GLUT4

Summary

Gene Symbol: GLUT4
Description: solute carrier family 2 member 4
Alias: GLUT4, solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, GLUT-4, glucose transporter type 4, insulin-responsive, insulin-responsive glucose transporter type 4, solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4
Species: human
Products:     GLUT4

Top Publications

  1. Birnbaum M. Identification of a novel gene encoding an insulin-responsive glucose transporter protein. Cell. 1989;57:305-15 pubmed
  2. Giorgino F, de Robertis O, Laviola L, Montrone C, Perrini S, McCowen K, et al. The sentrin-conjugating enzyme mUbc9 interacts with GLUT4 and GLUT1 glucose transporters and regulates transporter levels in skeletal muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1125-30 pubmed
    Glucose transport in insulin-regulated tissues is mediated by the GLUT4 and GLUT1 transporters...
  3. Saltiel A, Kahn C. Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature. 2001;414:799-806 pubmed
    ..But recent studies have shown that numerous other hormones and signalling events attenuate insulin action, and are important in type 2 diabetes. ..
  4. Christ Roberts C, Pratipanawatr T, Pratipanawatr W, Berria R, Belfort R, Kashyap S, et al. Exercise training increases glycogen synthase activity and GLUT4 expression but not insulin signaling in overweight nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Metabolism. 2004;53:1233-42 pubmed
    ..The present study was undertaken to determine how improved insulin signaling, GLUT4 expression, and glycogen synthase activity contribute to this improvement...
  5. Bryant N, Govers R, James D. Regulated transport of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002;3:267-77 pubmed
    In muscle and fat cells, insulin stimulates the delivery of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from an intracellular location to the cell surface, where it facilitates the reduction of plasma glucose levels...
  6. Shen H, Zhang Y, Ding H, Wang X, Chen L, Jiang H, et al. Farnesoid X receptor induces GLUT4 expression through FXR response element in the GLUT4 promoter. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2008;22:1-14 pubmed publisher
    b>GLUT4, the main insulin-responsive glucose transporter, plays a critical role in maintaining systemic glucose homeostasis and is subject to complicated metabolic regulation...
  7. Liu F, Dallas Yang Q, Castriota G, Fischer P, Santini F, Ferrer M, et al. Development of a novel GLUT4 translocation assay for identifying potential novel therapeutic targets for insulin sensitization. Biochem J. 2009;418:413-20 pubmed publisher
    b>GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) plays important roles in glucose homoeostasis in vivo. GLUT4 expression and function are diminished in diabetic human and animal subjects...
  8. Hammarstedt A, Jansson P, Wesslau C, Yang X, Smith U. Reduced expression of PGC-1 and insulin-signaling molecules in adipose tissue is associated with insulin resistance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;301:578-82 pubmed
    ..The combined reduction of PGC-1 and insulin signaling molecules in adipose tissue implicates adipose tissue dysfunction which, in turn, can impair the systemic insulin response in the insulin-resistant subjects. ..
  9. Shewan A, van Dam E, Martin S, Luen T, Hong W, Bryant N, et al. GLUT4 recycles via a trans-Golgi network (TGN) subdomain enriched in Syntaxins 6 and 16 but not TGN38: involvement of an acidic targeting motif. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:973-86 pubmed
    Insulin stimulates glucose transport in fat and muscle cells by triggering exocytosis of the glucose transporter GLUT4. To define the intracellular trafficking of GLUT4, we have studied the internalization of an epitope-tagged version of ..

More Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. Koistinen H, Galuska D, Chibalin A, Yang J, Zierath J, Holman G, et al. 5-amino-imidazole carboxamide riboside increases glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2003;52:1066-72 pubmed
    ..We determined in vitro effects of insulin and/or AICAR exposure on glucose transport and cell-surface GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle from nondiabetic men and men with type 2 diabetes...
  2. Knight J, Eyster C, Griesel B, Olson A. Regulation of the human GLUT4 gene promoter: interaction between a transcriptional activator and myocyte enhancer factor 2A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:14725-30 pubmed
    The GLUT4 gene is subject to complex tissue-specific and metabolic regulation, with a profound impact on insulin-mediated glucose disposal...
  3. Liao W, Nguyen M, Imamura T, Singer O, Verma I, Olefsky J. Lentiviral short hairpin ribonucleic acid-mediated knockdown of GLUT4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2245-52 pubmed
    ..We chose to target GLUT4 to validate this approach...
  4. Abel E, Peroni O, Kim J, Kim Y, Boss O, Hadro E, et al. Adipose-selective targeting of the GLUT4 gene impairs insulin action in muscle and liver. Nature. 2001;409:729-33 pubmed
    ..The glucose transporter GLUT4 mediates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and muscle by rapidly moving from intracellular storage ..
  5. Carlson C, Koterski S, Sciotti R, Poccard G, Rondinone C. Enhanced basal activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in adipocytes from type 2 diabetes: potential role of p38 in the downregulation of GLUT4 expression. Diabetes. 2003;52:634-41 pubmed
    ..phosphorylation status of these MAP kinases was significantly elevated and was associated with decreased IRS-1 and GLUT4 in these fat cells...
  6. Olson A, Knight J. Regulation of GLUT4 expression in vivo and in vitro. Front Biosci. 2003;8:s401-9 pubmed
    The GLUT4 gene is subject to complex tissue-specific and metabolic regulation that has a profound impact on insulin-mediated glucose disposal...
  7. Eguez L, Lee A, Chavez J, Miinea C, Kane S, Lienhard G, et al. Full intracellular retention of GLUT4 requires AS160 Rab GTPase activating protein. Cell Metab. 2005;2:263-72 pubmed
    Insulin controls glucose flux into muscle and fat by regulating the trafficking of GLUT4 between the interior and surface of cells...
  8. McGee S, van Denderen B, Howlett K, Mollica J, Schertzer J, Kemp B, et al. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates GLUT4 transcription by phosphorylating histone deacetylase 5. Diabetes. 2008;57:860-7 pubmed publisher
    Insulin resistance associated with obesity and diabetes is ameliorated by specific overexpression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle. The molecular mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression remain to be elucidated...
  9. Lamb C, McCann R, Stöckli J, James D, Bryant N. Insulin-regulated trafficking of GLUT4 requires ubiquitination. Traffic. 2010;11:1445-54 pubmed publisher
    ..of insulin binding its receptor on fat and muscle cells is translocation of the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT4 from an intracellular store to the cell surface where it serves to clear glucose from the bloodstream...
  10. O Rahilly S, Krook A, Morgan R, Rees A, Flier J, Moller D. Insulin receptor and insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT 4) mutations and polymorphisms in a Welsh type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic population. Diabetologia. 1992;35:486-9 pubmed
    We have recently examined the exons encoding the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase domain and GLUT 4 in 30 subjects with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus using a molecular scanning approach...
  11. Choi W, O Rahilly S, Buse J, Rees A, Morgan R, Flier J, et al. Molecular scanning of insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) gene in NIDDM subjects. Diabetes. 1991;40:1712-8 pubmed
    ..the prevalence of mutations in the gene encoding the major insulin-responsive facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT4) in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)...
  12. Shi J, Kandror K. Sortilin is essential and sufficient for the formation of Glut4 storage vesicles in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Dev Cell. 2005;9:99-108 pubmed
    Impaired translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane in fat and skeletal muscle cells may represent a primary defect in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  13. Nair A, Sugunan D, Kumar H, Anilkumar G. Case-control analysis of SNPs in GLUT4, RBP4 and STRA6: association of SNPs in STRA6 with type 2 diabetes in a South Indian population. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11444 pubmed publisher
    The inverse relationship between GLUT4 and RBP4 expression is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Elevated levels of RBP4 were shown to cause insulin resistance in muscles and liver...
  14. Lee T, Bai K, Chen Y, Lee T, Chung C, Tsai W, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibition of cardiac autophagy in rats on a high?fat diet with low?dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrated that MPT0E014 may improve cardiac function in T2DM rats by modulating myocardial autophagy, inflammation and insulin signaling...
  15. Chen G, Yang X, Yang X, Li L, Luo J, Dong H, et al. Jia-Wei-Jiao-Tai-Wan ameliorates type 2 diabetes by improving β cell function and reducing insulin resistance in diabetic rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017;17:507 pubmed publisher
    ..substrate (IRS) tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) (p85), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression; and downregulated the serine phosphorylation of IRS...
  16. Yim J, Cho H, Rabkin S. Gene expression and gene associations during the development of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in the Dahl salt sensitive model of hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2017;:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, GLUT4, VEGF, eNOS, HIF-1?, and PGC1-? were significantly decreased in expression...
  17. Yoda K, Sun X, Kawase M, Kubota A, Miyazawa K, Harata G, et al. A combination of probiotics and whey proteins enhances anti-obesity effects of calcium and dairy products during nutritional energy restriction in aP2-agouti transgenic mice. Br J Nutr. 2015;113:1689-96 pubmed publisher
    ..PFM caused a greater up-regulation of skeletal muscle PPARα, PPARδ, uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and GLUT4 expression and a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of insulin, malondialdehyde, TNF-α, monocyte ..
  18. Bei F, Jia J, Jia Y, Sun J, Liang F, Yu Z, et al. Long-term effect of early postnatal overnutrition on insulin resistance and serum fatty acid profiles in male rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2015;14:96 pubmed publisher
    ..downregulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (Irs-1), protein kinase B (Akt2) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) at the protein level in epididymal fat of SL rats at 16 weeks, accompanied by decreased mRNA levels for Irs-1 and ..
  19. Li Y, Rong Y, Bao L, Nie B, Ren G, Zheng C, et al. Suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation by stearidonic acid (SDA) in 3T3-L1 cells. Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16:181 pubmed publisher
    ..fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)...
  20. Mokashi P, Bhatt L, Khanna A, Pandita N. Swertisin rich fraction from Enicostema littorale ameliorates hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in high-fat fed diet and low dose streptozotacin induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;96:1427-1437 pubmed publisher
    ..The studies suggest that SRF ameliorates the insulin resistance by increasing glucose uptake and sensitizing cells towards insulin via IRS1/PI3K/Akt2 pathway. ..
  21. Jiao Y, Wang X, Jiang X, Kong F, Wang S, Yan C. Antidiabetic effects of Morus alba fruit polysaccharides on high-fat diet- and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017;199:119-127 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the expression levels of InsR, IRS-2, Akt and GLUT4 in the MFP90 group significantly increased relative to that of the T2DM group...
  22. Mehdad A, Campos N, Arruda S, Siqueira E. Iron Deprivation May Enhance Insulin Receptor and Glut4 Transcription in Skeletal Muscle of Adult Rats. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19:846-54 pubmed publisher
    ..dietary iron restriction resulted in a twofold increase in mRNA expression of Insr and fourfold increase in Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle...
  23. Naowaboot J, Wannasiri S, Pannangpetch P. Vernonia cinerea water extract improves insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Nutr Res. 2018;56:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, it appears that VC has potential as a functional food or therapeutic agent in management of insulin resistance related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. ..
  24. Hammond E, Stewart B, Peek J, Shelling A, Cree L. Assessing embryo quality by combining non-invasive markers: early time-lapse parameters reflect gene expression in associated cumulus cells. Hum Reprod. 2015;30:1850-60 pubmed publisher
    ..J.C.P. has a 0.5% shareholding in Fertility Associates. All other authors of this manuscript have nothing to declare and no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the research reported. ..
  25. Orth M, Mundegar R. Effect of acid maltase deficiency on the endosomal/lysosomal system and glucose transporter 4. Neuromuscul Disord. 2003;13:49-54 pubmed
    ..The enzyme defect may also affect the homoeostasis of receptors cycling through these organelles such as glucose transporter 4. ..
  26. Almamy A, Schwerk C, Schroten H, Ishikawa H, Asif A, Reuss B. Crossreactivity of an Antiserum Directed to the Gram-Negative Bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae with the SNARE-Complex Protein Snap23 Correlates to Impaired Exocytosis in SH-SY5Y Cells. J Mol Neurosci. 2017;62:163-180 pubmed publisher
    ..the fluorescent endocytosis marker FM1-43, and insulin-dependent membrane translocation of the glucose transporter GluT4. Similar effects could be observed for an antiserum raised directly to Snap23, whereas a serum to Snap25 failed to ..
  27. Foster L, Klip A. Mechanism and regulation of GLUT-4 vesicle fusion in muscle and fat cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000;279:C877-90 pubmed
    ..Potential modes of regulation of this process are discussed, including SNARE phosphorylation and interaction with the cytoskeleton...
  28. Gautam S, Ishrat N, Singh R, Narender T, Srivastava A. Aegeline from Aegle marmelos stimulates glucose transport via Akt and Rac1 signaling, and contributes to a cytoskeletal rearrangement through PI3K/Rac1. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;762:419-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we delineate, aegeline enhanced GLUT4 translocation mediated 2-deoxy-glucose uptake in both time and concentration-dependent manner...
  29. Roberts N, González Vega M, Berhanu T, Mull A, García J, Heydemann A. Successful metabolic adaptations leading to the prevention of high fat diet-induced murine cardiac remodeling. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015;14:127 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes include a reduction of cardiac pAMPK, Glut4 and hexokinase2 in the MRL HFD hearts...
  30. Duan C, Liu M, Xu H, Tang W, Liu J, Hou L, et al. Decreased expression of GLUT4 in male CG-IUGR rats may play a vital role in their increased susceptibility to diabetes mellitus in adulthood. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2016;48:872-882 pubmed
    ..The expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) decreases in female IUGR offspring rats with seminutrient restriction during pregnancy...
  31. Nagami M, Ito Y, Nagasawa T. Phenethyl isothiocyanate protects against H2O2-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2017;81:2195-2203 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PEITC protected insulin-regulated glucose metabolism impaired by oxidative stress through the antioxidative activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
  32. Santamaria B, Marquez E, Lay A, Carew R, González Rodríguez Ã, Welsh G, et al. IRS2 and PTEN are key molecules in controlling insulin sensitivity in podocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1853:3224-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Irs2(-/-) podocytes are significantly insulin resistant in respect to AKT signaling, insulin-stimulated GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake, filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton remodeling and cell motility...
  33. Gheibi S, Bakhtiarzadeh F, Jeddi S, Farrokhfall K, Zardooz H, Ghasemi A. Nitrite increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and islet insulin content in obese type 2 diabetic male rats. Nitric Oxide. 2017;64:39-51 pubmed publisher
    ..At the end of the study, tissue levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein and serum interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were measured as well as glucose and insulin tolerance test were ..
  34. Zhang J, Chang D, Yang Y, Zhang X, Tao W, Jiang L, et al. Systematic investigation on the intracellular trafficking network of polymeric nanoparticles. Nanoscale. 2017;9:3269-3282 pubmed publisher
    ..The PLGA nanoparticles were transported out of the cells by GLUT4 transport vesicles (Rab8, Rab10 positive), classic secretory vesicles (Rab3, Rab27 positive vesicles) and ..
  35. Jaimes Hoy L, Gurrola G, Cisneros M, Joseph Bravo P, Possani L, Charli J. The Kv1.3 channel blocker Vm24 enhances muscle glucose transporter 4 mobilization but does not reduce body-weight gain in diet-induced obese male rats. Life Sci. 2017;181:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..of insulin receptor substrate-1, but enhanced protein-kinase B activation and membrane glucose-transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein levels in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, in male rats, long-term blockade of Kv1...
  36. Gulbranson D, Davis E, Demmitt B, Ouyang Y, Ye Y, Yu H, et al. RABIF/MSS4 is a Rab-stabilizing holdase chaperone required for GLUT4 exocytosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E8224-E8233 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockout of RABIF severely impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 exocytosis in adipocytes. Unexpectedly, we discovered that RABIF does not function as a GEF, as previously assumed...
  37. Schneider S, Sridhar V, Bettis A, Heath Barnett H, Balog Alvarez C, Guo L, et al. Glucose Metabolism as a Pre-clinical Biomarker for the Golden Retriever Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Mol Imaging Biol. 2018;20:780-788 pubmed publisher
    ..by mRNA profiling, qPCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy for the primary glucose transporter (GLUT4)...
  38. Wittmann K, Storck K, Muhr C, Mayer H, Regn S, Staudenmaier R, et al. Development of volume-stable adipose tissue constructs using polycaprolactone-based polyurethane scaffolds and fibrin hydrogels. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2016;10:E409-E418 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, upregulation of adipogenic marker genes was demonstrated at mRNA (PPAR?, C/EBP?, GLUT4 and aP2; qRT-PCR) and protein (leptin; ELISA) levels...
  39. Chen S, Chen P, Wu Y, Chen C, Chen H, Lii C, et al. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids amend palmitate-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mouse C2C12 myotubes. Food Funct. 2016;7:270-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to the NF-κB pathway, other mechanisms are involved in the health benefits of DHA and EPA in PA-treated myotubes. ..
  40. Pereira R, de Oliveira da Mota M, de Lima Coutinho Mattera M, Tsosura T, Chiba F, Garbin C, et al. Periapical lesions decrease Akt serine phosphorylation and plasma membrane GLUT4 content in rat skeletal muscle. Clin Oral Investig. 2016;20:1625-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the Akt serine phosphorylation status and GLUT4 expression levels in the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of rats with PL...
  41. Kang H, Lim W, Lee J, Ho J, Lim E, Cho H. Germinated Waxy Black Rice Ameliorates Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Biol Pharm Bull. 2017;40:1846-1855 pubmed publisher
    ..GWBR supplementation also enhanced the expression of GLUT4 and the genes and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation, such as insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor ..
  42. Changou C, Ajoy R, Chou S. Live Images of GLUT4 Protein Trafficking in Mouse Primary Hypothalamic Neurons Using Deconvolution Microscopy. J Vis Exp. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we introduced exogeneous GLUT4 protein conjugated with GFP (GFP-GLUT4) into primary hypothalamic neurons to track GLUT4 membrane translocation ..
  43. Stuart C, Yin D, Howell M, Dykes R, Laffan J, Ferrando A. Hexose transporter mRNAs for GLUT4, GLUT5, and GLUT12 predominate in human muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291:E1067-73 pubmed
    ..were designed that amplified 78- to 241-base fragments, and cDNA standards were cloned for GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT3, GLUT4, GLUT5, GLUT6, GLUT8, GLUT9, GLUT10, GLUT11, GLUT12, and GAPDH...
  44. Kouidhi S, Berrhouma R, Rouissi K, Jarboui S, Clerget Froidevaux M, Seugnet I, et al. Human subcutaneous adipose tissue Glut 4 mRNA expression in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Acta Diabetol. 2013;50:227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..is multifactorial, reduced insulin action is associated with impaired activity of the glucose transporter GLUT4 in insulin-sensitive tissues...
  45. Tam B, Pei X, Yung B, Yip S, Chan L, Wong C, et al. Unacylated ghrelin restores insulin and autophagic signaling in skeletal muscle of diabetic mice. Pflugers Arch. 2015;467:2555-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, UnAG enhanced Glut4 localization and increased PDH activity in the diabetic skeletal muscle...
  46. Runtuwene J, Cheng K, Asakawa A, Amitani H, Amitani M, Morinaga A, et al. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats, potentially by modulating the expression of PEPCK and GLUT4. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2016;10:2193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the protein expression levels of PEPCK and GLUT4 were determined using Western blot analysis...
  47. Habtemariam S. Antidiabetic Potential of Monoterpenes: A Case of Small Molecules Punching above Their Weight. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;19: pubmed publisher
    ..PI3K-AKT (protein kinase B), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR?), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways; proinflammatory cytokines and the NF-?B ..
  48. Dissanayake W, Sorrenson B, Cognard E, Hughes W, Shepherd P. β-catenin is important for the development of an insulin responsive pool of GLUT4 glucose transporters in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Exp Cell Res. 2018;366:49-54 pubmed publisher
    b>GLUT4 is unique among specialized glucose transporters in being exclusively expressed in muscle and adipocytes...
  49. Dutta P, Dey T, Dihingia A, Manna P, Kalita J. Antioxidant and glucose metabolizing potential of edible insect, Brachytrupes orientalis via modulating Nrf2/AMPK/GLUT4 signaling pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;95:556-563 pubmed publisher
    ..also increased the intercellular glucose-6-phosphate level and the protein expression of both phospho-AMPK and GLUT4 in HG treated myotubes in a dose dependent manner...
  50. Jackson R, Griesel B, Gurley J, Szweda L, Olson A. Glucose availability controls adipogenesis in mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes via up-regulation of nicotinamide metabolism. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:18556-18564 pubmed publisher
    ..maturation at day 9 post-differentiation was determined by key adipocyte markers, including glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and adiponectin expression and Oil Red O staining of neutral lipids...
  51. Cherian A, Briski K. Effects of adrenalectomy on neuronal substrate fuel transporter and energy transducer gene expression in hypothalamic and hindbrain metabolic monitoring sites. Neuroendocrinology. 2010;91:56-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Hagedorn insulin or vehicle injection, and evaluated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR for neuronal glucose (GLUT3, GLUT4), monocarboxylate (MCT2) transporter, GCK, and sulfonylurea receptor-1 (SUR1) mRNA content...
  52. Yang Z, Hong L, Follett J, Wabitsch M, Hamilton N, Collins B, et al. Functional characterization of retromer in GLUT4 storage vesicle formation and adipocyte differentiation. FASEB J. 2016;30:1037-50 pubmed publisher
    Insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) storage vesicles (GSVs), the specialized intracellular compartments within mature adipocytes, to the plasma membrane (PM) is a fundamental cellular process for maintaining ..
  53. Chen Q, Xie B, Zhu S, Rong P, Sheng Y, Ducommun S, et al. A Tbc1d1 Ser231Ala-knockin mutation partially impairs AICAR- but not exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice. Diabetologia. 2017;60:336-345 pubmed publisher
    ..cdc16 domain family member 1) is a Rab GTPase-activating protein (RabGAP) that has been implicated in regulating GLUT4 trafficking...
  54. Zheng S, Deng S, Huang Y, Huang M, Zhao P, Ma X, et al. Anti-diabetic activity of a polyphenol-rich extract from Phellinus igniarius in KK-Ay mice with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus. Food Funct. 2018;9:614-623 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, PI-PRE stimulated GLUT4 translocation by 2.34-fold and increased glucose uptake by 1.73-fold in L6 cells...
  55. Kraniou G, Cameron Smith D, Hargreaves M. Effect of short-term training on GLUT-4 mRNA and protein expression in human skeletal muscle. Exp Physiol. 2004;89:559-63 pubmed
  56. Sin T, Tam B, Yu A, Yip S, Yung B, Chan L, et al. Acute Treatment of Resveratrol Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Myotoxicity in Aged Skeletal Muscle Through SIRT1-Dependent Mechanisms. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2016;71:730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the antiapoptotic and anticatabolic effects of resveratrol in aged skeletal muscle treated with doxorubicin were mediated in a sirtuin 1-dependent signaling manner. ..
  57. Sivashanmugam P, Mullainadhan V, Karundevi B. Dose-dependent effect of Bisphenol-A on insulin signaling molecules in cardiac muscle of adult male rat. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;266:10-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas, a decrease in pIRS1Tyr632 (100 mg and 400 mg), pAkt Ser473 (400 mg) and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4) (cytosolic and plasma membrane) proteins was observed which may affect the cardiovascular ..
  58. Tashiro A, Shibata S, Takai Y, Uchiwa T, Furuse M, Yasuo S. Changes in photoperiod alter Glut4 expression in skeletal muscle of C57BL/6J mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;485:82-88 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glut4 expression was lower in the gastrocnemius muscle of mice exposed to a short-duration day (SD) than those to a long-..
  59. Jung D, Kim J, Lee H, Jung M. Antidiabetic effect of gomisin N via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:587-593 pubmed publisher
    ..GN promoted glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes, which was accompanied by the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane...
  60. Correa Giannella M, Machado U. SLC2A4gene: a promising target for pharmacogenomics of insulin resistance. Pharmacogenomics. 2013;14:847-50 pubmed publisher
  61. Choi K, Lee H, Park M, Han J. Cyanidin-3-rutinoside increases glucose uptake by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;54:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..increased glucose uptake, which was associated with enhanced plasma membrane glucose transporter type 4 (PM-GLUT4) expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
  62. Sanchez M, Miranda Perez E, Verjan J, de Los Angeles Fortis Barrera M, Pérez Ramos J, Alarcón Aguilar F. Potential of the chlorogenic acid as multitarget agent: Insulin-secretagogue and PPAR α/γ dual agonist. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;94:169-175 pubmed publisher
    ..CGA also significantly increased the mRNA expression of PPARγ (150%) and GLUT4 (220%), as well PPARα (40%) and FATP (25%) as it was appreciated by RT-PCR...
  63. Yu Y, Maguire T, Alwine J. Human cytomegalovirus activates glucose transporter 4 expression to increase glucose uptake during infection. J Virol. 2011;85:1573-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of GLUTs by using cytochalasin B indicated that infected cells utilize GLUT4, whereas normal HFs use GLUT1...
  64. Shanmugam M, McBrayer S, Qian J, Raikoff K, Avram M, Singhal S, et al. Targeting glucose consumption and autophagy in myeloma with the novel nucleoside analogue 8-aminoadenosine. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26816-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes the potential of metabolic targeting as a broader means to kill and sensitize myeloma and identifies a compound that can achieve this goal. ..
  65. Hu Y, Hou Z, Yi R, Wang Z, Sun P, Li G, et al. Tartary buckwheat flavonoids ameliorate high fructose-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress associated with the insulin signaling and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in mice. Food Funct. 2017;8:2803-2816 pubmed publisher
    ..B (Akt) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), as well as the translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the insulin-resistant liver...
  66. Wei C, Bajpai R, Sharma H, Heitmeier M, Jain A, Matulis S, et al. Development of GLUT4-selective antagonists for multiple myeloma therapy. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;139:573-586 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the fourteen SLC2A family members, GLUTs 1 and 4 are high-affinity glucose transporters. GLUT4 (SLC2A4) is highly expressed in muscle and adipose tissue...
  67. Marín Royo G, Martínez Martínez E, Gutierrez B, Jurado López R, Gallardo I, Montero O, et al. The impact of obesity in the cardiac lipidome and its consequences in the cardiac damage observed in obese rats. Clin Investig Arterioscler. 2018;30:10-20 pubmed publisher
    ..HOMA index, adiposity, and plasma leptin, as well as a reduction in those of cardiac glucose transporter (GLUT 4), compared with control animals...
  68. Pang Y, Zhu H, Xu J, Yang L, Liu L, Li J. ?-arrestin-2 is involved in irisin induced glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes via p38 MAPK signaling. Exp Cell Res. 2017;360:199-204 pubmed publisher
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    ..mRNA levels of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, the peroxisomal proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) co-activator 1 (PGC1) and the myocyte-specific ..
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    Insulin activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) regulates metabolism, including the translocation of the Glut4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor...
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    ..promoted glucose utilization and enhanced the translocation and expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and phosphorylation of AMPK but not AKT...
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    ..murine adipocytes CK2-inhibition decreases the insulin-induced glucose-uptake by counteracting Akt-signaling and GLUT4-translocation to the plasma membrane...
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    Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) seems to be involved in the mechanism of insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients (PCOSs) in both muscular and adipose tissue...
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    ..inhibitory materials inhibited membrane ruffling induced by insulin, while this did not affect insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation...
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    ..The treatments also enhanced the mRNA expression of insulin receptor ?-subunit, GLUT4 and adiponectin in adipose tissue of STZ/NA-induced type 2 diabetic rats...
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    ..Total skeletal muscle and its membrane fractions were used to measure glycogen synthase 1 level and Glut4 expression and protein levels...
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    ..PCNA-positive nuclei, fiber area, GLUT4 and glycogen levels and activation of Akt and mechanistic target of rapamycin were increased in L, with no changes ..
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    ..GR24 upregulated and activated SIRT1 without activating AMPK, enhanced insulin signalling, glucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation and mitochondrial biogenesis...
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    ..This bed rest-induced insulin resistance occurred together with reduced muscle GLUT4, hexokinase II, protein kinase B/Akt1, and Akt2 protein level, and a tendency for reduced 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA ..
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    ..Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a major role in the pathophysiology of T2DM...
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    ..presented reduced glucose uptake upon insulin stimulation, due to reduced translocation of the glucose transporter Glut4. Thus, our results suggest that PrPC reflects susceptibility to the development of insulin resistance ..
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    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy may be associated with reduced expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in contrast to exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy, where GLUT4 levels are increased...
  86. Schiavone S, Camerino G, Mhillaj E, Zotti M, Colaianna M, De Giorgi A, et al. Visceral Fat Dysfunctions in the Rat Social Isolation Model of Psychosis. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:787 pubmed publisher
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    The human insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 gene (GLUT4) has been related to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in several studies. Obesity is commonly found in patients with NIDDM...
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    ..It was recently found that PCa cells overexpress GLUT4 and, more importantly, that it seems to be related to the castration-resistant phenotype, though little is known ..
  89. Fang P, Yu M, Zhang L, Wan D, Shi M, Zhu Y, et al. Baicalin against obesity and insulin resistance through activation of AKT/AS160/GLUT4 pathway. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017;448:77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..that administration of baicalin decreased food intake, body weight, HOMA-IR and NT-PGC-1? levels, but enhanced GLUT4, PGC-1?, pP38MAPK, pAKT and pAS160 contents, as well as GLUT4 mRNA, PGC-1? mRNA, PPAR? mRNA, GLUT1 mRNA expression ..
  90. Whitfield J, Paglialunga S, Smith B, Miotto P, Simnett G, Robson H, et al. Ablating the protein TBC1D1 impairs contraction-induced sarcolemmal glucose transporter 4 redistribution but not insulin-mediated responses in rats. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:16653-16664 pubmed publisher
    ..ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase-mediated glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation. However, the role of TBC1D1 in contracting muscle remains ambiguous...
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    ..The gene encoding the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (designated GLUT4) was mapped to the p11----p13 region of the short arm of human chromosome 17 by analyzing its segregation in a ..
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    ..activity three- to fourfold, and a large part of this stimulation is associated with a net translocation of GLUT4 from an intracellular compartment to the cell surface...