Gene Symbol: GNAI2
Description: G protein subunit alpha i2
Alias: GIP, GNAI2B, H_LUCA15.1, H_LUCA16.1, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2, GTP-binding regulatory protein Gi alpha-2 chain, adenylate cyclase-inhibiting G alpha protein, guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2, guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i), alpha-2 subunit
Species: human
Products:     GNAI2

Top Publications

  1. Lyons J, Landis C, Harsh G, Vallar L, Grunewald K, Feichtinger H, et al. Two G protein oncogenes in human endocrine tumors. Science. 1990;249:655-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that human tumors may harbor oncogenic mutations in various G protein alpha chain genes. ..
  2. de Vries L, Elenko E, Hubler L, Jones T, Farquhar M. GAIP is membrane-anchored by palmitoylation and interacts with the activated (GTP-bound) form of G alpha i subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:15203-8 pubmed
    ..This motif, present in cysteine string proteins found on synaptic vesicles, pancreatic zymogen granules, and chromaffin granules, suggests GAIP's possible involvement in membrane trafficking. ..
  3. Kimple R, de Vries L, Tronchere H, Behe C, Morris R, Gist Farquhar M, et al. RGS12 and RGS14 GoLoco motifs are G alpha(i) interaction sites with guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor Activity. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:29275-81 pubmed
    ..The presence of two, independent G alpha interaction sites suggests that RGS12 and RGS14 participate in a complex coordination of G-protein signaling beyond simple G alpha GAP activity. ..
  4. Gibson S, Gilman A. Gialpha and Gbeta subunits both define selectivity of G protein activation by alpha2-adrenergic receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:212-7 pubmed
    ..The molecular properties of each Gialpha, Gbeta, and alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtype influence signaling efficiency for the alpha2-adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling pathway. ..
  5. Zhong M, Clarke S, Vo B, Khan S. The essential role of Gi?2 in prostate cancer cell migration. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:1380-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Gi?2 plays an essential role in OXT and EGF signaling to induce prostate cancer cell migration. ..
  6. Ojeda M, Nogales F, Muñoz Del Valle P, Díaz Castro J, Murillo M, Carreras O. Metabolic syndrome and selenium in fetal programming: gender differences. Food Funct. 2016;7:3031-8 pubmed publisher
    ..triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin and metabolic hormones [glucagon, leptin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and triiodothyronine (T3)], growth factors, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANK-L) and ..
  7. Dalle S, Quoyer J, Varin E, Costes S. Roles and regulation of the transcription factor CREB in pancreatic β -cells. Curr Mol Pharmacol. 2011;4:187-95 pubmed
    ..glucose, incretin hormones such as the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or the gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), or growth factors such as the insulin like growth ..
  8. Bohl M, Bjørnshave A, Rasmussen K, Schioldan A, Amer B, Larsen M, et al. Dairy proteins, dairy lipids, and postprandial lipemia in persons with abdominal obesity (DairyHealth): a 12-wk, randomized, parallel-controlled, double-blinded, diet intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101:870-8 pubmed publisher
    ..acids (FFAs), insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). Furthermore, changes in the expression of adipose tissue genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated...
  9. Kuhre R, Wewer Albrechtsen N, Larsen O, Jepsen S, Balk Møller E, Andersen D, et al. Bile acids are important direct and indirect regulators of the secretion of appetite- and metabolism-regulating hormones from the gut and pancreas. Mol Metab. 2018;11:84-95 pubmed publisher
    ..acids robustly stimulate secretion of not only the incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), but also glucagon and insulin in vivo, to levels comparable to those ..

More Information

Publications145 found, 100 shown here

  1. Găman G, Sarvary E, Gelley F, Doros A, Gorog D, Fehervari I, et al. Analysis of Incretin Hormones After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2015;47:2207-9 pubmed publisher
    ..level of incretin hormones, namely glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), were measured with competitive enzyme-linked immunoassay reaction...
  2. Cardoso J, Félix R, Costa C, Palma P, Canario A, Power D. Evolution of the glucagon-like system across fish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;264:113-130 pubmed publisher
    ..four peptides GCG, glucagon-like peptide 1 and 2 (GLP1 and GLP2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) that activate four specific receptors exist...
  3. Bae E. DPP-4 inhibitors in diabetic complications: role of DPP-4 beyond glucose control. Arch Pharm Res. 2016;39:1114-28 pubmed publisher
    ..rapid degradation of incretin hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), thus the plasma concentration of GLP-1 increases, which promotes insulin secretion from the pancreatic ? cells ..
  4. Shimizu T, Sato T, Tsukiyama K, Fujita H, Kato S, Hoizumi M, et al. Food Intake Affects Sperm-Egg Fusion Through the GIP/PSG17 Axis in Mice. Endocrinology. 2017;158:2134-2144 pubmed publisher
    ..Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from intestinal K-cells after meal ingestion, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-..
  5. Gosmain Y, Cheyssac C, Masson M, Guerardel A, Poisson C, Philippe J. Pax6 is a key component of regulated glucagon secretion. Endocrinology. 2012;153:4204-15 pubmed publisher
    ..secretion in primary α-cell in response to glucose, palmitate, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) but not the response to arginine and epinephrine...
  6. Qiu N, Li W, Liu M, Cen X, Shan C, Zhang W, et al. Comparison of Great Curvature Plication with Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass (GCP-DJB) and Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG) on Metabolic Indices and Gut Hormones in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rats. Obes Surg. 2018;28:4014-4021 pubmed publisher
    ..The postprandial secretion curves and area under the curve (AUC) of GLP-1, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), PYY, and bile acid were also calculated...
  7. Nielsen S, Janum S, Krogh Madsen R, Solomon T, Møller K. The incretin effect in critically ill patients: a case-control study. Crit Care. 2015;19:402 pubmed publisher
    ..the incretin effect, which is mediated by the incretin hormones GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), is impaired in critically ill patients. The incretin effect (i.e...
  8. Li Z, Fang J, Jiao R, Wei X, Ma Y, Liu X, et al. A novel multi-epitope vaccine based on Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 prevents streptozotocin-induced diabetes by producing anti-DPP4 antibody and immunomodulatory effect in C57BL/6J mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;89:1467-1475 pubmed publisher
    ..the enzymatic degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). An increasing number of studies have shown the potential benefits of DPP4 inhibitors for type 1 diabetes...
  9. You H, Zhang T, Feng W, Gai Y. Association of TCM body constitution with insulin resistance and risk of diabetes in impaired glucose regulation patients. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:459 pubmed publisher
    ..leptin and lower serum levels of adiponectin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) (P<0.05)...
  10. Giezenaar C, Luscombe Marsh N, Hutchison A, Lange K, Hausken T, Jones K, et al. Effect of gender on the acute effects of whey protein ingestion on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying and gut hormone responses in healthy young adults. Nutr Diabetes. 2018;8:40 pubmed publisher
    ..blood glucose and plasma insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations (0-180 min), appetite (visual analogue scales), and ad ..
  11. Breij L, Mulder M, van Vark van der Zee L, Hokken Koelega A. Appetite-regulating hormones in early life and relationships with type of feeding and body composition in healthy term infants. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56:1725-1732 pubmed publisher
    ..infants, we measured serum fasting levels of ghrelin, leptin, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY) at 3 months and in 41 infants also at 6 months and their ..
  12. Nemati R, Lu J, Tura A, Smith G, Murphy R. Acute Changes in Non-esterified Fatty Acids in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Receiving Bariatric Surgery. Obes Surg. 2017;27:649-656 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose, insulin, c-peptide, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) were measured, and individual NEFAs were measured using a triple-quadrupole liquid chromatography-mass ..
  13. Dobbins R, Greenway F, Chen L, Liu Y, Breed S, Andrews S, et al. Selective sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 inhibitors block glucose absorption and impair glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide release. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;308:G946-54 pubmed publisher
    ..SGLT1 inhibitor effects on plasma glucose, insulin, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations were also measured during a standard meal...
  14. Sinagoga K, McCauley H, Múnera J, Reynolds N, Enriquez J, Watson C, et al. Deriving functional human enteroendocrine cells from pluripotent stem cells. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
    ..EECs secreted several hormones including gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin, GLP-1 and oxyntomodulin...
  15. Giezenaar C, Trahair L, Luscombe Marsh N, Hausken T, Standfield S, Jones K, et al. Effects of randomized whey-protein loads on energy intake, appetite, gastric emptying, and plasma gut-hormone concentrations in older men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106:865-877 pubmed publisher
    ..and plasma gut-hormone concentrations [insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)] were measured, and ad libitum energy intake ..
  16. Skrha J, Busek P, Uhrova J, Hrabal P, Kmochová K, Laclav M, et al. Lower plasma levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) in patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and their relation to the presence of impaired glucoregulation and weight loss. Pancreatology. 2017;17:89-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we examined plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), peptide YY (PYY) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and ..
  17. Nikolić D, Al Rasadi K, Al Busaidi N, Al Waili K, Banerjee Y, Al Hashmi K, et al. Incretins, Pregnancy, and Gestational Diabetes. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2016;17:597-602 pubmed
    ..Incretins such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), have been suggested to have a role in maternal metabolism and weight as well as fetal growth...
  18. Weng S, Zhang B, Xu C, Feng S, He H. Influence of New Modified Biliopancreatic Diversion on Blood Glucose and Lipids in GK rats. Obes Surg. 2017;27:657-664 pubmed publisher
    ..tolerance (OGT), blood lipids, plasma insulin, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) were measured before and after surgery...
  19. Fernandes G, Santo M, Crespo A, Biancardi G, Mota F, Antonangelo L, et al. Early glycemic control and incretin improvement after gastric bypass: the role of oral and gastrostomy route. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Incretin improvement, mediated by glycogen-like protein 1 increased was observed only in the postoperative oral route, while GIP reduced for both routes.
  20. Galac S, Kars V, Klarenbeek S, Teerds K, Mol J, Kooistra H. Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2010;39:63-75 pubmed publisher
    ..ATs for the expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH), gastric-inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and vasopressin (V(1a), V(1b), and V(2)). Normal adrenal glands served as control tissues...
  21. Bligh H, Godsland I, Frost G, Hunter K, Murray P, MacAulay K, et al. Plant-rich mixed meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles have a dramatic impact on incretin, peptide YY and satiety response, but show little effect on glucose and insulin homeostasis: an acute-effects randomised study. Br J Nutr. 2015;113:574-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min...
  22. Svendsen P, Jensen F, Holst J, Haugaard S, Nilas L, Madsbad S. The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2012;72:410-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was measured during an oral glucose tolerance test...
  23. Berlier J, Kharroubi I, Zhang J, Dalla Valle A, Rigutto S, Mathieu M, et al. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Prevents Serum Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis in Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Osteoblastic Cells. Stem Cell Rev. 2015;11:841-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) has an anti-apoptotic action in insulin-producing cells...
    ..BMI = body mass index; DPP-4 = dipeptidyl peptidase-4; DXA = dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; GIP = glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide; GLP-1 = glucagon-like peptide-1; HOMA-B = homeostasis model assessment ..
  25. Kruse M, Keyhani Nejad F, Isken F, Nitz B, Kretschmer A, Reischl E, et al. High-Fat Diet During Mouse Pregnancy and Lactation Targets GIP-Regulated Metabolic Pathways in Adult Male Offspring. Diabetes. 2016;65:574-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic deletion of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice due to specific changes in energy and fat ..
  26. Psichas A, Larraufie P, Goldspink D, Gribble F, Reimann F. Chylomicrons stimulate incretin secretion in mouse and human cells. Diabetologia. 2017;60:2475-2485 pubmed publisher
    ..a potent stimulus for the secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)...
  27. Rohde U. EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner. Delineation of underlying mechanisms and clinical effects. Dan Med J. 2016;63: pubmed
    ..DJBS had no or minor effects on postprandial levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GIP, CCK or gastrin...
  28. Chen C, Tsai C, Lee P, Lee S. Long-term etanercept therapy favors weight gain and ameliorates cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis patients: roles of gut hormones and leptin. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19:1956-64 pubmed
    ..Significant weight gain, hyperuricemia, decreased fasting plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels, and loss of post-oral glucose suppression of plasma leptin concentration were found in the patients after ..
  29. Kieć Klimczak M, Malczewska Malec M, Razny U, Zdzienicka A, Gruca A, Goralska J, et al. Assessment of incretins in oral glucose and lipid tolerance tests may be indicative in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome aggravation. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;67:217-26 pubmed
    ..of OGTT and every 2 hours of OLTT blood concentration of GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-6, sE-selectin, monocyte ..
  30. Shah F, Singamsetty S, Guo L, Chuan B, McDonald S, Cooper B, et al. Stimulation of the endogenous incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide by enteral dextrose improves glucose homeostasis and inflammation in murine endotoxemia. Transl Res. 2018;193:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..enteral dextrose increased circulating levels of the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) associated with increased insulin release and insulin sensitivity, improved mean arterial pressure, and decreased ..
  31. Previti E, Salinari S, Bertuzzi A, Capristo E, Bornstein S, Mingrone G. Glycemic control after metabolic surgery: a Granger causality and graph analysis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;313:E622-E630 pubmed publisher
    ..plasma glucose, NEFA, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) time courses were obtained and analyzed by Granger causality and graph analyses...
  32. Glass L, Calero Nieto F, Jawaid W, Larraufie P, Kay R, Gottgens B, et al. Single-cell RNA-sequencing reveals a distinct population of proglucagon-expressing cells specific to the mouse upper small intestine. Mol Metab. 2017;6:1296-1303 pubmed publisher
    ..L-cells, including high expression of Gcg and Pyy (comprising 51% of all PPG-cells); a cell type overlapping with Gip-expressing K-cells (14%); and a unique cluster expressing Tph1 and Pzp that was predominantly located in proximal ..
  33. Ueno H, Nakazato H, Ebihara E, Noma K, Kawano T, Nagamine K, et al. Effects of Ipragliflozin on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism and Gut Peptides in Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study. Diabetes Ther. 2018;9:403-411 pubmed publisher
    ..insulin, glucagon, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), active glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin, and des-acyl ghrelin were measured before and 12 weeks after ipragliflozin treatment...
  34. Myeong J, Kwak M, Jeon J, Hong C, Jeon J, So I. Close spatio-association of the transient receptor potential canonical 4 (TRPC4) channel with Gαi in TRPC4 activation process. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2015;308:C879-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that Gαi2 activates the TRPC4 channel by direct binding, which then induces Ca(2+) entry. ..
  35. Li Y, Liu W, Li L, Hölscher C. Neuroprotective effects of a GIP analogue in the MPTP Parkinson's disease mouse model. Neuropharmacology. 2016;101:255-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) belongs to the incretin hormone family, which can promote insulin release and improve insulin resistance...
  36. Kremer K, Kumar A, Hedin K. G alpha i2 and ZAP-70 mediate RasGRP1 membrane localization and activation of SDF-1-induced T cell functions. J Immunol. 2011;187:3177-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Other G protein-coupled receptors may similarly contribute to regulation of RasGRP1. ..
  37. Chang I, Parrilla M. Expression patterns of homeobox genes in the mouse vomeronasal organ at postnatal stages. Gene Expr Patterns. 2016;21:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..As far as the sensory neurons of the VNO are concerned, Meis1 and Meis2 were only expressed in the apical layer, together with Gnai2, but not in the basal layer.
  38. Murao N, Yokoi N, Honda K, Han G, Hayami T, Gheni G, et al. Essential roles of aspartate aminotransferase 1 and vesicular glutamate transporters in β-cell glutamate signaling for incretin-induced insulin secretion. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187213 pubmed publisher
    Incretins (GLP-1 and GIP) potentiate insulin secretion through cAMP signaling in pancreatic β-cells in a glucose-dependent manner...
  39. Moxham C, Malbon C. Insulin action impaired by deficiency of the G-protein subunit G ialpha2. Nature. 1996;379:840-4 pubmed
    ..G ialpha2 deficiency creates a model for insulin resistance characteristic of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), implicating G ialpha2 as a positive regulator of insulin action. ..
  40. Lerman B, Dong B, Stein K, Markowitz S, Linden J, Catanzaro D. Right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia due to a somatic cell mutation in G protein subunitalphai2. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:2862-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that somatic cell mutations in the cAMP-dependent signal transduction pathway occurring during myocardial development may be responsible for some forms of idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. ..
  41. Higgins P, SHADE R, Rodríguez Sánchez I, Garcia Forey M, Tejero M, Voruganti V, et al. Central GIP signaling stimulates peripheral GIP release and promotes insulin and pancreatic polypeptide secretion in nonhuman primates. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016;311:E661-E670 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has important actions on whole body metabolic function. GIP and its receptor are also present in the central nervous system and have been linked to neurotrophic actions...
  42. Bickler S, Lizardo E, Cauvi D, De Maio A. The transition from a rural to an urban environment in Africa alters G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Med Hypotheses. 2016;95:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling pathway (GNAQ, GNA11 and GNA15), and one gene controlling the cyclic adenosine monophosphate pathway (GNAI2) was altered by urbanization...
  43. Frias J, Bastyr E, Vignati L, Tschöp M, Schmitt C, Owen K, et al. The Sustained Effects of a Dual GIP/GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, NNC0090-2746, in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Cell Metab. 2017;26:343-352.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..incretins derived from hybridized glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) sequences have demonstrated synergistic reduction of adiposity in animal models and reductions of hyperglycemia in ..
  44. Didsbury J, Ho Y, Snyderman R. Human Gi protein alpha-subunit: deduction of amino acid structure from a cloned cDNA. FEBS Lett. 1987;211:160-4 pubmed
    ..6-fold increase in the 41 kDa pertussis toxin substrate presumed to be Gi alpha. Thus, increased levels of this G-protein are associated with monocyte differentiation and appear to be regulated transcriptionally. ..
  45. McCormack P. Evogliptin: First Global Approval. Drugs. 2015;75:2045-9 pubmed publisher
    ..glucose levels by preventing the breakdown of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which stimulate insulin secretion in response to the increased levels of ..
  46. REIDELBERGER R, Haver A, Anders K, Apenteng B, Lanio C. Effects of solid-phase extraction of plasma in measuring gut metabolic hormones in fasted and fed blood of lean and diet-induced obese rats. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..assay were used to measure active GLP-1, total PYY, active amylin, active ghrelin, insulin, leptin, and total GIP in response to (1) addition of known amounts of the peptides to lean and obese plasma, (2) a large meal in lean and ..
  47. Lee S, Koh G, Cho S, Yoo S, Chin S. Correlation of Glypican-4 Level with Basal Active Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2016;31:439-445 pubmed publisher
    ..pretreated with aprotinin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor to preserve active gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)...
  48. Pankova A, Kralikova E, Kavalkova P, Stepankova L, Zvolská K, Haluzik M. No change in serum incretins levels but rise of leptin levels after smoking cessation: a pilot study. Physiol Res. 2016;65:651-659 pubmed
    ..test with Fresubin and repeated blood sampling for measurements of blood glucose, gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), amylin, insulin, leptin, peptide-YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)...
  49. Ismail S, Gherardi M, Froese A, Zanoun M, Gigoux V, Clerc P, et al. Internalized Receptor for Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Peptide stimulates adenylyl cyclase on early endosomes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2016;120:33-45 pubmed publisher
    ..and on detection of a distinct FRET signal accounting for cAMP production at the surface of endosomes containing GIP, compared to endosomes without GIP...
  50. Hosoda Y, Okahara F, Mori T, Deguchi J, Ota N, Osaki N, et al. Dietary steamed wheat bran increases postprandial fat oxidation in association with a reduced blood glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in mice. Food Nutr Res. 2017;61:1361778 pubmed publisher
    ..using an indirect calorimeter, and plasma glucose, insulin, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels were measured for 120 min after feeding...
  51. Bushfield M, Murphy G, Lavan B, Parker P, Hruby V, Milligan G, et al. Hormonal regulation of Gi2 alpha-subunit phosphorylation in intact hepatocytes. Biochem J. 1990;268:449-57 pubmed
    ..We suggest that there are two possible sites for the phosphorylation of alpha-Gi2; one for C-kinase and the other for an unidentified kinase whose action is triggered by A-kinase activation. ..
  52. Zhou J, Moroi K, Nishiyama M, Usui H, Seki N, Ishida J, et al. Characterization of RGS5 in regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Life Sci. 2001;68:1457-69 pubmed
  53. Garza López E, González Ramírez R, Gandini M, Sandoval A, Felix R. The familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutation K1336E affects direct G protein-mediated regulation of neuronal P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. Cephalalgia. 2013;33:398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..1 Ca(2+) channels. This alteration would contribute to render the neuronal network hyperexcitable, possibly as a consequence of reduced presynaptic inhibition, and may help to explain some aspects of the FHM-1 pathophysiology. ..
  54. Abdullah N, Beg M, Soares D, Dittman J, McGraw T. Downregulation of a GPCR by β-Arrestin2-Mediated Switch from an Endosomal to a TGN Recycling Pathway. Cell Rep. 2016;17:2966-2978 pubmed publisher
    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone involved in nutrient homeostasis...
  55. Lin P, Le Niculescu H, Hofmeister R, McCaffery J, Jin M, Hennemann H, et al. The mammalian calcium-binding protein, nucleobindin (CALNUC), is a Golgi resident protein. J Cell Biol. 1998;141:1515-27 pubmed
    ..The properties of CALNUC and its high homology to calreticulin suggest that it may play a key role in calcium homeostasis in the CGN and cis-Golgi cisternae. ..
  56. Batzenschlager M, Lermontova I, Schubert V, Fuchs J, Berr A, Koini M, et al. Arabidopsis MZT1 homologs GIP1 and GIP2 are essential for centromere architecture. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:8656-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that GIPs form a complex with CENH3 in cycling cells. GIP depletion in the gip1gip2 knockdown mutant leads to a decreased CENH3 level at centromeres, despite a higher level ..
  57. Veilleux A, Mayeur S, Bérubé J, Beaulieu J, Tremblay E, Hould F, et al. Altered intestinal functions and increased local inflammation in insulin-resistant obese subjects: a gene-expression profile analysis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2015;15:119 pubmed publisher
    ..compared to insulin-sensitive subjects: the transcripts of the insulinotropic glucose-dependant peptide (GIP) and of the β-microseminoprotein (MSMB) were significantly reduced, but that of the humanin like-1 (MTRNR2L1) ..
  58. McClue S, Milligan G. The alpha 2B adrenergic receptor of undifferentiated neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells, interacts directly with the guanine nucleotide binding protein, Gi2. FEBS Lett. 1990;269:430-4 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a direct interaction of the alpha 2B adrenergic receptor of NG108-15 cells with Gi2. ..
  59. Richardson M, Kilts J, Kwatra M. Increased expression of Gi-coupled muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and Gi in atrium of elderly diabetic subjects. Diabetes. 2004;53:2392-6 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a molecular explanation for the increased risk of cardiac disease in patients with diabetes, because increased signaling through G(i) has been shown to lead to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. ..
  60. Ullrich S, Fitzgerald P, Schober G, Steinert R, Horowitz M, Feinle Bisset C. Intragastric administration of leucine or isoleucine lowers the blood glucose response to a mixed-nutrient drink by different mechanisms in healthy, lean volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104:1274-1284 pubmed
    ..plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (leucine study only) were measured for 60 min...
  61. Welzig C, Shin D, Park H, Kim Y, Saul J, Galper J. Lipid lowering by pravastatin increases parasympathetic modulation of heart rate: Galpha(i2), a possible molecular marker for parasympathetic responsiveness. Circulation. 2003;108:2743-6 pubmed
  62. Niwa S, Mezawa H, Kobayashi N, Ida H, Urashima M. Inverse association between maternal 25OHD level and cord GLP-1/GIP concentrations. Pediatr Res. 2016;79:536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..negative associations with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)...
  63. Nishiyama Y, Hasegawa T, Fujita S, Iwata N, Nagao S, Hosoya T, et al. Incretins modulate progesterone biosynthesis by regulating bone morphogenetic protein activity in rat granulosa cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018;178:82-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the effects of incretins, including GIP and GLP-1, on ovarian steroidogenesis using rat primary granulosa cells...
  64. Caruana J, Monte S, Jacobs D, Voytovich C, Ghanim H, Dandona P. Distal small bowel bypass for weight regain after gastric bypass: safety and efficacy threshold occurs at <70% bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2015;11:1248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..A favorable gut hormone response was observed with 3-hour decrease in glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) by 25% and increase in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by 25%, whereas fasting peptide-YY (PYY) increased by 71% (..
  65. Coderch J, Pérez Berruezo X, Sánchez Pérez I, Sánchez E, Ibern P, Perez M, et al. [Assessment of the effectiveness of a proactive and integrated healthcare programme for chronic complex patients]. Gac Sanit. 2018;32:18-26 pubmed publisher
    ..trial with three parallel groups of CCP: a blinded control group (GC), usual care; a partial intervention group (GIP) reported in the EMR; a total intervention group (GIT), also reported to primary care (PC)...
  66. Triff K, McLean M, Konganti K, Pang J, Callaway E, Zhou B, et al. Assessment of histone tail modifications and transcriptional profiling during colon cancer progression reveals a global decrease in H3K4me3 activity. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2017;1863:1392-1402 pubmed publisher
    ..between K4me3 DERs and colon tumorigenesis (1210 genes were linked to colorectal carcinoma) including FOXO3, GNAI2, H2AFX, MSH2, NR3C1, PDCD4 and VEGFA, these changes were not reflected at the RNA gene expression level during ..
  67. Verma M, Goel R, Nandakumar K, Nemmani K. Effect of D-Ala2GIP, a stable GIP receptor agonist on MPTP-induced neuronal impairments in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017;804:38-45 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of D-Ala2GIP, a gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor agonist, to attenuate the behavioral phenotype of Parkinson's disease caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-..
  68. Sunahara R, Taussig R. Isoforms of mammalian adenylyl cyclase: multiplicities of signaling. Mol Interv. 2002;2:168-84 pubmed
  69. Engelbrechtsen L, Mahendran Y, Jonsson A, Gjesing A, Weeke P, Jørgensen M, et al. Common variants in the hERG (KCNH2) voltage-gated potassium channel are associated with altered fasting and glucose-stimulated plasma incretin and glucagon responses. BMC Genet. 2018;19:15 pubmed publisher
    ..on QT interval and plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), insulin and glucagon during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)...
  70. Verma M, Goel R, Nandakumar K, Nemmani K. Bilateral quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation, decreased striatal monoamine levels and neurobehavioral deficits are ameliorated by GIP receptor agonist D-Ala2GIP in rat model of Huntington's disease. Eur J Pharmacol. 2018;828:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Present study explores the effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor agonist on the neurobehavioral sequelae of quinolinic acid-induced phenotype of Huntington's disease in ..
  71. Mueller A, Strange P. CCL3, acting via the chemokine receptor CCR5, leads to independent activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Gi proteins. FEBS Lett. 2004;570:126-32 pubmed
    ..Gi protein activation was not prevented by inhibition of JAK, showing that heterotrimeric G protein activation and activation of the JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway are independent of each other. ..
  72. Hegedűs C, Kovács D, Kiss R, Sári R, Németh J, Szilvássy Z, et al. Effect of long-term olanzapine treatment on meal-induced insulin sensitization and on gastrointestinal peptides in female Sprague-Dawley rats. J Psychopharmacol. 2015;29:1271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Fasted and post-prandial blood samples were obtained for plasma insulin, leptin, ghrelin, amylin, GLP-1, GIP, PYY and PP determination. Adiposity was characterized by weighing intra-abdominal and inguinal fat pads...
  73. Suh S, Kim M, Kim S, Hur K, Park M, Kim D, et al. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide Level Is Associated with the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2016;31:134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Fasting total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and total glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) levels were measured and compared between these groups...
  74. Musso G, Cipolla U, Cassader M, Pinach S, Saba F, De Michieli F, et al. TM6SF2 rs58542926 variant affects postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis in NAFLD. J Lipid Res. 2017;58:1221-1229 pubmed publisher
    ..of plasma lipoprotein subfractions, adipokines, and incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and an oral glucose tolerance test with minimal model analysis of glucose homeostasis...
  75. Nyhoff L, Heden T, Leidy H, Winn N, Park Y, Thyfault J, et al. Prior exercise does not alter the incretin response to a subsequent meal in obese women. Peptides. 2015;71:94-9 pubmed publisher
    ..glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280min of testing...
  76. Penaforte F, Japur C, Diez Garcia R, Chiarello P. Effects of a high-fat meal on postprandial incretin responses, appetite scores and ad libitum energy intake in women with obesity. Nutr Hosp. 2017;34:376-382 pubmed publisher
    Considering the possible role of triglycerides (TG), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the regulation of appetite, this study aimed to compare high fat meal-induced response of GIP ..
  77. Mary F, Moesseler A, Khodorova N, Foucault Simonin A, Benamouzig R, Tome D, et al. Metabolic markers of protein maldigestion after a 15N test meal in minipigs with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017;:ajpgi.00218.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..Insulin and GIP secretions were decreased by PEI, an effect that was counteracted with the enzymes at level B...
  78. Shi G, Harrison K, Wilson G, Moratz C, Kehrl J. RGS13 regulates germinal center B lymphocytes responsiveness to CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12 and CXCL13. J Immunol. 2002;169:2507-15 pubmed
    ..These results plus previous studies of RGS1 indicate the germinal center B cells use two RGS proteins, RGS1 and RGS13, to regulate their responsiveness to chemokines. ..
  79. Wu T, Little T, Bound M, Borg M, Zhang X, Deacon C, et al. A Protein Preload Enhances the Glucose-Lowering Efficacy of Vildagliptin in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:511-7 pubmed publisher
    ..e., glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide [GIP])...
  80. Nairismägi M, Tan J, Lim J, Nagarajan S, Ng C, Rajasegaran V, et al. JAK-STAT and G-protein-coupled receptor signaling pathways are frequently altered in epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma. Leukemia. 2016;30:1311-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, STAT5B was mutated in a remarkable 63% of cases, JAK3 in 35% and GNAI2 in 24%, with the majority occurring at known activating hotspots in key functional domains...
  81. Wall M, Coleman D, Lee E, Iñiguez Lluhí J, Posner B, Gilman A, et al. The structure of the G protein heterotrimer Gi alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2. Cell. 1995;83:1047-58 pubmed
    ..Repeated WD motifs in beta form a circularized sevenfold beta propeller. The conserved cores of these motifs are a scaffold for display of their more variable linkers on the exterior face of each propeller blade. ..
  82. Damaj B, McColl S, Mahana W, Crouch M, Naccache P. Physical association of Gi2alpha with interleukin-8 receptors. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:12783-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, the results of this study also validate the use of the transfected 293 cell line as a model for the study of the signal transduction pathway(s) initiated by IL-8. ..
  83. Lacombe C, Viallard V, Schaak S, Paris H. Identification and subcellular distribution of the Gi-proteins in the enterocytic-differentiated adenocarcinoma cell-line, Caco-2. Biol Cell. 1996;88:123-9 pubmed
    ..Based upon double-labelling experiments with antibody against rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), there is a strong possibility that intra-cellular sites of alpha i2-subunit correspond to association with RER membranes. ..
  84. Willard F, McCudden C, Siderovski D. G-protein alpha subunit interaction and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor activity of the dual GoLoco motif protein PCP-2 (Purkinje cell protein-2). Cell Signal. 2006;18:1226-34 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the data demonstrate that PCP-2 is a comparatively weak GoLoco motif protein that exhibits highest affinity interactions and GDI activity toward Galphai1, Galphai2, and Galphai3 subunits. ..
  85. Oldham W, Van Eps N, Preininger A, Hubbell W, Hamm H. Mechanism of the receptor-catalyzed activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:772-7 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first direct observation of R*-mediated conformational changes in G proteins and define the structural basis for GDP release from G alpha. ..
  86. Nielsen L, Ploug K, Swift P, Ørskov C, Jansen Olesen I, Chiarelli F, et al. Co-localisation of the Kir6.2/SUR1 channel complex with glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide expression in human ileal cells and implications for glycaemic control in new onset type 1 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;156:663-71 pubmed
    ..glucose-sensing cells secreting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) respectively...
  87. Quan W, Kim J, Albert P, Choi H, Kim K. Roles of G protein and beta-arrestin in dopamine D2 receptor-mediated ERK activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:705-709 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that G(i2) protein is involved in D(2)R-mediated ERK activation but beta-arrestins are either not involved or play minor role. ..
  88. Huang X, Fu Y, Charbeneau R, Neubig R. GNAI2 and regulators of G protein signaling as a potential Noonan syndrome mechanism. Med Hypotheses. 2009;73:56-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that enhanced signaling through Galpha(i2) (from the GNAI2 gene) may also produce a NS-like phenotype...
  89. Chishiki K, Kamakura S, Yuzawa S, Hayase J, Sumimoto H. Ubiquitination of the heterotrimeric G protein ? subunits G?i2 and G?q is prevented by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Ric-8A. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:414-9 pubmed publisher
  90. Laugwitz K, Allgeier A, Offermanns S, Spicher K, Van Sande J, Dumont J, et al. The human thyrotropin receptor: a heptahelical receptor capable of stimulating members of all four G protein families. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:116-20 pubmed
  91. Nakazaki M, Crane A, Hu M, Seghers V, Ullrich S, Aguilar Bryan L, et al. cAMP-activated protein kinase-independent potentiation of insulin secretion by cAMP is impaired in SUR1 null islets. Diabetes. 2002;51:3440-9 pubmed
    ..we found that incretins, specifically glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), can increase the cAMP content of Sur1KO islets but do not potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin release...
  92. Khan Z, Gutierrez A. Distribution of C-terminal splice variant of G alpha i2 in rat and monkey brain. Neuroscience. 2004;127:833-43 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the frequent localization of sGi2 protein in neck of spines further suggests that this protein may not engage directly in neuronal signal transmission but could influence other participating proteins of this process. ..