glycogen branching enzyme

Summary

Gene Symbol: glycogen branching enzyme
Description: 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme 1
Alias: APBD, GBE, GSD4, 1,4-alpha-glucan-branching enzyme, amylo-(1,4 to 1,6) transglucosidase, amylo-(1,4 to 1,6) transglycosylase, brancher enzyme, glucan (1,4-alpha-), branching enzyme 1, glycogen branching enzyme
Species: human
Products:     glycogen branching enzyme

Top Publications

  1. Troisi R, Elsheikh Y, Shagrani M, Broering D. First fully laparoscopic donor hepatectomy for pediatric liver transplantation using the indocyanine green near-infrared fluorescence imaging in the Middle East: a case report. Ann Saudi Med. 2014;34:354-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The recipient was a 2-year-old girl affected by glycogen storage disease type IV. The mother, aged 21 years, was her donor. The surgical technique, key-points of this procedure, and outcome are hereby discussed. ..
  2. Zmasek C, Godzik A. Phylogenomic analysis of glycogen branching and debranching enzymatic duo. BMC Evol Biol. 2014;14:183 pubmed publisher
  3. Hong E, Go M, Kim H, Park J. Risk prediction of pulmonary tuberculosis using genetic and conventional risk factors in adult Korean population. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174642 pubmed publisher
    ..80, 95% CI 0.76-0.84). The strategy of combining genetic and nongenetic risk factors ultimately resulted in better risk prediction for PTB in the adult Korean population. ..
  4. Hwang B, Chang M, Lee J, Heo W, Kim J, Pan J, et al. The Edible Insect Gryllus bimaculatus Protects against Gut-Derived Inflammatory Responses and Liver Damage in Mice after Acute Alcohol Exposure. Nutrients. 2019;11: pubmed publisher
    ..Administration of G. bimaculatus extracts (GBE) attenuated alcohol-induced steatosis and apoptotic responses in the liver and intestinal permeability to bacterial ..
  5. Yoo S, Lee B, Li L, Perris S, Spalding M, Han S, et al. Biocatalytic role of potato starch synthase III for α-glucan biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutants. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;81:710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..longer α-1,4 chains than wild-type glycogen, which was exactly in accordance with the increase in glycogen branching enzyme activity...
  6. Zhou L, Ji J, Peng S, Zhang Z, Fang S, Li L, et al. A GWA study reveals genetic loci for body conformation traits in Chinese Laiwu pigs and its implications for human BMI. Mamm Genome. 2016;27:610-621 pubmed
    ..Therefore, these results not only provide new insights into the genetic architecture of BMI in pigs but also highlight that humans and pigs share the significant overlap of obesity-related genes. ..
  7. Bhanot H, Reddy M, Nonami A, Weisberg E, Bonal D, Kirschmeier P, et al. Pathological glycogenesis through glycogen synthase 1 and suppression of excessive AMP kinase activity in myeloid leukemia cells. Leukemia. 2015;29:1555-1563 pubmed publisher
    ..Cancer genomics data also indicate that elevated levels of the glycogenic enzymes GYS1/2 or GBE1 (glycogen branching enzyme 1) are associated with poor survival in AML...
  8. Hedberg Oldfors C, Oldfors A. Polyglucosan storage myopathies. Mol Aspects Med. 2015;46:85-100 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identify some important similarities and differences regarding the morphological appearance of polyglucosan accumulation and discuss pathogenic pathways. ..
  9. Todd E, Yau K, Ong R, Slee J, McGillivray G, Barnett C, et al. Next generation sequencing in a large cohort of patients presenting with neuromuscular disease before or at birth. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2015;10:148 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications134 found, 100 shown here

  1. Li M, Chang C, Han Y, Liao C, Yu J, Wang T. Ginkgolide B promotes neuronal differentiation through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in neural stem cells of the postnatal mammalian subventricular zone. Sci Rep. 2018;8:14947 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and one of its main ingredients, ginkgolide B (GB) promoted cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation in NSCs ..
  2. Colombo I, Pagliarani S, Testolin S, Salsano E, Napoli L, Bordoni A, et al. Adult polyglucosan body disease: clinical and histological heterogeneity of a large Italian family. Neuromuscul Disord. 2015;25:423-8 pubmed publisher
    Adult Polyglucosan Body Disease (APBD) is a rare inherited leukodystrophy associated with axonal polyneuropathy, mainly reported in persons of Ashkenazi-Jewish descent...
  3. Hashim K, Shaw A, Al Khaddar R, Pedrola M, Phipps D. Energy efficient electrocoagulation using a new flow column reactor to remove nitrate from drinking water - Experimental, statistical, and economic approach. J Environ Manage. 2017;196:224-233 pubmed publisher
    ..to 15 mg/L (World Health Organization limitations for infants) after 55 min of electrolysing at initial pH of 7, GBE of 5 mm, CD of 2 mA/cm2, and at operating cost of 0.455 US $/m3...
  4. Zhang P, Nada S, Tan X, Deng B, Sullivan M, Gilbert R. Exploring glycogen biosynthesis through Monte Carlo simulation. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;116:264-271 pubmed publisher
    ..parameters reveal how chain growth and stoppage (the latter assumed to be through both the action of glycogen branching enzyme and other degradative enzymes, and by hindrance) control structural features...
  5. Kuhn M, Gläser D, Joshi P, Zierz S, Wenninger S, Schoser B, et al. Utility of a next-generation sequencing-based gene panel investigation in German patients with genetically unclassified limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. J Neurol. 2016;263:743-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In two patients, pathogenic mutations were identified in genes that are not classified as LGMD genes (glycogen branching enzyme and valosin-containing protein)...
  6. Zeqiraj E, Sicheri F. Getting a handle on glycogen synthase - Its interaction with glycogenin. Mol Aspects Med. 2015;46:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is synthesized through the cooperative action of glycogen synthase (GS), glycogenin (GN) and glycogen branching enzyme. GN initiates the first enzymatic step in the glycogen synthesis process by self glucosylation of a ..
  7. Li L, Stanton J, Tolson A, Luo Y, Wang H. Bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids from Ginkgo biloba extract induce the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes through pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathways. Pharm Res. 2009;26:872-82 pubmed publisher
    ..current study is to investigate the hypothesis that bioactive terpenoids and flavonoids of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) induce human hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters through the selective activation of ..
  8. Ma H, Zhang S, Zhang K, Zhan H, Peng X, Xie S, et al. Identifying Selection Signatures for Backfat Thickness in Yorkshire Pigs Highlights New Regions Affecting Fat Metabolism. Genes (Basel). 2019;10: pubmed publisher
    ..The candidate genes putatively associated with backfat thickness traits can provide important references and fundamental information for future pig-breeding programs. ..
  9. Zeng X, Hou S. Enteroendocrine cells are generated from stem cells through a distinct progenitor in the adult Drosophila posterior midgut. Development. 2015;142:644-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that only ECs are generated through the Su(H)GBE(+) immature progenitor enteroblasts (EBs), whereas EEs are generated from ISCs through a distinct progenitor pre-EE ..
  10. Miller K, Gee K, Reichman B. Asymptotic behavior of a frequency-domain nonlinearity indicator for solutions to the generalized Burgers equation. J Acoust Soc Am. 2016;140:EL522 pubmed publisher
    ..indicator has previously been characterized for two analytical solutions to the generalized Burgers equation (GBE) [Reichman, Gee, Neilsen, and Miller, J. Acoust. Soc. Am...
  11. Kang J, Lin S. Ginkgo biloba and its potential role in glaucoma. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    This study will review the research on the effect of ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on patients with glaucoma.
  12. Amigo J, Yu M, Troadec M, Gwynn B, Cooney J, Lambert A, et al. Identification of distal cis-regulatory elements at mouse mitoferrin loci using zebrafish transgenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1344-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutagenesis of individual GATA-1 binding cis elements (GBE) demonstrated that at least two of the three GBE within this CRM are functionally required for GATA-mediated ..
  13. Li Y, Li C, Gu Z, Hong Y, Cheng L, Li Z. Effect of modification with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme on the rheological properties of cassava starch. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;103:630-639 pubmed publisher
    ..to investigate the rheological properties of cassava starches modified using the 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02...
  14. Du Y, Xu B, Deng X, Wu X, Li Y, Wang S, et al. Predictive metabolic signatures for the occurrence and development of diabetic nephropathy and the intervention of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract based on gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2019;166:30-39 pubmed publisher
    ..biomarkers to predict the occurrence and development of DN and the intervention of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GBE) by quantifying fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleosides and nucleobases in rat plasma...
  15. Lüdemann J, Verissimo K, Dreger K, Fago A, Schneider I, Burmester T. Globin E is a myoglobin-related, respiratory protein highly expressed in lungfish oocytes. Sci Rep. 2019;9:280 pubmed publisher
    ..Globin E (GbE) was originally identified as an eye-specific protein of birds that is distantly related to myoglobin...
  16. Catlin N, Collins B, Auerbach S, Ferguson S, Harnly J, Gennings C, et al. How similar is similar enough? A sufficient similarity case study with Ginkgo biloba extract. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018;118:328-339 pubmed publisher
    ..Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) was used as a case study to develop and evaluate approaches for determining sufficient similarity...
  17. Tarnopolsky M. Myopathies Related to Glycogen Metabolism Disorders. Neurotherapeutics. 2018;15:915-927 pubmed publisher
    ..e., PYGM), but can exacerbate symptoms in glycolytic defects (i.e., PFK). Creatine monohydrate in low dose may provide a mild benefit in PYGM mutations. ..
  18. Wang J, QIU X, Xu T, Sheng Z, Yao L. Sclerostin/Receptor Related Protein 4 and Ginkgo Biloba Extract Alleviates β-Glycerophosphate-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Calcification By Inhibiting Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway. Blood Purif. 2019;47 Suppl 1:17-23 pubmed publisher
    ..vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification, and the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE). VSMC were extracted from Sprague-Dawley rat aorta and cultured in medium...
  19. Pal K, Kumar S, Sharma S, Garg S, Alam M, Xu H, et al. Crystal structure of full-length Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv glycogen branching enzyme: insights of N-terminal beta-sandwich in substrate specificity and enzymatic activity. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:20897-903 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural and functional properties of MtbGlgB and MtbDelta108GlgB are compared with those of the N-terminal 112-amino acid-deleted Escherichia coli GlgB (ECDelta112GlgB). ..
  20. Pronicka E, Piekutowska Abramczuk D, Ciara E, Trubicka J, Rokicki D, Karkucinska Wieckowska A, et al. New perspective in diagnostics of mitochondrial disorders: two years' experience with whole-exome sequencing at a national paediatric centre. J Transl Med. 2016;14:174 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a strong correlation between the degree of MD diagnosis by WES and MD likelihood expressed by the MDC scale. ..
  21. Sandhu T, Polan M, Yu Z, Lu R, Makkar A. Case of Neonatal Fatality from Neuromuscular Variant of Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV. JIMD Rep. 2019;45:51-55 pubmed publisher
    ..or Andersen disease, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that results from the deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE)...
  22. Wang W, Kang Q, Liu N, Zhang Q, Zhang Y, Li H, et al. Enhanced dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract by preparing solid dispersion via hot-melt extrusion. Fitoterapia. 2015;102:189-97 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) through the preparation of G. biloba extract solid dispersions (GBE-SD) via hot-melt extrusion (HME)...
  23. Yi H, Zhang Q, Brooks E, Yang C, Thurberg B, Kishnani P, et al. Systemic Correction of Murine Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV by an AAV-Mediated Gene Therapy. Hum Gene Ther. 2017;28:286-294 pubmed publisher
    Deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) causes glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV), which is characterized by the accumulation of a less branched, poorly soluble form of glycogen called polyglucosan (PG) in multiple tissues...
  24. Belviranlı M, Okudan N. The effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cognitive functions in aged female rats: the role of oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Behav Brain Res. 2015;278:453-61 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on cognitive functions as well as oxidative stress and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in aged female rats...
  25. Zeqiraj E, Tang X, Hunter R, García Rocha M, Judd A, Deak M, et al. Structural basis for the recruitment of glycogen synthase by glycogenin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E2831-40 pubmed publisher
    ..synthesized from glucose through the cooperative action of glycogen synthase (GS), glycogenin (GN), and glycogen branching enzyme and forms particles that range in size from 10 to 290 nm...
  26. Han S, Bae M, Choi Y. Stereoselective and Simultaneous Analysis of Ginsenosides from Ginseng Berry Extract in Rat Plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study of Ginseng Berry Extract. Molecules. 2018;23: pubmed publisher
    The role of ginseng berry extract (GBE) has been attributed to its anti-hyperglycemic effect in humans. However, the pharmacokinetic characteristics of GBE constitutes after oral GBE administration have not been established yet...
  27. Wei T, Xiong F, Wang S, Wang K, Zhang Y, Zhang Q. Flavonoid ingredients of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract regulate lipid metabolism through Sp1-mediated carnitine palmitoyltranferase 1A up-regulation. J Biomed Sci. 2014;21:87 pubmed publisher
    Lipid accumulation is the primary evidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and its flavonoid ingredients (quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) could lessen the lipid accumulation associated ..
  28. Qiu J, Chen X, Li Z, Wang S, Wu X, Li Y, et al. LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of 11 compounds of Ginkgo biloba extract in lysates of mesangial cell cultured by high glucose. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015;997:122-8 pubmed publisher
    ..cell (MC) cultured with high glucose has been used to observe the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) against diabetic nephropathy (DN), but the compounds interacting with cell are still unknown, which may be ..
  29. Wang L, Regina A, Butardo V, Kosar Hashemi B, Larroque O, Kahler C, et al. Influence of in situ progressive N-terminal is still controversial truncation of glycogen branching enzyme in Escherichia coli DH5α on glycogen structure, accumulation, and bacterial viability. BMC Microbiol. 2015;15:96 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been shown that progressive shortening of the N-terminus of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) leads to a lengthening of oligosaccharide inter-α-1,6-glycosidic chain lengths, so we sought to ..
  30. Huang X, Zhang S, You Y, Zhang N, Lu H, Daugherty A, et al. Ginkgo biloba extracts prevent aortic rupture in angiotensin II-infused hypercholesterolemic mice. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2019;40:192-198 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to determine whether GBE would improve aortic dilation and rupture rate of AngII-induced AAAs...
  31. Brull A, de Luna N, Blanco Grau A, Lucia A, Martín M, Arenas J, et al. Phenotype consequences of myophosphorylase dysfunction: insights from the McArdle mouse model. J Physiol. 2015;593:2693-706 pubmed publisher
    ..McArdle mice, the glycogen debranching enzyme (catabolic) is increased in oxidative muscles, whereas the glycogen branching enzyme (anabolic) is increased in glycolytic muscles...
  32. Hirata B, Banin R, Dornellas A, de Andrade I, Zemdegs J, Caperuto L, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract improves insulin signaling and attenuates inflammation in retroperitoneal adipose tissue depot of obese rats. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:419106 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously described that Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) improved insulin resistance and reduced body weight gain of obese rats...
  33. Bohm A, Sadowski U. [Local public health reporting as a basis for planning health promotion for children]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2018;61:1215-1224 pubmed publisher
    The Health Report (Gesundheitsberichterstattung, GBE) describes the health of the overall population and also highlights areas or topics where specific action may be required...
  34. Hellmann M, Kakhlon O, Landau E, Sadeh M, Giladi N, Schlesinger I, et al. Frequent misdiagnosis of adult polyglucosan body disease. J Neurol. 2015;262:2346-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnosis was based on the combination of typical clinical and imaging findings, reduced glycogen branching enzyme activity, and the presence of p.Y326S GBE1 mutation...
  35. Hoenerhoff M, Pandiri A, Snyder S, Hong H, Ton T, Peddada S, et al. Hepatocellular carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice treated with Ginkgo biloba extract for two years differ from spontaneous liver tumors in cancer gene mutations and genomic pathways. Toxicol Pathol. 2013;41:826-41 pubmed publisher
    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (GBE) has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine and today is used as an herbal supplement touted for improving neural function and for its antioxidant and anticancer effects...
  36. Jo H, Park S, Jeong H, Kim J, Park J. Vibrio vulnificus glycogen branching enzyme preferentially transfers very short chains: N1 domain determines the chain length transferred. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:1089-94 pubmed publisher
    The glycogen branching enzyme from Vibrio vulnificus (VvGBE) transfers short side chains (DP 3-5) significantly greater than any other bacterial glycogen branching enzyme (GBE)...
  37. Liu Y, Li C, Gu Z, Xin C, Cheng L, Hong Y, et al. Alanine 310 is important for the activity of 1,4-?-glucan branching enzyme from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;97:156-163 pubmed publisher
    1,4-?-Glucan branching enzyme (GBE) catalyzes the formation of ?-1,6 branch points in starch or glycogen by hydrolyzing ?-1,4-glucosidic linkages and then synthesizing ?-1,6-glucosidic linkages...
  38. Gu Q, Chen C, Zhang Z, Wu Z, Fan X, Zhang Z, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract promotes osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in a pathway involving Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Pharmacol Res. 2015;97:70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), a traditional herbal medicine, was used to stimulate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human BM-..
  39. Li Y, Li Y, Li Z, Qiu J, Zheng X, Bian T, et al. Screening for Potential Bioactive Components in Ginkgo biloba Extract by the Rat Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Extraction and LC-MS/MS. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2015;18:514-23 pubmed
    ..cell (RTEC) cultured with high glucose has been used to observe the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) against diabetic nephropathy (DN)...
  40. Tang D, Yu Y, Zheng X, Wu J, Li Y, Wu X, et al. Comparative investigation of in vitro biotransformation of 14 components in Ginkgo biloba extract in normal, diabetes and diabetic nephropathy rat intestinal bacteria matrix. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2014;100:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) possesses protective effects on the glomerulosclerosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), but its biotransformation in ..
  41. Liu H, Tan L, Huang X, Liao Y, Zhang W, Li P, et al. Chromatogram-Bioactivity Correlation-Based Discovery and Identification of Three Bioactive Compounds Affecting Endothelial Function in Ginkgo Biloba Extract. Molecules. 2018;23: pubmed publisher
    ..and identification of three bioactive compounds affecting endothelial function in Ginkgo biloba Extract (GBE) based on chromatogram-bioactivity correlation analysis...
  42. Corral Ramos C, Roncero M. Glycogen catabolism, but not its biosynthesis, affects virulence of Fusarium oxysporum on the plant host. Fungal Genet Biol. 2015;77:40-9 pubmed publisher
    ..for glycogen biosynthesis: gnn1 encoding glycogenin, gls1 encoding glycogen synthase, and gbe1 encoding glycogen branching enzyme. Moreover genes involved in glycogen catabolism were deleted: gph1 encoding glycogen phosphorylase and ..
  43. Wu Y, Liao C, Chen K, Liu S, Chiang H. Effect of Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb-761) on Recovery of Erectile Dysfunction in Bilateral Cavernous Nerve Injury Rat Model. Urology. 2015;85:1214.e7-1214.e15 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether the therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) in a rat model can improve erectile dysfunction after bilateral cavernous nerve injury...
  44. Könczöl A, Rendes K, Dékány M, Muller J, Riethmüller E, Balogh G. Blood-brain barrier specific permeability assay reveals N-methylated tyramine derivatives in standardised leaf extracts and herbal products of Ginkgo biloba. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016;131:167-174 pubmed publisher
    ..extracts (GBE) is still incomplete...
  45. Sampaolo S, Esposito T, Gianfrancesco F, Napolitano F, Lombardi L, Lucà R, et al. A novel GBE1 mutation and features of polyglucosan bodies autophagy in adult polyglucosan body disease. Neuromuscul Disord. 2015;25:247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems caused by the deficiency of the glycogen branching enzyme (GBE1)...
  46. Maeda J, Inoue K, Ichimura R, Takahashi M, Kodama Y, Saito N, et al. Essential role of constitutive androstane receptor in Ginkgo biloba extract induced liver hypertrophy and hepatocarcinogenesis. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015;83:201-9 pubmed publisher
    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is commonly used as a herbal supplement. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) study of GBE reported clear evidence of hepatocarcinogenicity in mice...
  47. Yuan Q, Wang C, Shi J, Lin Z. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on dementia: An overview of systematic reviews. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;195:1-9 pubmed publisher
    To assess the cumulative evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) in the treatment of dementia. Overview of systematic reviews...
  48. Jo A, Kim H, Choi S, Lee J, Chung M, Han S, et al. Preparation of slowly digestible sweet potato Daeyumi starch by dual enzyme modification. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;143:164-71 pubmed publisher
    Sweet potato Daeyumi starch was dually modified using glycogen branching enzyme (BE) from Streptococcus mutans and amylosucrase (AS) from Neisseria polysaccharea to prepare slowly digestible starch (SDS)...
  49. Lye C, Blanchard G, Naylor H, Muresan L, Huisken J, Adams R, et al. Mechanical Coupling between Endoderm Invagination and Axis Extension in Drosophila. PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002292 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we address the role of the latter during axis extension, using Drosophila germband extension (GBE) as a model...
  50. Ban X, Dhoble A, Li C, Zhang Y, Gu Z, Cheng L, et al. Potassium and sodium ions enhance the activity and thermostability of 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme from Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius in the presence of glycerol. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;102:712-717 pubmed publisher
    ..ions and glycerol on the activity and stability of the thermophilic 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (abbreviated GBE; EC 2.4.1.18) from G. thermoglucosidasius STB02...
  51. Hızarcıoğlu Gülşen H, Yuce A, Akcoren Z, Berberoglu Ates B, Aydemir Y, Sağ E, et al. A Rare Cause of Elevated Chitotriosidase Activity: Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV. JIMD Rep. 2014;17:63-6 pubmed publisher
    ..GSD type IV should be taken into consideration in case of elevated chitotriosidase levels, stigmas of chronic liver disease, and inconsistency of lysosomal storage diseases. ..
  52. Siddiqui F, Teng S, Awrangjeb M, Lu G. A Robust Gradient Based Method for Building Extraction from LiDAR and Photogrammetric Imagery. Sensors (Basel). 2016;16: pubmed publisher
    ..This paper proposes a novel Gradient-based Building Extraction (GBE) method to address these limitations...
  53. Rider C, Nyska A, Cora M, Kissling G, Smith C, Travlos G, et al. Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of Ginkgo biloba extract in rat and mouse: liver, thyroid, and nose are targets. Toxicol Pathol. 2014;42:830-43 pubmed publisher
    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular herbal supplement that is used to improve circulation and brain function...
  54. Chen Z, Bai S, Hu Q, Shen P, Wang T, Liang Z, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract and its diterpene ginkgolide constituents ameliorate the metabolic disturbances caused by recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in rat prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2018;14:1755-1772 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) may provide neuroprotective effects against rtPA-induced toxicity...
  55. Yang Z, Zhao A, Li Z, Ge H, Li T, Zhang F, et al. Metabolomics reveals positive acceleration(+Gz)-induced metabolic perturbations and the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in a rat model based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectr. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016;125:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that might exert a protective effect against +Gz exposure...
  56. Ren J, Li Y, Li C, Gu Z, Cheng L, Hong Y, et al. Pasting and thermal properties of waxy corn starch modified by 1,4-?-glucan branching enzyme. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;97:679-687 pubmed publisher
    Waxy corn starch was modified with the 1,4-?-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. Incubating waxy corn starch with GBE increased the number of ?-1,6 branch points and reduced the average chain length...
  57. Park Y, Choo W, Kim H, Chung K, Oh S. Inhibitory Aromatase Effects of Flavonoids from Ginkgo Biloba Extracts on Estrogen Biosynthesis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16:6317-25 pubmed
    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular phytomedicine and has been used for disorders of the central nervous system, cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, and circulatory diseases...
  58. Malfatti E, Barnerias C, Hedberg Oldfors C, Gitiaux C, Bénézit A, Oldfors A, et al. A novel neuromuscular form of glycogen storage disease type IV with arthrogryposis, spinal stiffness and rare polyglucosan bodies in muscle. Neuromuscul Disord. 2016;26:681-687 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a novel neuromuscular GSD IV phenotype and confirm the importance of muscle morphological studies in early onset neuromuscular disorders. ..
  59. Liu Y, Ban X, Li C, Gu Z, Cheng L, Hong Y, et al. Met349 Mutations Enhance the Activity of 1,4-?-Glucan Branching Enzyme from Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02. J Agric Food Chem. 2017;65:5674-5680 pubmed publisher
    1,4-?-Glucan branching enzyme (GBE, EC 2.4.1.18) is used to increase the number of ?-1,6 branch points in starch and glycogen...
  60. Yi H, Zhang Q, Yang C, Kishnani P, Sun B. A Modified Enzymatic Method for Measurement of Glycogen Content in Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV. JIMD Rep. 2016;30:89-94 pubmed
    Deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme in glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) results in accumulation of less-branched and poorly soluble polysaccharides (polyglucosan bodies) in multiple tissues...
  61. Liang Z, Bai S, Shen P, Hu Q, Wang X, Dong M, et al. GC-MS-based metabolomic study on the antidepressant-like effects of diterpene ginkgolides in mouse hippocampus. Behav Brain Res. 2016;314:116-24 pubmed publisher
    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), including EGb-761, have been suggested to have antidepressant activity based on previous behavioral and biochemical analyses...
  62. Karsikas S, Myllymäki M, Heikkilä M, Sormunen R, Kivirikko K, Myllyharju J, et al. HIF-P4H-2 deficiency protects against skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Mol Med (Berl). 2016;94:301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of genes for glycolytic enzymes, glycogen branching enzyme 1 and monocarboxylate transporter 4, were increased in the Hif-p4h-2 (gt/gt) skeletal muscles, whereas ..
  63. Lu Q, Zuo W, Ji X, Zhou Y, Liu Y, Yao X, et al. Ethanolic Ginkgo biloba leaf extract prevents renal fibrosis through Akt/mTOR signaling in diabetic nephropathy. Phytomedicine. 2015;22:1071-8 pubmed publisher
    Recently, extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GbE) have become widely known phytomedicines and have shown various pharmacological activities, including improvement of blood circulation, protection of oxidative cell damage, prevention of ..
  64. Jung H, Bae J, Ko S, Sohn U. Ultrasonication processed Panax ginseng berry extract induces apoptosis through an intrinsic apoptosis pathway in HepG2 cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2016;39:855-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The components are different from Panax ginseng berry extract (GBE)...
  65. Deng Y, Mo Y, Chen X, Zhang L, Liao C, Song Y, et al. Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on the Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Clopidogrel in Rats. Phytother Res. 2016;30:1886-1892 pubmed publisher
    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), a traditional herbal product used worldwide as both medicine and supplement, is often supplied with clopidogrel for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases...
  66. Guo L, Mei N, Xia Q, Chen T, Chan P, Fu P. Gene expression profiling as an initial approach for mechanistic studies of toxicity and tumorigenicity of herbal plants and herbal dietary supplements. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2010;28:60-87 pubmed publisher
    ..the mechanisms of toxicity (particularly tumorigenicity) induced by herbs, such as Gingko biloba leaf extract (GBE) and other herbal plant extracts...
  67. Alvarez R, CASAS J, López D, Ibarguren M, Suari Rivera A, Terés S, et al. Triacylglycerol mimetics regulate membrane interactions of glycogen branching enzyme: implications for therapy. J Lipid Res. 2017;58:1598-1612 pubmed publisher
    ..The disease is caused by aberrant glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) (GBE1Y329S) yielding less branched, globular, and soluble glycogen, which tends to aggregate...
  68. Li W, Luo Z, Liu X, Fu L, Xu Y, Wu L, et al. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on experimental cardiac remodeling. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:277 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the ameliorated effects of an extract of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on experimental cardiac remodeling in rats induced by acute cardiac infarction, and further explore the mechanism concentrated on myocardial type I ..
  69. Zheng B, Teng L, Xing G, Bi Y, Yang S, Hao F, et al. Proliposomes containing a bile salt for oral delivery of Ginkgo biloba extract: Formulation optimization, characterization, oral bioavailability and tissue distribution in rats. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2015;77:254-64 pubmed publisher
    Proliposomes containing a bile salt were developed to improve the oral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE). GbE loaded proliposomes (P-GbE) were successfully prepared by spray drying method...
  70. Wang Z, Zhang J, Ren T, Dong Z. Targeted metabolomic profiling of cardioprotective effect of Ginkgo biloba L. extract on myocardial ischemia in rats. Phytomedicine. 2016;23:621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..It is closely associated with metabolism disorders of endogenous substances. Ginkgo biloba L. extract (GBE) is a popular herbal medicine used for prevention and therapy of MI...
  71. Chávez Morales R, Jaramillo Juárez F, Rodríguez Vázquez M, Martínez Saldaña M, Del Río F, Garfias López J. The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) protects the kidney from damage produced by a single and low dose of carbon tetrachloride in adult male rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2017;69:430-434 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effects of the Gingko biloba extract (GbE) against the toxicity of a single and relatively low dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)...
  72. Jang C, Cho Y, Lee J. Protective Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Gentamicin-Induced Structural Changes of Calcite-Gelatin Composite. J Int Adv Otol. 2015;11:179-82 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on gentamicin (GM)-induced morphological damage of an artificial otoconia...
  73. Li W, Li C, Gu Z, Qiu Y, Cheng L, Hong Y, et al. Retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme. Food Chem. 2016;203:308-313 pubmed publisher
    The retrogradation behavior of corn starch treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) was investigated using rheometry, pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (PNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform ..
  74. Cai Z, Wang C, Liu P, Shen P, Han Y, Liu N. Ginkgo biloba extract in combination with sorafenib is clinically safe and tolerable in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Phytomedicine. 2016;23:1295-1300 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination therapy targeting multiple signaling pathways may improve outcomes. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has exhibited antitumor activity in multiple human cancers...
  75. Orhan Akman H, Emmanuele V, Kurt Y, Kurt B, Sheiko T, DiMauro S, et al. A novel mouse model that recapitulates adult-onset glycogenosis type 4. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6801-10 pubmed publisher
    ..the central and peripheral nervous system and muscles and in the latter is termed adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD). Here, we describe a mouse model of GSD IV that reflects this spectrum of disease...
  76. Zhao W, Hang B, Zhu X, Wang R, Shen M, Huang L, et al. Improving the productivity of S-adenosyl-l-methionine by metabolic engineering in an industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. J Biotechnol. 2016;236:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..GLC3 encoded glycogen-branching enzyme (GBE), SPE2 encoded SAM decarboxylase, as well as ERG4 and ERG6 encoded key enzymes in ergosterol biosynthesis, were ..
  77. Kim M, Bang J, Lee J, Han J, Baik T, Jeon W. Ginkgo biloba L. extract protects against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by modulating neuroinflammation and the cholinergic system. Phytomedicine. 2016;23:1356-1364 pubmed publisher
    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE)-a widely used nutraceutical-is reported to have diverse functions, including positive effects on memory and vasodilatory properties...
  78. Sun Z, Amourda C, Shagirov M, Hara Y, Saunders T, Toyama Y. Basolateral protrusion and apical contraction cooperatively drive Drosophila germ-band extension. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:375-383 pubmed publisher
    ..During Drosophila germ-band extension (GBE), cell intercalation is the key mechanism for tissue extension, and the associated apical junction remodelling is ..
  79. Said S, Murphree M, Mounajjed T, El Youssef M, Zhang L. A novel GBE1 gene variant in a child with glycogen storage disease type IV. Hum Pathol. 2016;54:152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..More than 40 different mutations in the glycogen branching enzyme gene (GBE1) have been described...
  80. Ji S, He D, Wang T, Han J, Li Z, Du Y, et al. Separation and characterization of chemical constituents in Ginkgo biloba extract by off-line hydrophilic interaction×reversed-phase two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017;146:68-78 pubmed publisher
    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), derived from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicines worldwide...
  81. Pescador N, Villar D, Cifuentes D, Garcia Rocha M, Ortiz Barahona A, Vazquez S, et al. Hypoxia promotes glycogen accumulation through hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated induction of glycogen synthase 1. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9644 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our results uncover a novel effect of hypoxia on glucose metabolism, further supporting the central importance of metabolic reprogramming in the cellular adaptation to hypoxia. ..
  82. Ali S, Majid A, Javed S, Sattar M. Can-CSC-GBE: Developing Cost-sensitive Classifier with Gentleboost Ensemble for breast cancer classification using protein amino acids and imbalanced data. Comput Biol Med. 2016;73:38-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed an effective Cost-Sensitive Classifier with GentleBoost Ensemble (Can-CSC-GBE) for the classification of breast cancer using protein amino acid features...
  83. Zhu Y, Zhang M, Kelly A, Cheng A. The carbohydrate-binding domain of overexpressed STBD1 is important for its stability and protein-protein interactions. Biosci Rep. 2014;34: pubmed publisher
    ..This binding increased during glycogenolysis, suggesting that glycogen is not required to bridge this interaction. Taken together, our results have uncovered new insights into the regulation and binding partners of STBD1. ..
  84. Dartigues J, Grasset L, Helmer C, Feart C, Letenneur L, Jacqmin Gadda H, et al. Ginkgo Biloba Extract Consumption and Long-Term Occurrence of Death and Dementia. J Prev Alzheimers Dis. 2017;4:16-20 pubmed publisher
    To study the benefit of Ginkgo Biloba Extract (GBe) consumption on the long term risk of dementia and death in elderly people...
  85. Lossos A, Meiner Z, Barash V, Soffer D, Schlesinger I, Abramsky O, et al. Adult polyglucosan body disease in Ashkenazi Jewish patients carrying the Tyr329Ser mutation in the glycogen-branching enzyme gene. Ann Neurol. 1998;44:867-72 pubmed
    ..body disease (APBD) is a late-onset, slowly progressive disorder of the nervous system caused by glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) deficiency in a subgroup of patients of Ashkenazi Jewish origin...
  86. Ziemssen F, Sindern E, Schroder J, Shin Y, Zange J, Kilimann M, et al. Novel missense mutations in the glycogen-branching enzyme gene in adult polyglucosan body disease. Ann Neurol. 2000;47:536-40 pubmed
    ..the first non-Ashkenazi patient with adult polyglucosan body disease and decreased glycogen-branching enzyme (GBE) activity in leukocytes...
  87. Schiffmann R, Wallace M, Rinaldi D, Ledoux I, Luton M, Coleman S, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of triheptanoin in adult polyglucosan body disease and open-label, long-term outcome. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2018;41:877-883 pubmed publisher
    Adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) is a progressive neurometabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme. We tested the efficacy of triheptanoin as a therapy for patients with APBD based on the hypothesis that ..
  88. Paradas C, Akman H, Ionete C, Lau H, RISKIND P, Jones D, et al. Branching enzyme deficiency: expanding the clinical spectrum. JAMA Neurol. 2014;71:41-7 pubmed publisher
    The neuromuscular presentation of glycogen branching enzyme deficiency includes a severe infantile form and a late-onset variant known as adult polyglucosan body disease...
  89. Magoulas P, El Hattab A, Roy A, Bali D, Finegold M, Craigen W. Diffuse reticuloendothelial system involvement in type IV glycogen storage disease with a novel GBE1 mutation: a case report and review. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:943-51 pubmed publisher
    ..1239delT) and a novel missense mutation (c.1279G>A) that is predicted to alter a conserved glycine residue. GBE enzyme analysis revealed no detectable activity...
  90. Boyer L, Roussel X, Courseaux A, Ndjindji O, Lancelon Pin C, Putaux J, et al. Expression of Escherichia coli glycogen branching enzyme in an Arabidopsis mutant devoid of endogenous starch branching enzymes induces the synthesis of starch-like polyglucans. Plant Cell Environ. 2016;39:1432-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the balance between branching and debranching is crucial for the synthesis of starch, as an excess of branching activity results in the formation of highly branched, water-soluble, poorly crystalline polyglucan. ..