAIP, a protein that specifically interacts with the trimeric G protein G alpha i3, is a member of a protein family with a highly conserved core domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:11916-20 pubmed
    ..The fact that GAIP and Sst2 interact with G alpha subunits and share a common domain suggests that other members of the GAIP family also interact with G alpha subunits through the 125-amino-acid core domain. ..
  4. Tall G, Krumins A, Gilman A. Mammalian Ric-8A (synembryn) is a heterotrimeric Galpha protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8356-62 pubmed
    ..Ric-8A interacts with GDP-bound Galpha proteins, stimulates release of GDP, and forms a stable nucleotide-free transition state complex with the Galpha protein; this complex dissociates upon binding of GTP to Galpha. ..
  5. Garcia Marcos M, Ear J, Farquhar M, Ghosh P. A GDI (AGS3) and a GEF (GIV) regulate autophagy by balancing G protein activity and growth factor signals. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:673-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide mechanistic insights into how reversible modulation of G?(i3) activity by AGS3 and GIV maintains the delicate equilibrium between promotion and inhibition of autophagy. ..
  6. Li W, Hu N, Wang Z, Yu K, Su H, Wang L, et al. Genetic variants in epidermal growth factor receptor pathway genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cancer in a Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68999 pubmed publisher
    ..16×10(-3)). Gene-level analyses found 10 genes to be associated with GC, including FYN, MAPK8, MAP2K4, GNAI3, MAP2K1, TLN1, PRLR, PLCG2, RPS6KB2, and PIK3R3 (P<0.05)...
  7. Oldham W, Van Eps N, Preininger A, Hubbell W, Hamm H. Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:772-7 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first direct observation of R*-mediated conformational changes in G proteins and define the structural basis for GDP release from G alpha. ..
  8. Berenguer M, Darnaudéry M, Claverol S, Bonneu M, Lacombe D, Rooryck C. Prenatal retinoic acid exposure reveals candidate genes for craniofacial disorders. Sci Rep. 2018;8:17492 pubmed publisher
    ..Using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, this work identified two new RA targets, Gnai3 and Eftud2, proteins known to be involved in craniofacial disorders, highlighting the power of this proteomic ..
  9. Leyme A, Marivin A, Perez Gutierrez L, Nguyen L, Garcia Marcos M. Integrins activate trimeric G proteins via the nonreceptor protein GIV/Girdin. J Cell Biol. 2015;210:1165-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our discoveries delineate a novel mechanism by which integrin signaling is rewired during metastasis to result in increased tumor invasiveness. ..
  10. Zhang Y, Yao J, Huan L, Lian J, Bao C, Li Y, et al. GNAI3 inhibits tumor cell migration and invasion and is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-222 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2015;356:978-84 pubmed publisher
    Guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3 (GNAI3) is involved in many biological processes. However, its biological function in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear...
  11. Wakasugi K, Nakano T, Morishima I. Oxidized human neuroglobin acts as a heterotrimeric Galpha protein guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36505-12 pubmed
    ..In contrast, ferrous ligand-bound Ngb under normoxia did not have GDI activities. Taken together, we propose that human Ngb may be a novel oxidative stress-responsive sensor for signal transduction in the brain. ..
  12. Wall M, Coleman D, Lee E, Iñiguez Lluhí J, Posner B, Gilman A, et al. The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2. Cell. 1995;83:1047-58 pubmed
    ..Repeated WD motifs in beta form a circularized sevenfold beta propeller. The conserved cores of these motifs are a scaffold for display of their more variable linkers on the exterior face of each propeller blade. ..
  13. Chen C, Zheng B, Han J, Lin S. Characterization of a novel mammalian RGS protein that binds to Galpha proteins and inhibits pheromone signaling in yeast. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:8679-85 pubmed
  14. Cai S, Li Y, Bai J, Zhang Z, Wang Y, Qiao Y, et al. Gαi3 nuclear translocation causes irradiation resistance in human glioma cells. Oncotarget. 2017;8:35061-35068 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, expression of the constitutively-active Gαi3 in A172 cells inhibited DNA damage by irradiation. Together, these results indicate a novel function of Gαi3 in irradiation-resistance in human glioma cells. ..
  15. Kimple A, Soundararajan M, Hutsell S, Roos A, Urban D, Setola V, et al. Structural determinants of G-protein alpha subunit selectivity by regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2). J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19402-11 pubmed publisher
  16. Raymond J, Olsen C, Gettys T. Cell-specific physical and functional coupling of human 5-HT1A receptors to inhibitory G protein alpha-subunits and lack of coupling to Gs alpha. Biochemistry. 1993;32:11064-73 pubmed
    ..One factor influencing the relative importance of those G proteins for 5-HT1A receptor-inhibited adenylylcyclase activity appears to be their-relative levels of expression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  17. Ren Y, Zhao X, Yang T, Duan Y, Sun Y, Zhao W, et al. Exploring the Key Genes and Pathways of Osteoarthritis in Knee Cartilage in a Rat Model Using Gene Expression Profiling. Yonsei Med J. 2018;59:760-768 pubmed publisher
    ..Using gene-gene interaction network analysis, relevant core genes, including MET, UBB, GNAI3, and GNA13, were shown to hold a potential relationship with the development of OA in cartilage...
  18. Leoni C, Gordon C, Della Marca G, Giorgio V, Onesimo R, Perrino F, et al. Respiratory and gastrointestinal dysfunctions associated with auriculo-condylar syndrome and a homozygous PLCB4 loss-of-function mutation. Am J Med Genet A. 2016;170:1471-8 pubmed publisher
    ..dominant mutations in guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) ? inhibiting activity polypeptide 3 (GNAI3)...
  19. Willard F, McCudden C, Siderovski D. G-protein alpha subunit interaction and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor activity of the dual GoLoco motif protein PCP-2 (Purkinje cell protein-2). Cell Signal. 2006;18:1226-34 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the data demonstrate that PCP-2 is a comparatively weak GoLoco motif protein that exhibits highest affinity interactions and GDI activity toward Galphai1, Galphai2, and Galphai3 subunits. ..
  20. Nafisi H, Banihashemi B, Daigle M, Albert P. GAP1(IP4BP)/RASA3 mediates Galphai-induced inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35908-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a novel mechanism for dopamine D2S-induced inhibition of ERK1/2 and indicate that RASA3 links Galphai proteins to inhibit Gq-induced Ras/ERK1/2 activation. ..
  21. Dulin N, Sorokin A, Reed E, Elliott S, Kehrl J, Dunn M. RGS3 inhibits G protein-mediated signaling via translocation to the membrane and binding to Galpha11. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:714-23 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that RGS3 inhibits G protein-coupled receptor signaling by a complex mechanism involving its translocation to the membrane in addition to its established function as a GTPase-activating protein. ..
  22. Marty C, Kozasa T, Quinn M, Ye R. Activation state-dependent interaction between Galphai and p67phox. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5190-200 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first evidence for an interaction between p67phox and an alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins, suggesting a potential role for Galphai in the regulation or activation of NADPH oxidase. ..
  23. Romanelli Tavares V, Gordon C, Zechi Ceide R, Kokitsu Nakata N, Voisin N, Tan T, et al. Novel variants in GNAI3 associated with auriculocondylar syndrome strengthen a common dominant negative effect. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015;23:481-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Causative variants have been identified in PLCB4, GNAI3 and EDN1, which are predicted to function within the EDN1-EDNRA pathway during early pharyngeal arch patterning...
  24. Castellone M, Teramoto H, Williams B, Druey K, Gutkind J. Prostaglandin E2 promotes colon cancer cell growth through a Gs-axin-beta-catenin signaling axis. Science. 2005;310:1504-10 pubmed
    ..These findings may provide a molecular framework for the future evaluation of chemopreventive strategies for colorectal cancer. ..
  25. Laugwitz K, Allgeier A, Offermanns S, Spicher K, Van Sande J, Dumont J, et al. The human thyrotropin receptor: a heptahelical receptor capable of stimulating members of all four G protein families. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:116-20 pubmed
  26. Sun Z, Runne C, Tang X, Lin F, Chen S. The G?3 splice variant associated with the C825T gene polymorphism is an unstable and functionally inactive protein. Cell Signal. 2012;24:2349-59 pubmed publisher
  27. Lee H, Rhee K, Kim C, Hwang K, Kim E. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of human RGS10 complexed with Galphai3. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005;61:831-3 pubmed
    ..88, b = 99.88, c = 144.59 A, alpha = beta = gamma = 90 degrees . A full set of diffraction data were collected to 2.5 A resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at Pohang beamline 4A. ..
  28. Sunahara R, Taussig R. Isoforms of mammalian adenylyl cyclase: multiplicities of signaling. Mol Interv. 2002;2:168-84 pubmed
  29. Burgon P, Lee W, Nixon A, Peralta E, Casey P. Phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS10). J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32828-34 pubmed
    ..Rather, the phosphorylation event correlates with translocation of RGS10 from the plasma membrane and cytosol into the nucleus. ..
  30. Lee M, Evans M, Hla T. The inducible G protein-coupled receptor edg-1 signals via the G(i)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:11272-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the G(i)/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is a major signaling pathway regulated by the orphan receptor edg-1. ..
  31. Lin P, Le Niculescu H, Hofmeister R, McCaffery J, Jin M, Hennemann H, et al. The mammalian calcium-binding protein, nucleobindin (CALNUC), is a Golgi resident protein. J Cell Biol. 1998;141:1515-27 pubmed
    ..The properties of CALNUC and its high homology to calreticulin suggest that it may play a key role in calcium homeostasis in the CGN and cis-Golgi cisternae. ..
  32. Guo S, Zhang Y, Zhou T, Wang D, Weng Y, Wang L, et al. Role of GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4) in the regulation of tooth development via GNAI3. Sci Rep. 2017;7:1534 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our previous iTRAQ results, guanine nucleotide binding proteins 3 (GNAI3) is one of the distinct proteins after GATA4 deletion...
  33. Lin C, Ear J, Midde K, López Sánchez I, Aznar N, Garcia Marcos M, et al. Structural basis for activation of trimeric Gi proteins by multiple growth factor receptors via GIV/Girdin. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:3654-71 pubmed publisher
  34. Solomon K, Rudd C, Finberg R. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:6053-8 pubmed
    ..These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. ..
  35. Silva B, Barbosa M, Andrade P, Ferreira H, Nery J, Corte Real S, et al. Autophagy Is an Innate Mechanism Associated with Leprosy Polarization. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006103 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, an upregulation of autophagy genes (TPR, GFI1B and GNAI3) as well as LC3 levels was observed in cells of L-lep patients that developed type 1 reaction (T1R) episodes, an ..
  36. Romanelli Tavares V, Zechi Ceide R, Bertola D, Gordon C, Ferreira S, Hsia G, et al. Targeted molecular investigation in patients within the clinical spectrum of Auriculocondylar syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2017;173:938-945 pubmed publisher
    ..So far, pathogenic variants in PLCB4, GNAI3, and EDN1 have been associated with this syndrome...
  37. Gagnon A, Murray D, Leadley R. Cloning and characterization of a novel regulator of G protein signalling in human platelets. Cell Signal. 2002;14:595-606 pubmed
    ..RGS18 is expressed in platelet, leukocyte, and megakaryocyte cell lines and binds to endogenous Galphai1, Galphai2, Galphai3, and Galphaq but not Galphaz, Galphas or Galpha12 in vitro. ..
  38. Baram D, Dekel O, Mekori Y, Sagi Eisenberg R. Activation of mast cells by trimeric G protein Gi3; coupling to the A3 adenosine receptor directly and upon T cell contact. J Immunol. 2010;184:3677-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results unveil the physiological G-protein coupled receptor that couples to Gi3 and establish the important role played by this G-protein in inflammatory conditions that involve adenosine-activated mast cells. ..
  39. Lambright D, Noel J, Hamm H, Sigler P. Structural determinants for activation of the alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric G protein. Nature. 1994;369:621-8 pubmed
    ..The changes are distinct from those observed in other members of the GTPase superfamily. ..
  40. Young A, Jiang M, Wang Y, Ahmedli N, Ramirez J, Reese B, et al. Specific interaction of G?i3 with the Oa1 G-protein coupled receptor controls the size and density of melanosomes in retinal pigment epithelium. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24376 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify the Oa1 transducer G?i3 as the first downstream component in the Oa1 signaling pathway. ..
  41. Zhang Y, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Zhou X, Shi X, Jiang Q, et al. Requirement of G?i1/3-Gab1 signaling complex for keratinocyte growth factor-induced PI3K-AKT-mTORC1 activation. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:181-191 pubmed publisher
  42. Marivin A, Leyme A, Parag Sharma K, DiGiacomo V, Cheung A, Nguyen L, et al. Dominant-negative G? subunits are a mechanism of dysregulated heterotrimeric G protein signaling in human disease. Sci Signal. 2016;9:ra37 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that ACS-associated mutations in GNAI3 produce dominant-negative G?(i3) mutant proteins that couple to ET(A)R but cannot bind and hydrolyze guanosine ..
  43. Migeon J, Thomas S, Nathanson N. Differential coupling of m2 and m4 muscarinic receptors to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by Gi alpha and G(o)alpha subunits. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:16070-4 pubmed
    ..The m2 and m4 mAChRs thus couple to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by overlapping but different sets of G-protein alpha subunits. ..
  44. Rhee K, Nam K, Lee W, Ko Y, Kim E, Hwang K. Expression, purification, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the complex of G(alphai3)-RGS5 from human with GDP/Mg2+)/AlF4-. Protein Pept Lett. 2006;13:945-9 pubmed
    ..9 A, and c=138.8 A. Assuming one complex protein in the crystallographic asymmetric unit, the calculated Matthews parameter (V(M)) is 2.57 A(3)/Da and solvent content is 52.2 %. ..
  45. Wu D, LaRosa G, Simon M. G protein-coupled signal transduction pathways for interleukin-8. Science. 1993;261:101-3 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that IL-8 acts through signal-transducing pathways that are limited to specific heterotrimeric G proteins and effectors. These may provide suitable targets for the development of anti-inflammatory agents. ..
  46. Kim D, Woo J, Geffken E, An S, Liggett S. Coupling of Airway Smooth Muscle Bitter Taste Receptors to Intracellular Signaling and Relaxation Is via G?i1,2,3. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2017;56:762-771 pubmed publisher
  47. Zhang F, Luo L, Gustafson E, Palmer K, Qiao X, Fan X, et al. P2Y(13): identification and characterization of a novel Galphai-coupled ADP receptor from human and mouse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002;301:705-13 pubmed
    ..In keeping with the general nomenclature for the purinergic receptors, we propose designating this novel receptor P2Y(13). ..
  48. Yowe D, Weich N, Prabhudas M, Poisson L, Errada P, Kapeller R, et al. RGS18 is a myeloerythroid lineage-specific regulator of G-protein-signalling molecule highly expressed in megakaryocytes. Biochem J. 2001;359:109-18 pubmed
    ..Hence RGS18 might have an important role in the regulation of megakaryocyte differentiation and chemotaxis. ..
  49. Jiang M, Pandey S, Tran V, Fong H. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:3907-11 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that this G alpha subunit belongs to a separate subfamily of G proteins that may be insensitive to inhibition by pertussis toxin. ..
  50. Spear M, Guo J, Turner A, Yu D, Wang W, Meltzer B, et al. HIV-1 triggers WAVE2 phosphorylation in primary CD4 T cells and macrophages, mediating Arp2/3-dependent nuclear migration. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:6949-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Arp2/3 and the upstream regulator, WAVE2, are essential co-factors hijacked by HIV for intracellular migration, and may serve as novel targets to prevent HIV transmission. ..
  51. Beadling C, Druey K, Richter G, Kehrl J, Smith K. Regulators of G protein signaling exhibit distinct patterns of gene expression and target G protein specificity in human lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1999;162:2677-82 pubmed
  52. Wang Y, Ho G, Zhang J, Nieuwenhuijsen B, Edris W, Chanda P, et al. Regulator of G protein signaling Z1 (RGSZ1) interacts with Galpha i subunits and regulates Galpha i-mediated cell signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:48325-32 pubmed
    ..In summary, these data suggest that RGSZ1 serves as a GTPase accelerating protein for Galpha(i) and regulates Galpha(i)-mediated signaling, thus expanding the potential role of RGSZ1 in G protein-mediated cellular activities. ..
  53. Fukushima N, Kimura Y, Chun J. A single receptor encoded by vzg-1/lpA1/edg-2 couples to G proteins and mediates multiple cellular responses to lysophosphatidic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6151-6 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that a single receptor, encoded by vzg-1, can activate multiple LPA-dependent responses in cells from distinct tissue lineages. ..
  54. Caricasole A, Sala C, Roncarati R, Formenti E, Terstappen G. Cloning and characterization of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-beta 1 (PLC beta 1). Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1517:63-72 pubmed
    ..Finally, we characterized the structure of the PLC beta 1 locus and confirmed its mapping to human chromosome 20. ..
  55. Zheng Z, Wan Q, Liu J, Zhu H, Chu X, Du Q. Evidence for dynein and astral microtubule-mediated cortical release and transport of G?i/LGN/NuMA complex in mitotic cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2013;24:901-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that regulated cortical release and transport of LGN complex along astral microtubules may contribute to spindle positioning in mammalian cells. ..
  56. Zhang J, Pratt R. The AT2 receptor selectively associates with Gialpha2 and Gialpha3 in the rat fetus. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:15026-33 pubmed
    ..The finding that AT2 receptor couples to both Gialpha2 and Gialpha3 raises the possibility that selective interactions between AT2 receptor and different G proteins may result in specific cellular effects mediated by AT2 stimulation. ..
  57. Li Y, Rowland C, Xiromerisiou G, Lagier R, Schrodi S, Dradiotis E, et al. Neither replication nor simulation supports a role for the axon guidance pathway in the genetics of Parkinson's disease. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2707 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results challenge the robustness of the reported panel of genetic markers to predict PD risk in particular and a role of the axon guidance pathway in PD genetics in general. ..
  58. Adolfsson J, Ohd J, Sjolander A. Leukotriene D4-induced activation and translocation of the G-protein alpha i3-subunit in human epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;226:413-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the translocation of G alpha i3-subunits to the cytoskeleton and the simultaneous inhibition of G3-proteins indicate that the cytoskeleton might participate in the signalling process of human epithelial cells. ..
  59. Stefan E, Malleshaiah M, Breton B, Ear P, Bachmann V, Beyermann M, et al. PKA regulatory subunits mediate synergy among conserved G-protein-coupled receptor cascades. Nat Commun. 2011;2:598 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a direct mechanism by which coincident activation of G?s-coupled receptors controls the precision of adaptive responses of activated G?i-coupled receptor cascades. ..
  60. Young A, Dandekar U, Pan C, Sader A, Zheng J, Lewis R, et al. GNAI3: Another Candidate Gene to Screen in Persons with Ocular Albinism. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0162273 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we screened the human Gαi3 gene, GNAI3, in DNA samples from 26 patients who had all clinical characteristics of OA but in whom a specific mutation in the ..
  61. Fischer T, De Vries L, Meerloo T, Farquhar M. Promotion of G alpha i3 subunit down-regulation by GIPN, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with RGS-GAIP. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8270-5 pubmed
    ..RGS-GAIP functions as a bifunctional adaptor that binds to G alpha subunits through its RGS domain and to GIPN through its cysteine string motif. ..
  62. Codina J, Olate J, Abramowitz J, Mattera R, Cook R, Birnbaumer L. Alpha i-3 cDNA encodes the alpha subunit of Gk, the stimulatory G protein of receptor-regulated K+ channels. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:6746-50 pubmed
    ..The probable identity of alpha i-1 with alpha p and possible roles for alpha i-2, as well as additional roles for alpha i-1 and alpha i-3 (alpha k) are discussed. ..
  63. Suki W, Abramowitz J, Mattera R, Codina J, Birnbaumer L. The human genome encodes at least three non-allellic G proteins with alpha i-type subunits. FEBS Lett. 1987;220:187-92 pubmed
  64. Cheung R, Ravyn V, Wang L, Ptasznik A, Collman R. Signaling mechanism of HIV-1 gp120 and virion-induced IL-1beta release in primary human macrophages. J Immunol. 2008;180:6675-84 pubmed
    ..This study identifies a novel signaling mechanism for HIV-1-induced IL-1beta production by primary human macrophages that may be involved in the neuropathogenesis of HIV-associated dementia. ..
  65. Saitoh O, Kubo Y, Odagiri M, Ichikawa M, Yamagata K, Sekine T. RGS7 and RGS8 differentially accelerate G protein-mediated modulation of K+ currents. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:9899-904 pubmed
    ..These acceleration properties of RGS proteins may play important roles in the rapid regulation of neuronal excitability and the cellular responses to short-lived stimulations. ..
  66. Didsbury J, Snyderman R. Molecular cloning of a new human G protein. Evidence for two Gi alpha-like protein families. FEBS Lett. 1987;219:259-63 pubmed
    ..One group probably contains true Gi and the other a new class of G protein whose function remains to be determined. ..
  67. Europe Finner G, Phaneuf S, Watson S, Lopez Bernal A. Identification and expression of G-proteins in human myometrium: up-regulation of G alpha s in pregnancy. Endocrinology. 1993;132:2484-90 pubmed
    ..The increase in G alpha s levels may play a crucial role in maintaining relaxation of the uterus by favoring cAMP formation during pregnancy. ..
  68. Hansen J, Servant G, Baranski T, Fujita T, Iiri T, Sheikh S. Functional reconstitution of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor and G(i) activation. Circ Res. 2000;87:753-9 pubmed
    ..In combination with previous observations, these results show that the AT(2) receptor is fully capable of activating G(i) and provides a new tool for exploring AT(2) receptor pharmacology and interactions with G-protein trimers. ..
  69. Rieder M, Green G, Park S, Stamper B, Gordon C, Johnson J, et al. A human homeotic transformation resulting from mutations in PLCB4 and GNAI3 causes auriculocondylar syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2012;90:907-14 pubmed publisher
    ..two novel (exclusive to the patient and/or family studied) missense mutations in PLCB4 and a shared mutation in GNAI3 in two unrelated probands...
  70. Mukhopadhyay S, Howlett A. CB1 receptor-G protein association. Subtype selectivity is determined by distinct intracellular domains. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:499-505 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that different domains of the CB(1) receptor direct the interaction with specific G protein subtypes. ..
  71. Sasaki K, Kakuwa T, Akimoto K, Koga H, Ohno S. Regulation of epithelial cell polarity by PAR-3 depends on Girdin transcription and Girdin-Gαi3 signaling. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:2244-58 pubmed publisher
    ..that PAR-3 physically interacts with Girdin, and show that Girdin, together with the Gαi3 (also known as GNAI3), controls tight junction formation, apical domain development and actin organization downstream of PAR-3...
  72. Odagaki Y, Kinoshita M, Ota T, Meana J, Callado L, García Sevilla J. Adenosine A1( )receptors are selectively coupled to Gα(i-3) in postmortem human brain cortex: Guanosine-5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) binding/immunoprecipitation study. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;764:592-8 pubmed publisher
    ..only Gαi-3 was activated by 1mM adenosine, indicating that human brain adenosine A1 receptor is coupled preferentially, if not exclusively, to Gαi-3. ..
  73. Flynn R, Mahavadi S, Murthy K, Kellum J, Kuemmerle J. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 stimulates growth of human intestinal muscle cells by activation of G{alpha}i3. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G1232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that endogenous IGFBP-5 activates Gi3 and regulates smooth muscle growth, IGF-I production, and collagen production via the alpha-subunit of Gi3, independently of IGF-I, in normal human intestinal muscle cells. ..
  74. Sidhu A, Niznik H. Coupling of dopamine receptor subtypes to multiple and diverse G proteins. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2000;18:669-77 pubmed
  75. Vural A, Oner S, An N, Simon V, Ma D, Blumer J, et al. Distribution of activator of G-protein signaling 3 within the aggresomal pathway: role of specific residues in the tetratricopeptide repeat domain and differential regulation by the AGS3 binding partners Gi(alpha) and mammalian inscuteable. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1528-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data present AGS3, G-proteins, and mInsc as candidate proteins involved in regulating cellular stress associated with protein-processing pathologies. ..
  76. Wang Y, Young K. Analysis of RGSZ1 protein interaction with Galphai subunits. Methods Enzymol. 2004;390:31-52 pubmed
  77. Hollopeter G, Jantzen H, Vincent D, Li G, England L, Ramakrishnan V, et al. Identification of the platelet ADP receptor targeted by antithrombotic drugs. Nature. 2001;409:202-7 pubmed
    ..Cloning of the P2Y12 receptor should facilitate the development of better antiplatelet agents to treat cardiovascular diseases. ..
  78. Watson C, Jeng Y, Hu G, Wozniak A, Bulayeva N, Guptarak J. Estrogen- and xenoestrogen-induced ERK signaling in pituitary tumor cells involves estrogen receptor-? interactions with G protein-?i and caveolin I. Steroids. 2012;77:424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Xenoestrogens, like physiologic estrogens, can evoke downstream kinase signaling involving selective interactions of ER? with G(?i) and caveolin I, but with some different characteristics, which could explain their disruptive actions. ..
  79. Beals C, Wilson C, Perlmutter R. A small multigene family encodes Gi signal-transduction proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:7886-90 pubmed
    ..Our data support the view that a modest repertoire of extremely closely related G proteins mediates the transduction of signals derived from multiple different receptor molecules. ..
  80. Soundararajan M, Willard F, Kimple A, Turnbull A, Ball L, Schoch G, et al. Structural diversity in the RGS domain and its interaction with heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6457-62 pubmed publisher
  81. Kim S, Ang S, Bloch D, Bloch K, Kawahara Y, Tolman C, et al. Identification of cDNA encoding an additional alpha subunit of a human GTP-binding protein: expression of three alpha i subtypes in human tissues and cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:4153-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, some cells contain all three alpha i subtypes. This observation raises the question of how cells prevent cross talk among receptors that are coupled to effectors through such similar alpha proteins. ..
  82. Shi J, Potash J, Knowles J, Weissman M, Coryell W, Scheftner W, et al. Genome-wide association study of recurrent early-onset major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger samples will be required to confirm the hypothesis of association between MDD (and particularly the recurrent early-onset subtype) and common SNPs. ..
  83. Laliberte B, Wilson A, Nafisi H, Mao H, Zhou Y, Daigle M, et al. TNFAIP8: a new effector for Galpha(i) coupling to reduce cell death and induce cell transformation. J Cell Physiol. 2010;225:865-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that G?i-TNFAIP8-mediated rescue of pre-oncogenic cells enhances progression to oncogenic transformation, providing a selective target to inhibit cellular transformation. ..
  84. Wennogle L, Conder L, Winter C, Braunwalder A, Vlattas S, Kramer R, et al. Stabilization of C5a receptor--G-protein interactions through ligand binding. J Cell Biochem. 1994;55:380-8 pubmed
    ..The method of stabilization of receptor-transducer complexes offers the opportunity to further elaborate the interactions of the C5a receptor with diverse transducing elements and second messenger systems. ..
  85. Cho H, Kehrl J. Localization of Gi alpha proteins in the centrosomes and at the midbody: implication for their role in cell division. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:245-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that G(ialpha) proteins and their regulators at these sites may play essential roles during mammalian cell division. ..
  86. Brydon L, Roka F, Petit L, de Coppet P, Tissot M, Barrett P, et al. Dual signaling of human Mel1a melatonin receptors via G(i2), G(i3), and G(q/11) proteins. Mol Endocrinol. 1999;13:2025-38 pubmed
    ..We show that Mel 1a receptors functionally couple to both PTX-sensitive and PTX-insensitive G proteins. The previously unknown signaling of Mel 1a receptors through G(q/11) widens the spectrum of potential targets for melatonin. ..
  87. Zhou J, Moroi K, Nishiyama M, Usui H, Seki N, Ishida J, et al. Characterization of RGS5 in regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Life Sci. 2001;68:1457-69 pubmed
  88. Berlin S, Tsemakhovich V, Castel R, Ivanina T, Dessauer C, Keren Raifman T, et al. Two distinct aspects of coupling between G?(i) protein and G protein-activated K+ channel (GIRK) revealed by fluorescently labeled G?(i3) protein subunits. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33223-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the notion that G?(i/o) actively regulates GIRK. Although regulation of I(basal) is a function of G?(i)(GDP), our new findings indicate that regulation of kinetics of I(evoked) is mediated by G?(i)(GTP). ..
  89. Mueller A, Strange P. CCL3, acting via the chemokine receptor CCR5, leads to independent activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Gi proteins. FEBS Lett. 2004;570:126-32 pubmed
    ..Gi protein activation was not prevented by inhibition of JAK, showing that heterotrimeric G protein activation and activation of the JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway are independent of each other. ..
  90. Miotti S, Bagnoli M, Tomassetti A, Colnaghi M, Canevari S. Interaction of folate receptor with signaling molecules lyn and G(alpha)(i-3) in detergent-resistant complexes from the ovary carcinoma cell line IGROV1. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 Pt 2:349-57 pubmed
    ..These findings point to the functional interaction between folate receptor and associated signaling molecules. ..
  91. Kimple R, de Vries L, Tronchere H, Behe C, Morris R, Gist Farquhar M, et al. RGS12 and RGS14 GoLoco motifs are G alpha(i) interaction sites with guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor Activity. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29275-81 pubmed
    ..The presence of two, independent G alpha interaction sites suggests that RGS12 and RGS14 participate in a complex coordination of G-protein signaling beyond simple G alpha GAP activity. ..