Gene Symbol: GM-CSF
Description: colony stimulating factor 2
Alias: CSF, GMCSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, molgramostin, sargramostim
Species: human
Products:     GM-CSF

Top Publications

  1. Johnson B, Bert A, Ryan G, Condina A, Cockerill P. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhancer activation requires cooperation between NFAT and AP-1 elements and is associated with extensive nucleosome reorganization. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7914-30 pubmed
    The human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene is activated by an NFAT-dependent enhancer forming an inducible DNase I hypersensitive (DH) site...
  2. Fleetwood A, Cook A, Hamilton J. Functions of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Crit Rev Immunol. 2005;25:405-28 pubmed
    GM-CSF was originally defined by its ability to generate in vitro granulocyte and macrophage colonies from bone marrow precursor cells...
  3. Hansen G, Hercus T, McClure B, Stomski F, Dottore M, Powell J, et al. The structure of the GM-CSF receptor complex reveals a distinct mode of cytokine receptor activation. Cell. 2008;134:496-507 pubmed publisher
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that controls the production and function of blood cells, is deregulated in clinical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and leukemia, yet offers ..
  4. Curran C, Evans M, Bertics P. GM-CSF production by glioblastoma cells has a functional role in eosinophil survival, activation, and growth factor production for enhanced tumor cell proliferation. J Immunol. 2011;187:1254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of GM-CSF neutralizing Abs to GBM cell cultures or conditioned media reduced eosinophil adhesion, survival, and activation, ..
  5. Revoltella R, Menicagli M, Campani D. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as an autocrine survival-growth factor in human gliomas. Cytokine. 2012;57:347-59 pubmed publisher
    We studied the expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and its receptors (GM-CSF...
  6. Zgheib A, Lamy S, Annabi B. Epigallocatechin gallate targeting of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase-mediated Src and Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 signaling inhibits transcription of colony-stimulating factors 2 and 3 in mesenchymal st. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:13378-86 pubmed publisher
    b>CSF-2 and CSF-3 confer proangiogenic and immunomodulatory properties to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Transcriptional regulation of CSF-2 and CSF-3 in concanavalin A-activated MSCs requires MT1-MMP signaling and is inhibited by EGCG...
  7. Fukuoka Y, Strainic M, Medof M. Differential cytokine expression of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in response to stimulation by C5a. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003;131:248-53 pubmed
    ..primary human RPE cell line (RPE43) and found that C5a induces increased expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, MCP-1 and GM-CSF mRNAs as well as IL-8 mRNA. ARPE-19 cells showed similar increases in the same cytokines...
  8. Shibasaki T, Katayama N, Ohishi K, Fujieda A, Monma F, Nishi K, et al. IL-3 can not replace GM-CSF in inducing human monocytes to differentiate into Langerhans cells. Int J Oncol. 2007;30:549-55 pubmed
    Receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) share a common beta subunit...
  9. Bowers S, Mirabella F, Calero Nieto F, Valeaux S, Hadjur S, Baxter E, et al. A conserved insulator that recruits CTCF and cohesin exists between the closely related but divergently regulated interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1682-93 pubmed publisher
    The human interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating-factor (GM-CSF, or CSF2) gene cluster arose by duplication of an ancestral gene...

More Information

Publications135 found, 100 shown here

  1. Pylayeva Gupta Y, Lee K, Hajdu C, Miller G, Bar Sagi D. Oncogenic Kras-induced GM-CSF production promotes the development of pancreatic neoplasia. Cancer Cell. 2012;21:836-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate an oncogenic Kras(G12D)-dependent upregulation of GM-CSF in mouse pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs)...
  2. Wang W, Tang Y, Wang Y, Tascau L, Balcerek J, Tong W, et al. LNK/SH2B3 Loss of Function Promotes Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. Circ Res. 2016;119:e91-e103 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypercholesterolemia acts in platelets and hematopoietic progenitors to exacerbate thrombosis and atherosclerosis associated with LNK deficiency. ..
  3. Leonhardt I, Spielberg S, Weber M, Albrecht Eckardt D, Bläss M, Claus R, et al. The fungal quorum-sensing molecule farnesol activates innate immune cells but suppresses cellular adaptive immunity. MBio. 2015;6:e00143 pubmed publisher effector molecule expression and a down-regulation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor during monocytes to iDC differentiation...
  4. Joshi D, Abraham D, Shiwen X, Baker D, Tsui J. Potential role of erythropoietin receptors and ligands in attenuating apoptosis and inflammation in critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2014;60:191-201, 201.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vitro experiments demonstrate that ARA 290 decreases inflammation and apoptosis of ischemic myotubes. ARA 290 may potentially be used as adjunctive treatment for CLI. ..
  5. Laube B. Aerosolized Medications for Gene and Peptide Therapy. Respir Care. 2015;60:806-21; discussion 821-4 pubmed publisher
  6. Wang M, Subramanian M, Abramowicz S, Murphy A, Gonen A, Witztum J, et al. Interleukin-3/granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor promotes stem cell expansion, monocytosis, and atheroma macrophage burden in mice with hematopoietic ApoE deficiency. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2014;34:976-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of the CBS in cholesterol-driven HSPC expansion, monocytosis, and atherosclerosis...
  7. Hetzel M, Suzuki T, Hashtchin A, Arumugam P, Carey B, Schwabbauer M, et al. Function and Safety of Lentivirus-Mediated Gene Transfer for CSF2RA-Deficiency. Hum Gene Ther Methods. 2017;28:318-329 pubmed publisher
    ..failure caused by mutations in CSF2RA (encoding the granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF] receptor ?-chain [CD116]), which results in reduced GM-CSF-dependent pulmonary surfactant clearance by alveolar ..
  8. Goldstein J, Kominsky D, Jacobson N, Bowers B, Regalia K, Austin G, et al. Defective leukocyte GM-CSF receptor (CD116) expression and function in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..001). These studies identify defective expression and function of CD116 as a distinguishing feature of IBD and implicate an associated defect in innate immune responses toward granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. ..
  9. Nakazawa Y, Matsuda K, Kurata T, Sueki A, Tanaka M, Sakashita K, et al. Anti-proliferative effects of T cells expressing a ligand-based chimeric antigen receptor against CD116 on CD34(+) cells of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. J Hematol Oncol. 2016;9:27 pubmed publisher
    ..with JMML have mutually exclusive genetic abnormalities in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor (GMR, CD116) signaling pathway...
  10. Pazdrak K, Young T, Stafford S, Olszewska Pazdrak B, Straub C, Starosta V, et al. Cross-talk between ICAM-1 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor signaling modulates eosinophil survival and activation. J Immunol. 2008;180:4182-90 pubmed
    ..In this regard, GM-CSF is a primary candidate cytokine regulating eosinophil activation and survival in the lung; however, its molecular ..
  11. di Spigna G, Iannone M, Ladogana P, Salzano S, Ventre M, Covelli B, et al. Human cardiac multipotent adult stem cells in 3D matrix: new approach of tissue engineering in cardiac regeneration post-infarction. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2017;31:911-921 pubmed
    ..They therefore represent a promising approach to tissue engineering aimed to restore cardiac function. Our results also suggest a role of GM-CSF in cell proliferation, while TGF-β does not seem to be relevant.
  12. Peralta O, Bucher D, Angulo C, Castro M, Ratto M, Concha I. Tissue localization of GM-CSF receptor in bovine ovarian follicles and its role on glucose uptake by mural granulosa cells. Anim Reprod Sci. 2016;170:157-69 pubmed publisher
    The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in proliferation, differentiation, and activation of several cell types including those involved in hematopoiesis and reproduction...
  13. Xiao H, Xiong L, Song X, Jin P, Chen L, Chen X, et al. Angelica sinensis Polysaccharides Ameliorate Stress-Induced Premature Senescence of Hematopoietic Cell via Protecting Bone Marrow Stromal Cells from Oxidative Injuries Caused by 5-Fluorouracil. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..stem cell factor (SCF), stromal cell-derived factor (SDF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), however, elevated inflammatory chemokines such as RANTES...
  14. Kumar A, Abdelmalak B, Inoue Y, Culver D. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in adults: pathophysiology and clinical approach. Lancet Respir Med. 2018;6:554-565 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an indispensable mediator of macrophage maturation and surfactant catabolism was the key discovery leading to ..
  15. Westerterp M, Gautier E, Ganda A, Molusky M, Wang W, Fotakis P, et al. Cholesterol Accumulation in Dendritic Cells Links the Inflammasome to Acquired Immunity. Cell Metab. 2017;25:1294-1304.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Nlrp3 inflammasome deficiency diminished the enlarged LNs and enhanced Th1 cell polarization. These findings identify an essential role of DC cholesterol efflux pathways in maintaining immune tolerance. ..
  16. Nguyen T, Arthur A, Zannettino A, Gronthos S. EphA5 and EphA7 forward signaling enhances human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell maintenance, migration, and adhesion via Rac1 activation. Exp Hematol. 2017;48:72-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that interactions between EphA and ephrinA5 are important in maintaining the HSPC niche mediated in part by activation of Rac1 signaling. ..
  17. Akbari B, Farajnia S, Ahdi Khosroshahi S, Safari F, Yousefi M, Dariushnejad H, et al. Immunotoxins in cancer therapy: Review and update. Int Rev Immunol. 2017;36:207-219 pubmed publisher
    ..form of gelonin; NKC: natural killer cells; HTR: human transferrin receptor; EGF: epidermal growth factor; GM-CSF: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; DAB389: truncated Diphtheria toxin; B-CCL: B-cell chronic ..
  18. Kurose T, Hashimoto M, Ozawa J, Kawamata S. Analysis of Gene Expression in Experimental Pressure Ulcers in the Rat with Special Reference to Inflammatory Cytokines. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0132622 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-Time PCR showed the up-regulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1Ra), ..
  19. Trapnell B, Nakata K, Bonella F, Campo I, Griese M, Hamilton J, et al. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2019;5:16 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanism: primary PAP is characterized by the disruption of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signalling and can be autoimmune (caused by elevated levels of GM-CSF autoantibodies) or hereditary (due to ..
  20. Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Gotsch F, Kusanovic J, Mittal P, Kim S, et al. Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy changes the balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors in maternal plasma. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:167-78 pubmed
    ..IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, interferon (IFN)-gamma, granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were also determined using high sensitivity multiplexed ..
  21. Ramaglia L, di Spigna G, Capece G, Sbordone C, Salzano S, Postiglione L. Differentiation, apoptosis, and GM-CSF receptor expression of human gingival fibroblasts on a titanium surface treated by a dual acid-etched procedure. Clin Oral Investig. 2015;19:2245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest a possible beneficial effect of surface etching modification on peri-implant biological integration and soft tissue healing which is critical for the formation of a biological seal around the neck of dental implants. ..
  22. Suzuki T, Arumugam P, Sakagami T, Lachmann N, Chalk C, Sallese A, et al. Pulmonary macrophage transplantation therapy. Nature. 2014;514:450-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor-β-deficient (Csf2rb(-/-)) mice that develop a myeloid cell disorder identical to hereditary pulmonary ..
  23. Gariup M, González A, Lázaro L, Torres F, Serra Pagès C, Morer A. IL-8 and the innate immunity as biomarkers in acute child and adolescent psychopathology. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015;62:233-42 pubmed publisher
    ..interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL_10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IFN-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10), monocyte ..
  24. Zheng R, Chen F, Gao W, Wang D, Yang Q, Wang K, et al. The TH2-polarizing function of atopic interleukin 17 receptor B-positive dendritic cells up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017;118:474-482.e1 pubmed publisher
  25. Kaushansky K, Lopez J, Brown C. Role of carbohydrate modification in the production and secretion of human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in genetically engineered and normal mesenchymal cells. Biochemistry. 1992;31:1881-6 pubmed
    ..Human GM-CSF contains two N-linked carbohydrate side chains of the complex acidic type and several sites of O-linked ..
  26. Thomassen M, Raychaudhuri B, Bonfield T, Malur A, Abraham S, Barna B, et al. Elevated IL-10 inhibits GM-CSF synthesis in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Autoimmunity. 2003;36:285-90 pubmed
    ..Autoantibodies to GM-CSF as well as high levels of IL-10 are also found in the lungs in PAP...
  27. Brummer E, Maqbool A, Stevens D. Protection of peritoneal macrophages by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) against dexamethasone suppression of killing of Aspergillus, and the effect of human GM-CSF. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:133-8 pubmed
    ..Treatment with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) alone did not boost killing, but GM-CSF treatment concurrently with dexamethasone reversed the dexamethasone ..
  28. Volmar C, Ait Ghezala G, Frieling J, Paris D, Mullan M. The granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) regulates amyloid beta (Abeta) production. Cytokine. 2008;42:336-44 pubmed publisher
    ..microglia induces increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF. We have also shown that CD40L stimulation increases Abeta levels in HEK-293 cells over-expressing both the amyloid ..
  29. Li M, Piao L, Chen C, Wu X, Yeh C, Masch R, et al. Modulation of Decidual Macrophage Polarization by Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Derived from First-Trimester Decidual Cells: Implication in Preeclampsia. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:1258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating-factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) are major differentiating factors that mediate M1 and M2 ..
  30. Wang B, Gao Y, Zheng G, Ren X, Sun B, Zhu K, et al. Platycodin D inhibits interleukin-13-induced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and mucus in nasal epithelial cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;84:1108-1112 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study showed that PLD inhibited the levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and eotaxin in interleukin (IL)-13-stimulated RPMI2650 cells...
  31. Abassi M, Morawski B, Nakigozi G, Nakasujja N, Kong X, Meya D, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in HIV-infected individuals in Rakai, Uganda. J Neurovirol. 2017;23:369-375 pubmed publisher
    In the USA, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammatory cytokines have been observed in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive, HIV-seropositive individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND)...
  32. Casas R, Urpi Sardà M, Sacanella E, Arranz S, Corella D, Castañer O, et al. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Mediterranean Diet in the Early and Late Stages of Atheroma Plaque Development. Mediators Inflamm. 2017;2017:3674390 pubmed publisher
    ..05; all) compared to LFD. IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12p70, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, GCSF, GMCSF, and ENA78 (P < 0...
  33. Nirmala R, Mathew R, Narayanan P. Reduced cytokine secretions by LAK cells of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in response to tumor targets in vitro. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2002;22:617-20 pubmed
    ..IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were estimated in the supernatants generated in the two groups...
  34. Kessel J, Gern J, Vrtis R, Sedgwick J, Busse W. Ligation of intercellular adhesion molecule 3 inhibits GM-CSF production by human eosinophils. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;111:1024-31 pubmed
    ..We measured granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production by unstimulated eosinophils and eosinophils stimulated with ionomycin (1 micromol/L), both in the ..
  35. Park K, Choi K, Hong S, Han G, Yoo J, Jin D, et al. Production of transgenic recloned piglets harboring the human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) gene from porcine fetal fibroblasts by nuclear transfer. Theriogenology. 2008;70:1431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..female pigs harboring goat beta-casein promoter/human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (hGM-CSF)...
  36. Sielska M, Przanowski P, Wylot B, Gabrusiewicz K, Maleszewska M, Kijewska M, et al. Distinct roles of CSF family cytokines in macrophage infiltration and activation in glioma progression and injury response. J Pathol. 2013;230:310-21 pubmed publisher
    ..M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor, encoded by the CSF1 gene) has been implicated in the control of recruitment ..
  37. Varas A, Valencia J, Lavocat F, Martínez V, Thiam N, Hidalgo L, et al. Blockade of bone morphogenetic protein signaling potentiates the pro-inflammatory phenotype induced by interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor-α combination in rheumatoid synoviocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:192 pubmed publisher
  38. Modrowski D, Basle M, Lomri A, Marie P. Syndecan-2 is involved in the mitogenic activity and signaling of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:9178-85 pubmed
    We previously showed that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) binds to heparan sulfate proteoglycans expressed at the surface of osteoblastic cells and that the mitogenic activity of this cytokine is dependent on ..
  39. Kamiya T, Hatanaka H, Abe Y, Kijima H, Yamazaki H, Ohnishi Y, et al. Interleukin-10 expression is closely correlated with the expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res. 2003;23:2909-13 pubmed the cytokine network contributes to the expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  40. Persson J, Nilsson J, Lindholm M. Interleukin-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha impede neutral lipid turnover in macrophage-derived foam cells. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:70 pubmed publisher
    ..If present in vivo, these mechanisms will further augment the pro-atherogenic properties of the two cytokines. ..
  41. Ngcobo M, Gqaleni N. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of a South African commercial traditional immune booster in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16:300 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-?, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in cyclosporine-, immunosuppressed, and PHA-stimulated PBMCs...
  42. Zhang R, Wang Z, Li Y, Lu Y, Wang S, Yu W, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to predict response to vinorelbine-cisplatin alone or with rh-endostatin in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and bone metastases: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2016;388 Suppl 1:S95 pubmed publisher
    ..Limitations of this study include the small number of patients and the single-centre design. National Natural Science Foundation of China [grant number 81201628]. ..
  43. Huang F, Zhao J, Wang L, Gao C, Liang S, An D, et al. miR-148a-3p Mediates Notch Signaling to Promote the Differentiation and M1 Activation of Macrophages. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1327 pubmed publisher
    ..of monocytes into macrophages in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Meanwhile, miR-148a-3p promoted M1 and inhibited M2 polarization of macrophages upon Notch activation...
  44. Kato T, Noma H, Kitagawa M, Takahashi T, Oshitani N, Kitagawa S. Distinct role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase isoforms in human neutrophil apoptosis regulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008;28:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Stimulation of neutrophils with TNF-alpha and GM-CSF caused phosphorylation of p54 or p46 JNK or both...
  45. Judkowski V, Bunying A, Ge F, Appel J, Law K, Sharma A, et al. GM-CSF production allows the identification of immunoprevalent antigens recognized by human CD4+ T cells following smallpox vaccination. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24091 pubmed publisher
    ..clear evidence that TNF-? is an excellent readout of vaccinia specificity and that other cytokines such as GM-CSF can be used to evaluate the reactivity of CD4+ T cells in response to vaccinia antigens...
  46. Andtbacka R, Kaufman H, Collichio F, Amatruda T, Senzer N, Chesney J, et al. Talimogene Laherparepvec Improves Durable Response Rate in Patients With Advanced Melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33:2780-8 pubmed publisher
    ..designed to selectively replicate within tumors and produce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance systemic antitumor immune responses...
  47. Ploessl C, Pan A, Maples K, Lowe D. Dinutuximab: An Anti-GD2 Monoclonal Antibody for High-Risk Neuroblastoma. Ann Pharmacother. 2016;50:416-22 pubmed publisher
    ..anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody approved in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), aldesleukin (interleukin-2 [IL-2]), and isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid [RA]) for maintenance treatment of ..
  48. Nguyen Thi Dieu T, Pham Nhat A, Craig T, Duong Quy S. Clinical characteristics and cytokine changes in children with pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation. J Int Med Res. 2017;45:1805-1817 pubmed publisher
    ..12?pg/ml versus 20.75?pg/ml, respectively). Conclusion High IL-6 concentrations were associated with mortality in patients <5 years of age with severe pneumonia requiring mechanical ventilation...
  49. Saeki H, Tsunemi Y, Asano N, Nakamura K, Sekiya T, Hirai K, et al. Analysis of GM-CSF gene polymorphisms (3606T/C and 3928C/T) in Japanese patients with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2006;31:278-80 pubmed
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis...
  50. Shen M, Vermeulen R, Chapman R, Berndt S, He X, Chanock S, et al. A report of cytokine polymorphisms and COPD risk in Xuan Wei, China. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2008;211:352-6 pubmed
    ..However, in view of our relatively small sample size, this study should be replicated in other populations with substantial exposure to indoor air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and particulate matter. ..
  51. Griseri T, Arnold I, Pearson C, Krausgruber T, Schiering C, Franchini F, et al. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Activated Eosinophils Promote Interleukin-23 Driven Chronic Colitis. Immunity. 2015;43:187-99 pubmed publisher
    ..eosinophils as crucial effectors of the interleukin-23 (IL-23)-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) axis in colitis...
  52. Hood J. Melanoma exosome induction of endothelial cell GM-CSF in pre-metastatic lymph nodes may result in different M1 and M2 macrophage mediated angiogenic processes. Med Hypotheses. 2016;94:118-22 pubmed publisher
    Angiogenesis is a key process in the preparation of lymph nodes for melanoma metastasis. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in M1 or HIF-2α in M2 polarized ..
  53. Ren J, Gwin W, Zhou X, Wang X, Huang H, Jiang N, et al. Adaptive T cell responses induced by oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus-granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor therapy expanded by dendritic cell and cytokine-induced killer cell adoptive therapy. Oncoimmunology. 2017;6:e1264563 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that OVT with Herpes Simplex Virus-granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (HSV-GM-CSF) would induce adaptive T cell responses that could be expanded systemically with sequential DC-CIK therapy...
  54. de Mattos Barbosa M, da Silva Prata R, Andrade P, Ferreira H, de Andrade Silva B, da Paixão de Oliveira J, et al. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and iron are required for Mycobacterium leprae survival. Microbes Infect. 2017;19:505-514 pubmed publisher
    ..leprae in host cells. ..
  55. Schmitz M, Hermann P, Oikonomou P, Stoeck K, Ebert E, Poliakova T, et al. Cytokine profiles and the role of cellular prion protein in patients with vascular dementia and vascular encephalopathy. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36:2597-606 pubmed publisher
    ..cytokine profiling and measured levels of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with VD and with vascular encephalopathy (VE)...
  56. Sarrazy V, Viaud M, Westerterp M, Ivanov S, Giorgetti Peraldi S, Guinamard R, et al. Disruption of Glut1 in Hematopoietic Stem Cells Prevents Myelopoiesis and Enhanced Glucose Flux in Atheromatous Plaques of ApoE(-/-) Mice. Circ Res. 2016;118:1062-77 pubmed publisher
  57. Karwad M, Couch D, Theophilidou E, Sarmad S, Barrett D, Larvin M, et al. The role of CB1 in intestinal permeability and inflammation. FASEB J. 2017;31:3267-3277 pubmed publisher
    ..Karwad, M. A., Couch, D. G., Theophilidou, E., Sarmad, S., Barrett, D. A., Larvin, M., Wright, K. L., Lund, J. N., O'Sullivan, S. E. The role of CB1 in intestinal permeability and inflammation. ..
  58. Mosabbir A, Qudrat A, Truong K. Engineered cell migration to lesions linked to autoimmune disease. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..of lesions that feature a high local concentration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)...
  59. Grabstein K, Urdal D, Tushinski R, Mochizuki D, Price V, Cantrell M, et al. Induction of macrophage tumoricidal activity by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Science. 1986;232:506-8 pubmed
    ..A complementary DNA for the T lymphocyte-derived lymphokine, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), has been cloned, and recombinant GM-CSF protein has been expressed in yeast and purified to homogeneity...
  60. Kryczek I, Zou L, Rodriguez P, Zhu G, Wei S, Mottram P, et al. B7-H4 expression identifies a novel suppressive macrophage population in human ovarian carcinoma. J Exp Med. 2006;203:871-81 pubmed
    ..Blocking B7-H4 or depleting B7-H4+ tumor macrophages may represent novel strategies to enhance T cell tumor immunity in cancer. ..
  61. Fletcher E, Love Homan L, Sobhakumari A, Feddersen C, Koch A, Goel A, et al. EGFR inhibition induces proinflammatory cytokines via NOX4 in HNSCC. Mol Cancer Res. 2013;11:1574-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The antitumor activity of EGFR inhibitors is reduced by activation of NOX4-mediated proinflammatory pathways in HNSCC. ..
  62. Sundaram K, Mitra S, Gavrilin M, Wewers M. House Dust Mite Allergens and the Induction of Monocyte Interleukin 1β Production That Triggers an IκBζ-Dependent Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Release from Human Lung Epithelial Cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015;53:400-11 pubmed publisher
    ..epithelial cells express IκBζ and release IL-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) when cocultured with human monocytes and HDM...
  63. Hong I. Stimulatory versus suppressive effects of GM-CSF on tumor progression in multiple cancer types. Exp Mol Med. 2016;48:e242 pubmed publisher
    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, also called CSF-2) is best known for its critical role in immune modulation and hematopoiesis...
  64. Lerner T, Borel S, Greenwood D, Repnik U, Russell M, Herbst S, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicates within necrotic human macrophages. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:583-594 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to bacterial dissemination, necrotic cells provide first a niche for bacterial replication. Our results are relevant to understanding the environment of M. tuberculosis replication in the host. ..
  65. Vardarova K, Scharf S, Lang F, Schmeck B, Opitz B, Eitel J, et al. PKC(alpha) and PKC(epsilon) differentially regulate Legionella pneumophila-induced GM-CSF. Eur Respir J. 2009;34:1171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is essential for the elimination of invading Legionella spp...
  66. Su S, Liu Q, Chen J, Chen J, Chen F, He C, et al. A positive feedback loop between mesenchymal-like cancer cells and macrophages is essential to breast cancer metastasis. Cancer Cell. 2014;25:605-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that mesenchymal-like breast cancer cells activate macrophages to a TAM-like phenotype by GM-CSF. Reciprocally, CCL18 from TAMs induces cancer cell EMT, forming a positive feedback loop, in coculture systems and ..
  67. Kaur M, Bell T, Salek Ardakani S, Hussell T. Macrophage adaptation in airway inflammatory resolution. Eur Respir Rev. 2015;24:510-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This implies that one strategy to combat respiratory exacerbations would be to retune airway macrophage responsiveness to allow earlier bacterial recognition. ..
  68. Lin C, Tsai C, Lee J, Fang C, Chang K, Wong K, et al. The efficacy of a novel vaccine approach using tumor cells that ectopically express a codon-optimized murine GM-CSF in a murine tumor model. Vaccine. 2016;34:134-41 pubmed publisher
    Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a potent immunomodulatory cytokine that is known to facilitate vaccine efficacy by promoting the development and prolongation of both humoral and cellular immunity...
  69. Allswede D, Buka S, Yolken R, Torrey E, Cannon T. Elevated maternal cytokine levels at birth and risk for psychosis in adult offspring. Schizophr Res. 2016;172:41-5 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-12) and Th17 cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor [gm-csf]) and anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and Treg cytokines (IL-..
  70. Talleur A, Triplett B, Federico S, Mamcarz E, Janssen W, Wu J, et al. Consolidation Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Patients with High-Risk Neuroblastoma Using Busulfan/Melphalan, Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Anti-GD2 Antibody, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, Interleukin-2, and. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2017;23:1910-1917 pubmed publisher
    ..18K322A (a humanized anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-2, with or without the adoptive transfer of haploidentical natural killer cells (NKs)...
  71. Cribbs A, Hookway E, Wells G, Lindow M, Obad S, Oerum H, et al. Inhibition of histone H3K27 demethylases selectively modulates inflammatory phenotypes of natural killer cells. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:2422-2437 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, GSK-J4 reduced IFN-γ, TNFα, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin-10 levels in cytokine-stimulated NK cells while sparing their cytotoxic killing activity against ..
  72. D Souza K, Biwer L, Madhavpeddi L, Ramaiah P, Shahid W, Hale T. Persistent change in cardiac fibroblast physiology after transient ACE inhibition. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015;309:H1346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..It may be that the cardioprotective effects of ACE inhibition are related in part to beneficial changes in cardiac fibroblast physiology. ..
  73. Wen Q, Xiong W, He J, Zhang S, Du X, Liu S, et al. Fusion cytokine IL-2-GMCSF enhances anticancer immune responses through promoting cell-cell interactions. J Transl Med. 2016;14:41 pubmed publisher
    ..To overcome the limitations of combined use of these two cytokines, we have constructed an IL2-GMCSF fusion protein and characterized its antitumor effects in this study...
  74. Chuang L, Villaverde N, Hui K, Mortha A, Rahman A, Levine A, et al. A Frameshift in CSF2RB Predominant Among Ashkenazi Jews Increases Risk for Crohn's Disease and Reduces Monocyte Signaling via GM-CSF. Gastroenterology. 2016;151:710-723.e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Intestinal monocytes from carriers of this mutation had reduced responses to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, providing an additional mechanism for alterations to the innate immune response in individuals with CD. ..
  75. Lee J, Tae S, Kim D, Han S, Kim W, Dhong E. Do IL-3/GM-CSF effect on the myofibroblastic differentiation of human adipose derived stromal cells?. Exp Cell Res. 2017;355:67-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Interleukin 3 (IL-3) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were treated in the culture of hASCs and HDFs...
  76. Dame J, Chegini N, Christensen R, Juul S. The effect of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production by neuronal precursor cells. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2002;13:128-33 pubmed
    To determine whether granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production by neuronal precursor (NT2) cells can be regulated by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha...
  77. Leon C, Barbosa C, Justo G, Borelli P, Resende J, de Oliveira J, et al. Requirement for PLC?2 in IL-3 and GM-CSF-stimulated MEK/ERK phosphorylation in murine and human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:1780-92 pubmed publisher
    ..1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway in primary murine and human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells stimulated by IL-3 and GM-CSF were studied...
  78. Young A, Linehan E, Hams E, O Hara Hall A, McClurg A, Johnston J, et al. Cutting edge: suppression of GM-CSF expression in murine and human T cells by IL-27. J Immunol. 2012;189:2079-83 pubmed publisher
    GM-CSF is a potent proinflammatory cytokine that plays a pathogenic role in the CNS inflammatory disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
  79. Ye P, Chen W, Wu J, Huang X, Li J, Wang S, et al. GM-CSF contributes to aortic aneurysms resulting from SMAD3 deficiency. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2317-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytokine secretion was measured using a cytokine quantibody array, and Smad3-/- CD4+ T cells secreted more GM-CSF than Smad3+/+ CD4+ T cells...
  80. Khalaj K, Ahn S, Bidarimath M, Nasirzadeh Y, Singh S, Fazleabas A, et al. A balancing act: RNA binding protein HuR/TTP axis in endometriosis patients. Sci Rep. 2017;7:5883 pubmed publisher
    ..bind to cytokines involved in inflammation including: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin 6 (IL-6) among others, and stabilize and destabilize them, respectively...
  81. Gardai S, Hoontrakoon R, Goddard C, Day B, Chang L, Henson P, et al. Oxidant-mediated mitochondrial injury in eosinophil apoptosis: enhancement by glucocorticoids and inhibition by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Immunol. 2003;170:556-66 pubmed
    ..In the absence of prosurvival cytokines (e.g., GM-CSF), eosinophils appear to be short-lived, undergoing apoptosis over 96 h in vitro...
  82. Grosset C, Boniface R, Duchez P, Solanilla A, Cosson B, Ripoche J. In vivo studies of translational repression mediated by the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor AU-rich element. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13354-62 pubmed
    ..The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ARE is known to be a destabilizing element, but its role in translation remains unclear...
  83. Kabesch M, Depner M, Dahmen I, Weiland S, Vogelberg C, Niggemann B, et al. Polymorphisms in eosinophil pathway genes, asthma and atopy. Allergy. 2007;62:423-8 pubmed
    ..under genetic control we investigated whether polymorphisms in eosinophil regulation pathway genes (IL-3, IL-5, GM-CSF and their respective enhancers and receptors) may influence the development of atopic diseases...
  84. Krubasik D, Eisenach P, Kunz Schughart L, Murphy G, English W. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor induces endothelial capillary formation through induction of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase expression in vitro. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1261-72 pubmed
    In our study, we examined the mechanism by which granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) regulates angiogenesis using in vitro models...
  85. Natividad A, Hull J, Luoni G, Holland M, Rockett K, Joof H, et al. Innate immunity in ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection: contribution of IL8 and CSF2 gene variants to risk of trachomatous scarring in Gambians. BMC Med Genet. 2009;10:138 pubmed publisher
  86. Johnson L, Schwartz S, Malkki M, Du Q, Petersdorf E, Galloway D, et al. Risk of cervical cancer associated with allergies and polymorphisms in genes in the chromosome 5 cytokine cluster. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..If other studies confirm these results, the mechanism behind allergy-associated immune response associated with SCC risk may be worth exploring in the context of therapeutic or prophylactic vaccines. ..
  87. Wilkowska A, Gleń J, Zabłotna M, Trzeciak M, Ryduchowska M, Sobjanek M, et al. The association of GM-CSF -677A/C promoter gene polymorphism with the occurrence and severity of atopic dermatitis in a Polish population. Int J Dermatol. 2014;53:e172-4 pubmed publisher
  88. Zhang L, Feng X, Jin Y, Ma J, Cai H, Zhang X. Immunoprotective mechanisms in swine within the "grey zone" in antibody response after immunization with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine. Virus Res. 2016;220:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..and monocyte interferon gamma inducing factor (MIG), and of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-1?, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), and TWEAK R varied between protected and unprotected animals...
  89. Anzai A, Choi J, He S, Fenn A, Nairz M, Rattik S, et al. The infarcted myocardium solicits GM-CSF for the detrimental oversupply of inflammatory leukocytes. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3293-3310 pubmed publisher
    ..onset of ischemia, human and mouse cardiac fibroblasts produce granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that acts locally and distally to generate and recruit inflammatory and proteolytic cells...
  90. Venet F, Rimmelé T, Monneret G. Management of Sepsis-Induced Immunosuppression. Crit Care Clin. 2018;34:97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from clinical trials based on interleukin 7 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor immunoadjuvant therapies in septic shock patients are expected for 2018. ..
  91. Wu Z, Tang F, Ma Z, Peng X, Xiang Y, Zhang Y, et al. Oncolytic Viruses for Tumor Precision Imaging and Radiotherapy. Hum Gene Ther. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss various types of tumors, and pay special attention to gastroentestinal tumors...
  92. Clouse K, Cosentino L, Weih K, Pyle S, Robbins P, Hochstein H, et al. The HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein has the intrinsic capacity to stimulate monokine secretion. J Immunol. 1991;147:2892-901 pubmed
    ..that natural gp120 could stimulate monocytes to release TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, and this effect could be blocked with soluble CD4...