glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase


Gene Symbol: glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase
Description: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
Alias: G3PD, GAPD, HEL-S-162eP, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, OCAS, p38 component, Oct1 coactivator in S phase, 38 Kd component, aging-associated gene 9 protein, epididymis secretory sperm binding protein Li 162eP, peptidyl-cysteine S-nitrosylase GAPDH
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. Sen N, Hara M, Kornberg M, Cascio M, Bae B, Shahani N, et al. Nitric oxide-induced nuclear GAPDH activates p300/CBP and mediates apoptosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:866-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a pathway in which NO-induced nuclear GAPDH mediates cell death through p300/CBP. ..
  2. Valenti M, Bertoldo F, Dalle Carbonare L, Azzarello G, Zenari S, Zanatta M, et al. The effect of bisphosphonates on gene expression: GAPDH as a housekeeping or a new target gene?. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:49 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, this gene could be considered a potential target to observe the effects of bisphosphonates on cancer cells. ..
  3. Phadke M, Krynetskaia N, Mishra A, Krynetskiy E. Accelerated cellular senescence phenotype of GAPDH-depleted human lung carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;411:409-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation. ..
  4. Kornberg M, Sen N, Hara M, Juluri K, Nguyen J, Snowman A, et al. GAPDH mediates nitrosylation of nuclear proteins. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:1094-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a novel mechanism for targeted nitrosylation of nuclear proteins and suggest that protein-protein transfer of nitric oxide groups may be a general mechanism in cellular signal transduction. ..
  5. Azam S, Jouvet N, Jilani A, Vongsamphanh R, Yang X, Yang S, et al. Human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a direct role in reactivating oxidized forms of the DNA repair enzyme APE1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30632-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the nuclear translocation of GAPDH during oxidative stress constitutes a protective mechanism to safeguard the genome by preventing structural inactivation of APE1. ..
  6. Wang D, Moothart D, Lowy D, Qian X. The expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase associated cell cycle (GACC) genes correlates with cancer stage and poor survival in patients with solid tumors. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61262 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this work suggests that GACC genes represent a potential new signature for cancer stage identification and disease prognosis. ..
  7. Glare E, Divjak M, Bailey M, Walters E. beta-Actin and GAPDH housekeeping gene expression in asthmatic airways is variable and not suitable for normalising mRNA levels. Thorax. 2002;57:765-70 pubmed
    ..beta-Actin and GAPDH used as denominators of gene expression quantitation in asthma research can cause confounding. Housekeeping genes need careful validation before their use in such quantitative mRNA assays. ..
  8. Sundararaj K, Wood R, Ponnusamy S, Salas A, Szulc Z, Bielawska A, et al. Rapid shortening of telomere length in response to ceramide involves the inhibition of telomere binding activity of nuclear glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:6152-62 pubmed
  9. Epner D, Coffey D. There are multiple forms of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue. Prostate. 1996;28:372-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that multiple forms of GAPDH may play diverse roles in normal prostate tissue and in prostate cancer. ..

More Information


  1. Hara M, Agrawal N, Kim S, Cascio M, Fujimuro M, Ozeki Y, et al. S-nitrosylated GAPDH initiates apoptotic cell death by nuclear translocation following Siah1 binding. Nat Cell Biol. 2005;7:665-74 pubmed
    ..The NO-S-nitrosylation-GAPDH-Siah1 cascade may represent an important molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity. ..
  2. Zheng L, Roeder R, Luo Y. S phase activation of the histone H2B promoter by OCA-S, a coactivator complex that contains GAPDH as a key component. Cell. 2003;114:255-66 pubmed
  3. Tokunaga K, Nakamura Y, Sakata K, Fujimori K, Ohkubo M, Sawada K, et al. Enhanced expression of a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in human lung cancers. Cancer Res. 1987;47:5616-9 pubmed
    ..These results disclose a molecular basis of increased glycolysis in cancer cells and reveal an important role of energy creating reaction in cancer cell growth. ..
  4. Raje C, Kumar S, Harle A, Nanda J, Raje M. The macrophage cell surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a novel transferrin receptor. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3252-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose an entirely new avenue for investigation with respect to transferrin uptake and regulation mechanisms in macrophages. ..
  5. Meyer Siegler K, Mauro D, Seal G, Wurzer J, DeRiel J, Sirover M. A human nuclear uracil DNA glycosylase is the 37-kDa subunit of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:8460-4 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, mutation(s) in the gene of this multifunctional protein may conceivably result in the diverse cellular phenotypes of Bloom syndrome. ..
  6. Colell A, Ricci J, Tait S, Milasta S, Maurer U, Bouchier Hayes L, et al. GAPDH and autophagy preserve survival after apoptotic cytochrome c release in the absence of caspase activation. Cell. 2007;129:983-97 pubmed
    ..Therefore, GAPDH mediates an elevation in glycolysis and enhanced autophagy that cooperate to protect cells from CICD. ..
  7. Glaser P, Han X, Gross R. Tubulin is the endogenous inhibitor of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoform that catalyzes membrane fusion: Implications for the coordinated regulation of glycolysis and membrane fusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:14104-9 pubmed
    ..J. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 3334-3341], the present study suggests a coordinated mechanism through which membrane trafficking and cellular signaling can be integrated with glycolytic flux. ..
  8. Carujo S, Estanyol J, Ejarque A, Agell N, Bachs O, Pujol M. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a SET-binding protein and regulates cyclin B-cdk1 activity. Oncogene. 2006;25:4033-42 pubmed
    ..All these results suggest that GAPDH might be involved in cell cycle regulation by modulating cyclin B-cdk1 activity. ..
  9. Mookherjee N, Lippert D, Hamill P, Falsafi R, Nijnik A, Kindrachuk J, et al. Intracellular receptor for human host defense peptide LL-37 in monocytes. J Immunol. 2009;183:2688-96 pubmed publisher
  10. Nakajima H, Amano W, Kubo T, Fukuhara A, Ihara H, Azuma Y, et al. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase aggregate formation participates in oxidative stress-induced cell death. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In transgenic mice overexpressing wild-type GAPDH, increased dopaminergic neuron loss and GAPDH aggregate formation are observed. These data suggest a critical role of GAPDH aggregates in oxidative stress-induced brain damage. ..
  11. Sen N, Hara M, Ahmad A, Cascio M, Kamiya A, Ehmsen J, et al. GOSPEL: a neuroprotective protein that binds to GAPDH upon S-nitrosylation. Neuron. 2009;63:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In intact mice, virally delivered GOSPEL selectively diminishes NMDA neurotoxicity. Thus, GOSPEL may physiologically regulate the viability of neurons and other cells. ..
  12. Tisdale E, Kelly C, Artalejo C. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase interacts with Rab2 and plays an essential role in endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport exclusive of its glycolytic activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54046-52 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that GAPDH imparts a unique function necessary for membrane trafficking from VTCs that does not require GAPDH glycolytic activity. ..
  13. Schek N, Hall B, Finn O. Increased glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res. 1988;48:6354-9 pubmed
    ..High GAPDH levels may be characteristic of human adenocarcinomas, since colon adenocarcinomas also exhibited high levels of GAPDH compared to normal colon. ..
  14. Wagener J, Schneider J, Baxmann S, Kalbacher H, Borelli C, Nuding S, et al. A peptide derived from the highly conserved protein GAPDH is involved in tissue protection by different antifungal strategies and epithelial immunomodulation. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:144-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In the future, the combination of different antifungal strategies, e.g., a conventional fungicidal with immunomodulatory effects and the inhibition of fungal virulence factors, might be a promising treatment option. ..
  15. Graven K, Bellur D, Klahn B, Lowrey S, Amberger E. HIF-2alpha regulates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression in endothelial cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1626:10-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that cell-specific patterns of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha expression lead to cell-specific gene upregulation during hypoxia. ..
  16. Lee S, Kim J, Jung H, Chi S, Chung S, Lee C, et al. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, a glycolytic intermediate, prevents cells from apoptosis by lowering S-nitrosylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;22:571-3 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we suggest that G-3-P functions as a molecule switch between cell survival and apoptosis by regulating S-nitrosylation of GAPDH...
  17. Tristan C, Shahani N, Sedlak T, Sawa A. The diverse functions of GAPDH: views from different subcellular compartments. Cell Signal. 2011;23:317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..GAPDH is also involved in various diseases, especially neurodegenerative disorders and cancers. Therapeutic strategies to these conditions based on molecular understanding of GAPDH are discussed. ..
  18. Zhou Y, Yi X, Stoffer J, Bonafe N, Gilmore Hebert M, McAlpine J, et al. The multifunctional protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is both regulated and controls colony-stimulating factor-1 messenger RNA stability in ovarian cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In ovarian cancers, we show that GAPDH expression is regulated, and we now recognize that one of the many functions of GAPDH is to promote mRNA stability of CSF-1, an important cytokine in tumor progression. ..
  19. Barber R, Harmer D, Coleman R, Clark B. GAPDH as a housekeeping gene: analysis of GAPDH mRNA expression in a panel of 72 human tissues. Physiol Genomics. 2005;21:389-95 pubmed
    ..These data establish comparative levels of expression and can be used to add value to gene expression data in which GAPDH is used as the internal control. ..
  20. Said H, Hagemann C, Stojic J, Schoemig B, Vince G, Flentje M, et al. GAPDH is not regulated in human glioblastoma under hypoxic conditions. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:55 pubmed
    ..Because of the lack of GAPDH regulation under hypoxia, this gene is not an attractive target for tumor therapeutic approaches in human glioblastoma. ..
  21. Rusmini P, Cortese K, Crippa V, Cristofani R, Cicardi M, Ferrari V, et al. Trehalose induces autophagy via lysosomal-mediated TFEB activation in models of motoneuron degeneration. Autophagy. 2019;15:631-651 pubmed publisher
  22. Gerth U, Krieger E, Zühlke D, Reder A, Völker U, Hecker M. Stability of Proteins Out of Service: the GapB Case of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed publisher
    ..ClpCP appears to be in charge in the removal of inoperable enzymes in B. subtilis, which is a strictly regulated process in which the precise recognition mechanism(s) remains to be identified. ..
  23. Aziz I, Rashid N, Ashraf R, Siddiqui M, Imanaka T, Akhtar M. Pcal_0632, a phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Pyrobaculum calidifontis. Extremophiles. 2018;22:121-129 pubmed publisher
    ..High thermostability and resistance against denaturants make Pcal_0632 a novel glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. ..
  24. Hu Y, Zhang E, Huang L, Li W, Liang P, Wang X, et al. Expression profiles of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Clonorchis sinensis: a glycolytic enzyme with plasminogen binding capacity. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:4543-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work will be a cornerstone for getting more messages about CsGAPDH and its role in biology and parasitism of C. sinensis. ..
  25. Tallima H, Dvorak J, Kareem S, Abou El Dahab M, Abdel Aziz N, DALTON J, et al. Protective immune responses against Schistosoma mansoni infection by immunization with functionally active gut-derived cysteine peptidases alone and in combination with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005443 pubmed publisher
    ..This cysteine peptidase-based vaccine should now be advanced to experiments in non-human primates and, if shown promise, progressed to Phase 1 safety trials in humans. ..
  26. Panahi Y, Salasar Moghaddam F, Ghasemi Z, Hadi Jafari M, Shervin Badv R, Eskandari M, et al. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Analysis of Salivary Transcriptome in Non-Syndromic Autistic Male Children. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed
  27. El Kashef N, Gomes I, Mercer Chalmers Bender K, Schneider P, Rothschild M, Juebner M. Validation of adequate endogenous reference genes for reverse transcription-qPCR studies in human post-mortem brain tissue of SIDS cases. Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2015;11:517-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This emphasizes the need for validation of the suitability of reference genes used in a given tissue type under certain experimental conditions. ..
  28. Hosokawa K, Hamada Y, Fujiya A, Murase M, Maekawa R, Niwa Y, et al. S100B impairs glycolysis via enhanced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in rodent muscle cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;312:E471-E481 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that S100B as a humoral factor may impair glycolysis in muscle cells independent of insulin action, and the effect may be attributed to the inhibition of GAPDH activity from enhanced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the enzyme. ..
  29. Nayak A, Neill C, Kormos R, Lagazzi L, Halder I, McTiernan C, et al. Chemokine receptor patterns and right heart failure in mechanical circulatory support. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2017;36:657-665 pubmed publisher
    ..Pre-LVAD CCR downregulation is associated with RVF and increased mortality after implant. Inflammatory signatures may play a major role in prognostication in this patient population. ..
  30. Idda A, Bebbere D, Corona G, Masala L, Casula E, Cincotti A, et al. Insights on Cryopreserved Sheep Fibroblasts by Cryomicroscopy and Gene Expression Analysis. Biopreserv Biobank. 2017;15:310-320 pubmed publisher
    ..05) in the expression levels of OCT4, BCL2, and GAPDH was detected 24 hours post-thawing. Overall, our data suggest that cryostored CSSF need at least 24 hours to activate specific networks to promote cell readaptation...
  31. Adler S, Kang S, Feld S, Cha D, Barba L, Striker L, et al. Can glomerular mRNAs in human type 1 diabetes be used to predict transition from normoalbuminuria to microalbuminuria?. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;40:184-8 pubmed
  32. Cumming R, Schubert D. Amyloid-beta induces disulfide bonding and aggregation of GAPDH in Alzheimer's disease. FASEB J. 2005;19:2060-2 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that disulfide bonding of GAPDH and subsequent protein aggregate formation may have relevance to the pathophysiology of AD. ..
  33. Nahas Scocate A, de Moraes G, Nader H, Vicente C, Toma L. Analysis of proteoglycan expression in human dental pulp. Arch Oral Biol. 2018;90:67-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The lumican gene was more expressed than versican and glypican-3 was the isoform more expressed in permanent pulp compared to deciduous. ..
  34. Liu X, Xie J, Liu Z, Gong Q, Tian R, Su G. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of retinal pigment epithelium cells under hypoxia and/or hyperglycemia. Gene. 2016;580:41-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These reference genes gave the most reliable normalization for comparative analyses of gene transcription under those conditions. ..
  35. Nakagawa M, Sugawara K, Goto T, Wakui H, Nunomura W. Hydroxychloroquine binding to cytoplasmic domain of Band 3 in human erythrocytes: Novel mechanistic insights into drug structure, efficacy and toxicity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;473:999-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that the trapping of HCQ on Band 3 contributes to the lower side effects of the drug on energy production in erythrocytes. ..
  36. Matassa D, Amoroso M, Agliarulo I, Maddalena F, Sisinni L, Paladino S, et al. Translational control in the stress adaptive response of cancer cells: a novel role for the heat shock protein TRAP1. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e851 pubmed publisher
    ..These new findings target the TRAP1 network in the development of novel anti-cancer strategies. ..
  37. Kushnerev E, Shawcross S, Hillarby M, Yates J. High-plasticity mesenchymal stem cells isolated from adult-retained primary teeth and autogenous adult tooth pulp--A potential source for regenerative therapies?. Arch Oral Biol. 2016;62:43-8 pubmed publisher
  38. Iser I, de Campos R, Bertoni A, Wink M. Identification of valid endogenous control genes for determining gene expression in C6 glioma cell line treated with conditioned medium from adipose-derived stem cell. Biomed Pharmacother. 2015;75:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, our data will contribute with researchers that work analyzing the role of ADSCs in glioma microenvironment through gene expression. ..
  39. Arimoto M, Yamagishi K, Wang J, Tanaka K, Miyoshi T, Kamei I, et al. Molecular breeding of lignin-degrading brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum by homologous expression of laccase gene. AMB Express. 2015;5:81 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the molecular breeding of lignin-degrading brown-rot fungus and direct ethanol production from softwoods by co-transformation with laccase overproduction constructs. ..
  40. Rocha A, Vothknecht U. Identification of CP12 as a Novel Calcium-Binding Protein in Chloroplasts. Plants (Basel). 2013;2:530-40 pubmed publisher
  41. Baghirova S, Hughes B, Hendzel M, Schulz R. Sequential fractionation and isolation of subcellular proteins from tissue or cultured cells. MethodsX. 2015;2:440-5 pubmed publisher
  42. Renzi M, Amichot M, Pauron D, Tchamitchian S, Brunet J, Kretzschmar A, et al. Chronic toxicity and physiological changes induced in the honey bee by the exposure to fipronil and Bacillus thuringiensis spores alone or combined. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016;127:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..GST), midgut alkaline phosphatase (ALP), abdomen glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)...
  43. Liu L, Liao Z, Yan X, Liu J, Wang X, Fan H. [Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Its Clinical Significance]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2015;23:935-9 pubmed publisher
  44. Wang Q, Woltjer R, Cimino P, Pan C, Montine K, Zhang J, et al. Proteomic analysis of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease identifies GAPDH as a detergent-insoluble paired helical filament tau binding protein. FASEB J. 2005;19:869-71 pubmed
  45. Zhu H, Liu D, Wang Y, Ren D, Zheng L, Chen L, et al. Use of the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis as a cell factory to produce a Pleurotus ostreatus hydrophobin. Biotechnol Lett. 2017;39:1167-1173 pubmed publisher
    ..Tremella fuciformis can be used as a cell factory to produce hydrophobin on a large scale for the food industry. ..
  46. Cui G, Sun F, Gao X, Xie K, Zhang C, Liu S, et al. Proteomic analysis of melatonin-mediated osmotic tolerance by improving energy metabolism and autophagy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Planta. 2018;248:69-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that melatonin might activate a metabolic cascade related to autophagy under PEG stress in wheat seedlings. ..
  47. Auler P, Benitez L, do Amaral M, Vighi I, Rodrigues G, da Maia L, et al. Selection of candidate reference genes and validation for real-time PCR studies in rice plants exposed to low temperatures. Genet Mol Res. 2017;16: pubmed publisher
    ..The validation with the antioxidant system genes SODCc1-Cu/Zn, CATC, APX2, and GR2 confirmed the importance of using previously tested normalizing genes for adequate real-time PCR results. ..
  48. Lokhandwala P, Riel S, Haley L, Lu C, Chen Y, Silberstein J, et al. Analytical Validation of Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 Detection in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) Laboratory Setting. J Mol Diagn. 2017;19:115-125 pubmed publisher
    ..This first validated clinical assay detects the AR-V7 with high analytical sensitivity, precision, specificity, and accuracy. ..
  49. Crisosto N, Flores C, Maliqueo M, Echiburú B, Vasquez J, Maluenda F, et al. Testosterone increases CCL-2 expression in visceral adipose tissue from obese women of reproductive age. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;444:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This response is associated to BMI. These results show new possible mechanisms connecting androgens to insulin resistance and chronic inflammation. ..
  50. Mountassif D, Baibai T, Fourrat L, Moutaouakkil A, Iddar A, El Kebbaj M, et al. Immunoaffinity purification and characterization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from human erythrocytes. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2009;41:399-406 pubmed
    ..3 U/mg and the Km values against G3P and NAD(+) were 20.7 and 17.8 muM, respectively. The new protocol described represents a simple, economic, and reproducible tool for the purification of GAPDH and can be used for other proteins. ..
  51. Hu Z, Zhang H, Tang L, Lou M, Geng Y. Silencing nc886, a Non-Coding RNA, Induces Apoptosis of Human Endometrial Cancer Cells-1A In Vitro. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:1317-1324 pubmed
    ..CONCLUSIONS The rate of apoptosis in the silenced group was increased and the rate of cell proliferation was slower in comparison to the control. ..
  52. Svoboda P, Krizova E, Čeňková K, Vápenková K, Zidkova J, Zidek V, et al. Visfatin is actively secreted in vitro from U-937 macrophages, but only passively released from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes. Physiol Res. 2017;66:709-714 pubmed
    ..Results show that 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 hepatocytes released visfatin only passively during the cell death. U-937 macrophages secrete visfatin in the greatest level from all of the tested cell lines. ..
  53. Duan M, Wang J, Zhang X, Yang H, Wang H, Qiu Y, et al. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Expression Analysis in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and Its Relatives Based on Expression Stability. Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:1605 pubmed publisher
    ..These results will provide important information for selecting target reference genes in different research contexts and improve the accuracy and precision of gene expression analysis for radish, Chinese cabbage and their distant hybrid...
  54. Jarosz A, Wei W, Gauld J, Auld J, Özcan F, Aslan M, et al. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is inactivated by S-sulfuration in vitro. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015;89:512-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study raises significant questions about the reported ability of H2S to activate GAPDH by the sulfuration of its active site thiol, and indicates that polysulfide is a stronger protein S-sulfurating agent than sulfide. ..
  55. Takenouchi T, Tsukimoto M, Iwamaru Y, Sugama S, Sekiyama K, Sato M, et al. Extracellular ATP induces unconventional release of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from microglial cells. Immunol Lett. 2015;167:116-24 pubmed publisher
  56. Higashimura Y, Nakajima Y, Yamaji R, Harada N, Shibasaki F, Nakano Y, et al. Up-regulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression by HIF-1 activity depending on Sp1 in hypoxic breast cancer cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;509:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that in MCF-7 cells, the activation of HIF-1 on the novel HRE contributes to the breast cancer-specific hypoxic induction of GAPDH gene expression and absolutely depends on the presence of Sp1 on the GC-box. ..
  57. Seki S, Stevenson M, Rosen A, Arandjelovic S, Gemta L, Bullock T, et al. Lineage-Specific Metabolic Properties and Vulnerabilities of T Cells in the Demyelinating Central Nervous System. J Immunol. 2017;198:4607-4617 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, these data are among the first to demonstrate the metabolic properties of T cells in the demyelinating CNS in vivo. ..
  58. Svoboda M, Hlobilová M, Marešová M, Sochorová M, Kováčik A, Vavrova K, et al. Comparison of suction blistering and tape stripping for analysis of epidermal genes, proteins and lipids. Arch Dermatol Res. 2017;309:757-765 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, SB represents a reliable sampling technique that can be utilized for multipurpose epidermal analyses in various studies. ..
  59. Hou L, Gu W, Zhu H, Yao W, Wang W, Meng Q. Spiroplasma eriocheiris induces mouse 3T6-Swiss albino cell apoptosis that associated with the infection mechanism. Mol Immunol. 2017;91:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..All the results help us better understand the infection mechanism of S. eriocheiris. ..
  60. Ishida A, Tada Y, Nimura T, Sueyoshi N, Katoh T, Takeuchi M, et al. Identification of major Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase-binding proteins in brain: biochemical analysis of the interaction. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005;435:134-46 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that CaMKP regulates the phosphorylation level of GAPDH in the CaMKP-GAPDH complex by dephosphorylating and deactivating CaMKs that are responsible for the phosphorylation of GAPDH. ..
  61. He X, Tan C, Wang F, Wang Y, Zhou R, Cui D, et al. Knock-in of large reporter genes in human cells via CRISPR/Cas9-induced homology-dependent and independent DNA repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:e85 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support that CRISPR/Cas9-induced NHEJ provides a valuable new path for efficient genome editing in human ESCs and somatic cells. ..
  62. Berry I, Jarocki V, Tacchi J, Raymond B, Widjaja M, Padula M, et al. N-terminomics identifies widespread endoproteolysis and novel methionine excision in a genome-reduced bacterial pathogen. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11063 pubmed publisher
    ..We define the rules governing methionine excision, show that several aminopeptidases are involved, and propose that through processing, genome-reduced organisms can expand protein function. ..
  63. Toda H, Itoh N. Development of a Novel Escherichia coli-Kocuria Shuttle Vector Using the Cryptic pKPAL3 Plasmid from K. palustris IPUFS-1 and Its Utilization in Producing Enantiopure (S)-Styrene Oxide. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:2313 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we demonstrated that this novel shuttle vector is useful for developing biocatalysts based on organic solvent-tolerant Kocuria cells...
  64. Ben Mouhoub R, Mansouri A, Aliliche K, Beghalem H, Landoulsi A, El May A. Unraveling the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis pathway of cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine in Salmonella Hadar grown under static magnetic field 200 mT. Microb Pathog. 2017;111:414-421 pubmed publisher
    ..static magnetic field 200 mT (SMF) on the expression of genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of cardiolipin: g3pd, plsB, cdsA, pgsA, pgpA, cls and phosphatidylethanolamine: pssA and psd in Salmonella enterica subsp enterica ..
  65. Flores Tornero M, Anoman A, Rosa Téllez S, Toujani W, Weber A, Eisenhut M, et al. Overexpression of the triose phosphate translocator (TPT) complements the abnormal metabolism and development of plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mutants. Plant J. 2017;89:1146-1158 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest a 3-PGA deficiency in the plastids of gapcp1gapcp2, and that 3-PGA pools between cytosol and plastid do not equilibrate in heterotrophic cells. ..
  66. Zainuddin A, Chua K, Abdul Rahim N, Makpol S. Effect of experimental treatment on GAPDH mRNA expression as a housekeeping gene in human diploid fibroblasts. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore it can be used as housekeeping gene for quantitative real time RT-PCR technique in human diploid fibroblasts particularly in studying cellular senescence. ..
  67. Iwai K, Shibukawa Y, Yamazaki N, Wada Y. Transglutaminase 2-dependent deamidation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promotes trophoblastic cell fusion. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:4989-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering that GAPDH binds F-actin via an electrostatic interaction and that the cytoskeleton is rearranged in trophoblastic cell fusion, TG2-dependent GAPDH deamidation was suggested to participate in actin cytoskeletal remodeling. ..
  68. Lin J, Zhong J. Proteomic studies on anti-tumor agent ansamitocin P-3 producer Actinosynnema pretiosum in response to ammonium and isobutanol. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2017;40:1133-1139 pubmed publisher
    ..basic medium. Based on the 2-DE data, exogenous L-serine which could inhibit the PGDH activity was added to the cultures with isobutanol, and a lower AP-3 production was confirmed under 2.5 mM serine addition (24 or 48 h). ..
  69. Hillion M, Imber M, Pedre B, Bernhardt J, Saleh M, Loi V, et al. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GapDH of Corynebacterium diphtheriae is redox-controlled by protein S-mycothiolation under oxidative stress. Sci Rep. 2017;7:5020 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we show here that S-mycothiolation can function in redox-regulation and protection of the GapDH active site against overoxidation in C. diphtheriae which can be reversed by both, the Mrx1 and Trx pathways. ..
  70. Mazzola J, Sirover M. Alteration of nuclear glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase structure in Huntington's disease fibroblasts. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;100:95-101 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a singular, new subcellular phenotype in HD cells. As such, they indicate an interrelationship between nuclear GAPDH function and huntingtin localization in this CAG expansion neuronal disease. ..
  71. Patra S, Ghosh S, Bera S, Roy A, Ray S, Ray M. Molecular characterization of tumor associated glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009;74:717-27 pubmed
    ..The altered properties of GAPDH of three different malignant sources might be common feature of all malignant cells, which is discussed in relation to glycolysis and malignant aberrations. ..
  72. Watanabe H, Ishii H, Takahashi K, Takai S, Ozawa H. Suitable reference gene selection for gene expression studies in knee osteoarthritis synovium using quantitative PCR analysis. Connect Tissue Res. 2017;:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, HPRT1 was identified as the suitable reference gene for normalization in the OA synovium...
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    ..Combining VPA, everolimus and low dosed IFNα might be a promising option to counteract resistance development and improve outcome in PCa patients. ..
  74. Liang S, Aiqun M, Figtree G, Ping Z. GAPDH-silence preserves H9C2 cells from acute hypoxia and reoxygenation injury. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;81:375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study enriches the understanding of GAPDH pathophysiology role, and provides potential new therapeutic targets for cardiac disease states characterized by oxidative stress. ..
  75. Yu B, Zheng Y, Yuan Z, Li S, Zhu H, De La Cruz L, et al. Toward Direct Protein S-Persulfidation: A Prodrug Approach that Directly Delivers Hydrogen Persulfide. J Am Chem Soc. 2017;: pubmed publisher
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    ..5%) samples. Overall, these results demonstrate that quantitative PCR is a reliable method for analyzing HER2 status and chromosome 17 polysomy...
  77. Chang C, Su H, Zhang D, Wang Y, Shen Q, Liu B, et al. AMPK-Dependent Phosphorylation of GAPDH Triggers Sirt1 Activation and Is Necessary for Autophagy upon Glucose Starvation. Mol Cell. 2015;60:930-40 pubmed publisher
    ..GAPDH is thus a pivotal and central regulator of autophagy under glucose deficiency, undergoing AMPK-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation to activate Sirt1 deacetylase activity. ..
  78. Nakajima H, Amano W, Fukuhara A, Kubo T, Misaki S, Azuma Y, et al. An aggregate-prone mutant of human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase augments oxidative stress-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:1066-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that aggregate-prone mutations of GAPDH such as S284C-GAPDH may confer risk of oxidative stress-induced cell death. ..
  79. Ruigrok M, Maggan N, Willaert D, Frijlink H, Melgert B, Olinga P, et al. siRNA-Mediated RNA Interference in Precision-Cut Tissue Slices Prepared from Mouse Lung and Kidney. AAPS J. 2017;19:1855-1863 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this ex vivo transfection model can be used to evaluate the effects of siRNA in relevant biological environments. ..
  80. Agah S, Akbari A, Talebi A, Masoudi M, Sarveazad A, Mirzaei A, et al. Quantification of Plasma Cell-Free Circulating DNA at Different Stages of Colorectal Cancer. Cancer Invest. 2017;35:625-632 pubmed publisher
    ..811-0.94), which was indicative of a high discriminatory power (p < 0.001) and significant accuracy in distinguishing cancer patients from healthy individuals. The quantification of cfcDNA could be useful for clinical settings of CRC...
  81. Dumaswala U, Zhuo L, Mahajan S, Nair P, Shertzer H, Dibello P, et al. Glutathione protects chemokine-scavenging and antioxidative defense functions in human RBCs. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;280:C867-73 pubmed
    ..These results have implications not only in a transfusion setting but also in conditions like diabetes and sickle cell anemia, in which RBCs are subjected to chronic/acute oxidant stresses...
  82. Yu M, Yao S, Luo K, Mu Q, Yu Y, Luo G, et al. Apolipoprotein M increases the expression of vitamin D receptor mRNA in colorectal cancer cells detected with duplex fluorescence reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Mol Med Rep. 2017;16:1167-1172 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it was hypothesized that ApoM may be involved in antineoplastic activity via the upregulation of VDR expression, which may provide novel directions for the investigation of ApoM in cancer...
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    ..Our data suggest that the nuclear translocation of GAPDH might be regulated by the PI3K signaling pathway acting mainly as a nuclear export signal and the AMPK signaling pathway acting as a nuclear import signal. ..
  84. Mitne Neto M, Ramos C, Pimenta D, Luz J, Nishimura A, Gonzales F, et al. A mutation in human VAP-B--MSP domain, present in ALS patients, affects the interaction with other cellular proteins. Protein Expr Purif. 2007;55:139-46 pubmed
    ..Understanding the role of these protein interactions may help the treatment of this devastating disease in the future. ..
  85. Lazarev V, Nikotina A, Semenyuk P, Evstafyeva D, Mikhaylova E, Muronetz V, et al. Small molecules preventing GAPDH aggregation are therapeutically applicable in cell and rat models of oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016;92:29-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the data show that two GAPDH binders could be therapeutically relevant in the treatment of injuries stemming from hard oxidative stress. ..
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    ..These combined results suggest that Rab2 stimulated PKCiota/lambda and GAPDH recruitment to VTCs, and the subsequent PKCiota/lambda phosphorylation of GAPDH ultimately influences MT dynamics in the early secretory pathway. ..
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    ..In contrast, ACTA1 and FLNC appear to be stable proteins, indicating that their interaction with USP25m is not related to their turnover rate. ..
  89. Majzúnová M, Pakanova Z, Kvasnička P, Balis P, Cacanyiova S, Dovinova I. Age-dependent redox status in the brain stem of NO-deficient hypertensive rats. J Biomed Sci. 2017;24:72 pubmed publisher
    ..Triggering of the radical pathway was followed by activation of protective compensation mechanism at the gene expression level. ..
  90. Płachetka Bożek A, Augustyniak M. Evaluation of Candidate Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Analysis in Spodoptera exigu a after Long-time Exposure to Cadmium. Sci Rep. 2017;7:8338 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that holometabolism and poikilothermia, as well as time since metamorphosis and the level of exposure to the selective factor (cadmium in this case), have a significant effect on the expression of reference genes. ..