GluR2

Summary

Gene Symbol: GluR2
Description: glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 2
Alias: GLUR2, GLURB, GluA2, GluR-K2, HBGR2, glutamate receptor 2, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 2, gluR-2, gluR-B, glutamate receptor B flip isoform, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2
Species: human
Products:     GluR2

Top Publications

  1. Mejias R, Adamczyk A, Anggono V, Niranjan T, Thomas G, Sharma K, et al. Gain-of-function glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 variants alter GluA2 recycling and surface distribution in patients with autism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:4920-5 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (GRIP1) is a neuronal scaffolding protein that interacts directly with the C termini of glutamate receptors 2/3 (GluA2/3) via its PDZ domains 4 to 6 (PDZ4-6). We found an association (P<0...
  2. Osten P, Srivastava S, Inman G, Vilim F, Khatri L, Lee L, et al. The AMPA receptor GluR2 C terminus can mediate a reversible, ATP-dependent interaction with NSF and alpha- and beta-SNAPs. Neuron. 1998;21:99-110 pubmed
    In this study, we demonstrate specific interaction of the GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunit C-terminal peptide with an ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha- and ..
  3. Srivastava S, Osten P, Vilim F, Khatri L, Inman G, States B, et al. Novel anchorage of GluR2/3 to the postsynaptic density by the AMPA receptor-binding protein ABP. Neuron. 1998;21:581-91 pubmed
    ..related to glutamate receptor-interacting protein (GRIP) with two sets of three PDZ domains, which binds the GluR2/3 AMPA receptor subunits. ABP exhibits widespread CNS expression and is found at the postsynaptic membrane...
  4. Xia J, Zhang X, Staudinger J, Huganir R. Clustering of AMPA receptors by the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1. Neuron. 1999;22:179-87 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PICK1 may play an important role in the modulation of synaptic transmission by regulating the synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors. ..
  5. Greger I, Khatri L, Ziff E. RNA editing at arg607 controls AMPA receptor exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Neuron. 2002;34:759-72 pubmed
    ..We show that the functionally critical GluR2 subunit stably resides in an intracellular pool in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
  6. Tsibris J, Maas S, Segars J, Nicosia S, Enkemann S, O Brien W, et al. New potential regulators of uterine leiomyomata from DNA arrays: the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;312:249-54 pubmed
    ..b>GluR2, a subunit of a ligand-gated cation channel, is up-regulated in leiomyomata relative to myometrium by 15- to 30-..
  7. Zou S, Li L, Pei L, Vukusic B, Van Tol H, Lee F, et al. Protein-protein coupling/uncoupling enables dopamine D2 receptor regulation of AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4385-95 pubmed
    ..factor (NSF) while uncoupling the NSF interaction with the carboxyl tail (CT) of the glutamate receptor GluR2 subunit of AMPA receptors...
  8. Soundarapandian M, Tu W, Peng P, Zervos A, Lu Y. AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 gates injurious signals in ischemic stroke. Mol Neurobiol. 2005;32:145-55 pubmed
    ..Circumstance data have indicated that the GluR2 subunits dictate Ca2+/Zn2+ permeability of AMPA receptor channels and gate injurious Ca2+/Zn2+ signals in ..
  9. Beretta F, Bassani S, Binda E, Verpelli C, Bello L, Galli R, et al. The GluR2 subunit inhibits proliferation by inactivating Src-MAPK signalling and induces apoptosis by means of caspase 3/6-dependent activation in glioma cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:25-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that GluR2 is absent in fast-growing GBM-derived tumour stem cells and high-grade glioma specimens, but is expressed in slow-..

More Information

Publications128 found, 100 shown here

  1. McIlwrath S, Westlund K. Pharmacological attenuation of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis induced hypersensitivity in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:836-53 pubmed publisher
    ..was attenuated with efficacy similar to morphine with single dose treatment of either metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 agonist APDC, or nociceptin, the endogenous ligand for opioid-receptor-like 1 receptor...
  2. Tiernan C, Ginsberg S, He B, Ward S, Guillozet Bongaarts A, Kanaan N, et al. Pretangle pathology within cholinergic nucleus basalis neurons coincides with neurotrophic and neurotransmitter receptor gene dysregulation during the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2018;117:125-136 pubmed publisher
    ..pS422+ neurons displayed a downregulation of transcripts encoding NMDA receptor subunit 2B, metabotropic glutamate receptor 2, D2 dopamine receptor, and β1 adrenoceptor...
  3. Sasaki S, Sasaki S, Yamashita T, Kwak S, Shin K. Autophagy in spinal motor neurons of conditional ADAR2-knockout mice: An implication for a role of calcium in increased autophagy flux in ALS. Neurosci Lett. 2015;598:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..an RNA editing enzyme called adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) is down-regulated and consequently GluA2 mRNAs unedited at the Q/R site is expressed in contrast to normal motor neurons that express only GluA2 edited at ..
  4. Wang H, Huang F, Hu Z, Zhang W, Qiao X, Huang Y, et al. Early-Life Social Isolation-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior in Rats Results in Microglial Activation and Neuronal Histone Methylation that Are Mitigated by Minocycline. Neurotox Res. 2017;31:505-520 pubmed publisher
    ..ESI also decreased expression of hippocampal NMDA receptor subunits, NR1, and AMPA receptor subunits, GluR1 and GluR2, which are involved in synaptic plasticity, but it did not affect expression of PSD95 and NR2B...
  5. Zanos P, Thompson S, Duman R, Zarate C, Gould T. Convergent Mechanisms Underlying Rapid Antidepressant Action. CNS Drugs. 2018;32:197-227 pubmed publisher
    ..e., GLYX-13 (rapastinel)], metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3) antagonists, GABAA receptor modulators, and drugs acting on various ..
  6. Nair B, Johar K, Priya A, Wong Riley M. Specificity protein 4 (Sp4) transcriptionally regulates inhibitory GABAergic receptors in neurons. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1863:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..They also indicate that Sp4 is in a position to transcriptionally regulate the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurochemical expressions in neurons. ..
  7. Fakira A, Gaspers L, Thomas A, Li H, Jain M, Elkabes S. Purkinje cell dysfunction and delayed death in plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2-heterozygous mice. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012;51:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..there was an age-dependent decrease in metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) and AMPA receptor subunit GluR2/3 transcript and protein levels at 8 weeks of age...
  8. Miyamoto Y, Iegaki N, Fu K, Ishikawa Y, Sumi K, Azuma S, et al. Striatal N-Acetylaspartate Synthetase Shati/Nat8l Regulates Depression-Like Behaviors via mGluR3-Mediated Serotonergic Suppression in Mice. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017;20:1027-1035 pubmed publisher
    ..These depression-like behaviors were attenuated by the administration of a metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 antagonist and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor...
  9. Ji Y, Hu B, Li J, Traub R. Opposing Roles of Estradiol and Testosterone on Stress-Induced Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats. J Pain. 2018;19:764-776 pubmed publisher
    ..glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 1 expression and decreased inhibitory metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 expression after FS in male thoracolumbar spinal cord...
  10. Yao G, Yue H, Yun Y, Sang N. Chronic SO2 inhalation above environmental standard impairs neuronal behavior and represses glutamate receptor gene expression and memory-related kinase activation via neuroinflammation in rats. Environ Res. 2015;137:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..abnormality, we detected that SO2 inhalation reduced the expression of Arc and glutamate receptor subunits (GluR1, GluR2, NR1, NR2A, and NR2B) with a concentration-dependent property in comparison to controls...
  11. Gulino R, Forte S, Parenti R, Gulisano M. TDP-43 as a Modulator of Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of Spinal Motoneuron Degeneration. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015;14:55-60 pubmed
    ..such as synapsin-I and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2 and GluR4 were measured by western blotting...
  12. Li Y, Xue Y, He Y, Li F, Xue L, Xu C, et al. Inhibition of PKMzeta in nucleus accumbens core abolishes long-term drug reward memory. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5436-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Accumbens core injections of Tat-GluR2(3Y), which inhibits GluR2-dependent AMPA receptor endocytosis, prevented the impairment in morphine CPP induced by ..
  13. Wang Q, Li X, Qi R, Billiar T. RNA Editing, ADAR1, and the Innate Immune Response. Genes (Basel). 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review critical findings from ADAR1 mechanistic studies focusing on its regulatory function in innate immune responses and identify some of the important unanswered questions in the field. ..
  14. Pawar H, Balivada S, Kenney M. Does acute heat stress differentially-modulate expression of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors in the RVLM of young and aged F344 rats?. Neurosci Lett. 2018;687:223-233 pubmed publisher
  15. Witkin J, Mitchell S, Wafford K, Carter G, Gilmour G, Li J, et al. Comparative Effects of LY3020371, a Potent and Selective Metabotropic Glutamate (mGlu) 2/3 Receptor Antagonist, and Ketamine, a Noncompetitive N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Antagonist in Rodents: Evidence Supporting the Use of mGlu2/3 Antagonists, fo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017;361:68-86 pubmed publisher
    ..LY3020371 and LY3027788 represent molecules that are ready for clinical tests of this hypothesis. ..
  16. Pati D, Kelly K, Stennett B, Frazier C, Knackstedt L. Alcohol consumption increases basal extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens core of Sprague-Dawley rats without increasing spontaneous glutamate release. Eur J Neurosci. 2016;44:1896-905 pubmed publisher
    ..No change in metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGlu2/3) function was detected as bath application of the mGlu2/3 agonist LY379268 decreased spontaneous ..
  17. Wu H, Yen H, Huang C, Lee Y, Wu S, Lee T, et al. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor enhances synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity in mouse prefrontal cortex. J Biomed Sci. 2015;22:94 pubmed publisher
    ..NR1, NR2A, NR2B; the α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2, and ERK phosphorylation. Inhibition of sEH induced an enhancement of PFC neuronal synaptic neurotransmission...
  18. Du J, Wei Y, Liu L, Wang Y, Khairova R, Blumenthal R, et al. A kinesin signaling complex mediates the ability of GSK-3beta to affect mood-associated behaviors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11573-8 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitor AR-A014418 regulated alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA)-induced GluR1 and GluR2 internalization via phosphorylation of kinesin light chain 2 (KLC2), the key molecule of the kinesin cargo ..
  19. Dean B, Snelling S, Dakin S, Murphy R, Javaid M, Carr A. Differences in glutamate receptors and inflammatory cell numbers are associated with the resolution of pain in human rotator cuff tendinopathy. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:176 pubmed publisher
    ..Tendon samples from patients with persistent pain demonstrated increased levels of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2), kainate receptor 1 (KA1), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9...
  20. Zuckerman C, Blumkin E, Melamed O, Golan H. Glutamatergic synapse protein composition of wild-type mice is sensitive to in utero MTHFR genotype and the timing of neonatal vigabatrin exposure. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25:1787-802 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that in utero MTHFR deficiency is sufficient to alter the levels of glutamate receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2, and NR2B in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adult offspring with a WT genotype...
  21. Bhattacharya D, Dunaway E, Bhattacharya S, Bloemer J, Buabeid M, Escobar M, et al. Impaired ILK Function Is Associated with Deficits in Hippocampal Based Memory and Synaptic Plasticity in a FASD Rat Model. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0135700 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased synaptic expression of GluR2 AMPA receptors was observed with immunoprecipitation of post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95)...
  22. Nambirajan G, Karunanidhi K, Ganesan A, Rajendran R, Kandasamy R, Elangovan A, et al. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of bud and flower of Avaram Senna (Cassia auriculata L.) In high fat diet and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;108:1495-1506 pubmed publisher
    ..C. auriculata L. bud extract can potentially better control the diabetes compared to the flower extract. ..
  23. Pedraza N, Ortiz R, Cornadó A, Llobet A, Aldea M, Gallego C. KIS, a kinase associated with microtubule regulators, enhances translation of AMPA receptors and stimulates dendritic spine remodeling. J Neurosci. 2014;34:13988-97 pubmed publisher
    ..decrease of protein levels of PSD-95, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, and the AMPAR subunits GluR1 and GluR2 in a CPEB3-dependent manner...
  24. Kiese K, Jablonski J, Hackenbracht J, Wrosch J, Groemer T, Kornhuber J, et al. Epigenetic control of epilepsy target genes contributes to a cellular memory of epileptogenesis in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2017;5:79 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the concept of a cellular memory of epileptogenesis and persisting epigenetic modifications of epilepsy target genes, which are able to turn normal into pro-epileptic neurons and circuits. ..
  25. Herzog R, Zendedel A, Lammerding L, Beyer C, Slowik A. Impact of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on inflammatory and apoptotic microRNA expression after ischemia in a rat model. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;167:126-134 pubmed publisher
    ..Thereby, E2 and P indirectly control pro-apoptotic and -inflammatory gene translation and provide a mechanism to dampen explosive tissue damage. ..
  26. Abedi Z, Khaza Ai H, Vidyadaran S, Mutalib M. The Modulation of NMDA and AMPA/Kainate Receptors by Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction and ?-Tocopherol in Glutamate-Induced Injury of Primary Astrocytes. Biomedicines. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ?-TCP showed better recovery and prophylactic effects as compared to TRF in the pre-treatment of glutamate-injured primary astrocytes. ..
  27. Wang X, Zhong X, Li Z, Wang H, Zhang J, Li F, et al. Differential roles of hippocampal glutamatergic receptors in neuropathic anxiety-like behavior after partial sciatic nerve ligation in rats. BMC Neurosci. 2015;16:14 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subtypes NR1 and NR2B, but not NR2A, GluR1, or GluR2 (the main subtype of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid [AMPA] receptor) in the ..
  28. Nakaya N, Sultana A, Munasinghe J, Cheng A, Mattson M, Tomarev S. Deletion in the N-terminal half of olfactomedin 1 modifies its interaction with synaptic proteins and causes brain dystrophy and abnormal behavior in mice. Exp Neurol. 2013;250:205-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Olfm1-binding targets included GluR2, Cav2.1, teneurin-4 and Kidins220...
  29. Liu T, Cheng Y, Qin X, Yu L. Pharmacologically inhibiting GluR2 internalization alleviates neuropathic pain. Neurosci Bull. 2015;31:611-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used the short peptide GluA2-3y, which specifically inhibits the GluA2-dependent endocytosis of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-..
  30. Ma X, Zhang F, Wang Y, He C, Tian K, Wang H, et al. Genistein inhibition of OGD-induced brain neuron death correlates with its modulation of apoptosis, voltage-gated potassium and sodium currents and glutamate signal pathway. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;254:73-82 pubmed publisher
    ..and current amplitude values of voltage-activated potassium and sodium currents; OGD exposure also decreased GluR2 expression and increased NR2 expression. However, genistein at least partially reversed the effects caused by OGD...
  31. Wang X, Zhu T, Wan Z, Zhu X. [Association between glutamate receptor 2 polymorphisms and epilepsy in children]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2016;18:492-5 pubmed
    ..the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs9390754 and rs4840200, in the glutamate receptor 2 (GRIK2) gene and the genetic susceptibility to epilepsy (EP) in the Han population in Central China...
  32. Wenthold R, Trumpy V, Zhu W, Petralia R. Biochemical and assembly properties of GluR6 and KA2, two members of the kainate receptor family, determined with subunit-specific antibodies. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:1332-9 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, GluR1 and GluR2, subunits of the AMPA receptor, also co-immunoprecipitated with GluR6 in cells co-transfected with GluR6 and GluR1 ..
  33. Chung H, Xia J, Scannevin R, Zhang X, Huganir R. Phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 differentially regulates its interaction with PDZ domain-containing proteins. J Neurosci. 2000;20:7258-67 pubmed
    ..Here we show that PKC phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit differentially modulates its interaction with the PDZ domain-containing proteins GRIP1 and PICK1...
  34. Lin X, Zhang J, Yu L. GluR2-3Y Inhibits the Acquisition and Reinstatement of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Rats. Neurosci Bull. 2016;32:177-82 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of AMPARs containing the GluR2 subunit in opiate addiction is still unclear...
  35. Luo W, Ma R, Cheng X, Yang X, Han Z, Ren D, et al. Afferent synaptogenesis between ectopic hair-cell-like cells and neurites of spiral ganglion induced by Atoh1 in mammals in vitro. Neuroscience. 2017;357:185-196 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the expression of glutamate receptor type 2 (GluR2) could not be detected in the terminals of branches of SGNs surrounding EHCLCs...
  36. Zhu F, Wu Q, Li J, Grycel K, Liu B, Sun X, et al. A single dose of cocaine potentiates glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto locus coeruleus neurons. Cell Calcium. 2017;67:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..currents (EPSCs) of cocaine-pretreated mice showed a marked inward rectification, demonstrating the insertion of GluR2-lacking AMPARs to plasma membrane...
  37. Shishkina T, Mishchenko T, Mitroshina E, Shirokova O, Pimashkin A, Kastalskiy I, et al. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) counteracts hypoxic damage to hippocampal neural network function in vitro. Brain Res. 2018;1678:310-321 pubmed publisher
    ..Intravital mRNA detection identified fewer GluR2 mRNA-positive cells, whereas GDNF preserved the number of these cells in the post-hypoxic period...
  38. Wang S, Ko S, Kim Y, Jo S, Lee S, Jung S, et al. Capsaicin upregulates HDAC2 via TRPV1 and impairs neuronal maturation in mice. Exp Mol Med. 2018;50:e455 pubmed publisher
    ..of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the mouse hippocampus and HDAC2 was enriched at Psd95, synaptophysin, GLUR1, GLUR2 promoters...
  39. Möykkynen T, Coleman S, Semenov A, Keinanen K. The N-terminal domain modulates ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor desensitization. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:13197-205 pubmed publisher
  40. Deng Z, Zhao M, Liu H, Wang Y, Li D. Molecular cloning, expression profiles and characterization of a glutathione reductase in Hevea brasiliensis. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2015;96:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a new GR gene, named as HbGR2, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis...
  41. Stamboulian Platel S, Legendre A, Chabrol T, Platel J, Pernot F, Duveau V, et al. Activation of GABAA receptors controls mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy despite changes in chloride transporters expression: In vivo and in silico approach. Exp Neurol. 2016;284:11-28 pubmed publisher
    ..of R1 and R2 GABAB receptor subunits but also NR1, NR2A and NR2B NMDA receptor subunits and GluR1 and GluR2 AMPA receptor subunits were decreased...
  42. Yin H, Wang W, Yu W, Li J, Feng N, Wang L, et al. Changes in Synaptic Plasticity and Glutamate Receptors in Type 2 Diabetic KK-Ay Mice. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;57:1207-1220 pubmed publisher
    ..the GluR1 of ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) was decreased, and GluR2 was significantly increased...
  43. Osten P, Khatri L, Perez J, Kohr G, Giese G, Daly C, et al. Mutagenesis reveals a role for ABP/GRIP binding to GluR2 in synaptic surface accumulation of the AMPA receptor. Neuron. 2000;27:313-25 pubmed
    We studied the role of PDZ proteins GRIP, ABP, and PICK1 in GluR2 AMPA receptor trafficking. An epitope-tagged MycGluR2 subunit, when expressed in hippocampal cultured neurons, was specifically targeted to the synaptic surface...
  44. Tsutiya A, Nishihara M, Goshima Y, Ohtani Kaneko R. Mouse pups lacking collapsin response mediator protein 4 manifest impaired olfactory function and hyperactivity in the olfactory bulb. Eur J Neurosci. 2015;42:2335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) and 2 (GluR2) were exaggerated in Crmp4-KO pups relative to other excitatory and inhibitory receptors and transporters, raising ..
  45. Pandey S, Singh H, Prasad S. Alterations in Hippocampal Oxidative Stress, Expression of AMPA Receptor GluR2 Subunit and Associated Spatial Memory Loss by Bacopa monnieri Extract (CDRI-08) in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0131862 pubmed publisher
    ..mice and this is correlated with a significant decline in oxidative stress and up regulation of the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit gene expression in the hippocampus...
  46. Ahnaou A, de Boer P, Lavreysen H, Huysmans H, Sinha V, Raeymaekers L, et al. Translational neurophysiological markers for activity of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) modulator JNJ-40411813: Sleep EEG correlates in rodents and healthy men. Neuropharmacology. 2016;103:290-305 pubmed publisher
    ..sleep (REM) have been suggested as valid translational efficacy markers: activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) was shown to increase REM latency and to decrease REM duration...
  47. Yang K, Jiang X, Su Q, Wang J, Li C, Xia Y, et al. Disruption of glutamate neurotransmitter transmission is modulated by SNAP-25 in benzo[a]pyrene-induced neurotoxic effects. Toxicology. 2017;384:11-22 pubmed publisher
    ..neurotransmitter transmission by decreasing the level of Glu, reducing the expression of Glu receptors (GluR1 and GluR2), enhancing the level of SNAP-25, widening the synaptic cleft, and ultimately producing the neurotoxic effects in ..
  48. O Connor J, Hemby S. Elevated GRIA1 mRNA expression in Layer II/III and V pyramidal cells of the DLPFC in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2007;97:277-88 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that increased GRIA1 subunit expression may contribute to schizophrenia pathology. ..
  49. Zhao W, Santini F, Breese R, Ross D, Zhang X, Stone D, et al. Inhibition of calcineurin-mediated endocytosis and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors prevents amyloid beta oligomer-induced synaptic disruption. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7619-32 pubmed publisher
    ..spines that express surface AMPA receptors, particularly the calcium-impermeable type II AMPA receptor subunit (GluR2)...
  50. Zhang H, Yang X, Qin X, Niu Q. Caspase-3 is Involved in Aluminum-Induced Impairment of Long-Term Potentiation in Rats Through the Akt/GSK-3β Pathway. Neurotox Res. 2016;29:484-94 pubmed publisher
    ..that Al treatment produces a dose-dependent suppression of LTP and decreases in the AMPAR subunits GluR1 and GluR2, in both membrane and total cell extracts...
  51. Gómez Chacón B, Gámiz F, Foster T, Gallo M. Increased N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Expression in Amygdala and Perirhinal Cortex during Habituation of Taste Neophobia. Neural Plast. 2016;2016:2726745 pubmed publisher
    Interactions between GluR2 and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) mediate AMPA receptors trafficking. This might be linked with molecular mechanisms related with memory formation...
  52. Ishida K, Aoki K, Takishita T, Miyara M, Sakamoto S, Sanoh S, et al. Low-Concentration Tributyltin Decreases GluR2 Expression via Nuclear Respiratory Factor-1 Inhibition. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..TBT decreases α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) expression in cortical neurons and enhances neuronal vulnerability to glutamate...
  53. Krampfl K, Schlesinger F, Zörner A, Kappler M, Dengler R, Bufler J. Control of kinetic properties of GluR2 flop AMPA-type channels: impact of R/G nuclear editing. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;15:51-62 pubmed
    The GluR2 flop subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors greatly determines calcium permeability and kinetic properties of heteromeric AMPA subunit assemblies...
  54. Dutta P, O Connell K, Ozkan S, Sailer A, Dev K. The protein interacting with C-kinase (PICK1) interacts with and attenuates parkin-associated endothelial-like (PAEL) receptor-mediated cell death. J Neurochem. 2014;130:360-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a role for PICK1 in preventing PAELR-induced cell toxicity. ..
  55. Rocher A, Gubellini P, Merienne N, Boussicault L, Petit F, Gipchtein P, et al. Synaptic scaling up in medium spiny neurons of aged BACHD mice: A slow-progression model of Huntington's disease. Neurobiol Dis. 2016;86:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These homeostatic mechanisms may compensate for the substantial loss of synaptic inputs and thus alleviate the deleterious effects of mHTT expression on the activity of MSNs and also possibly on the motor phenotype in aged BACHD. ..
  56. Yu X, Xu T, Ou S, Yuan J, Deng J, Li R, et al. Endophilin A1 mediates seizure activity via regulation of AMPARs in a PTZ-kindled epileptic mouse model. Exp Neurol. 2018;304:41-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, western blotting analysis showed that the surface expression of the AMPAR GluR2 subunit was also decreased after endophilin A1 knockdown, and co-immunoprecipitation indicated an association ..
  57. Rafalo Ulinska A, Piotrowska J, Kryczyk A, Opoka W, Sowa Kucma M, Misztak P, et al. Zinc transporters protein level in postmortem brain of depressed subjects and suicide victims. J Psychiatr Res. 2016;83:220-229 pubmed publisher
    ..There was also a significant decrease in the protein level of GluA1, GluN2A, PSD-95 and 5-HT1A in MDD. Our studies suggest that alterations in Zn transport proteins are associated with the pathophysiology of MDD and suicide. ..
  58. Ganai A, Husain M. Genistein Alleviates Neuroinflammation and Restores Cognitive Function in Rat Model of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Underlying Mechanisms. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:1762-1772 pubmed publisher
    ..IL)-10, IL-4, IL-1β and TNF-α) and membrane expression of subunits α1 of GABAA receptor and GluR2 of AMPA marked significant increase, while subunits GluR1 of AMPA receptors showed reduced expression in D-GalN-..
  59. Zhou Z, Yang Q, Tang Q, Yang J, Guo R, Jiang W. Effect of willed movement training on neurorehabilitation after focal cerebral ischemia and on the neural plasticity-associated signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..kinase (ERK)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element?binding protein 1 (CREB) pathway and glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2)/glutamate receptor interacting protein 1?associated protein 1 (GRASP?1)/protein interacting with C?..
  60. Lu W, Ziff E. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking. Neuron. 2005;47:407-21 pubmed
    PICK1 and ABP/GRIP bind to the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluR2 subunit C terminus. Transfer of the receptor from ABP/GRIP to PICK1, facilitated by GluR2 S880 phosphorylation, may initiate receptor trafficking...
  61. Whitney N, Peng H, Erdmann N, Tian C, Monaghan D, Zheng J. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors containing Q/R-unedited GluR2 direct human neural progenitor cell differentiation to neurons. FASEB J. 2008;22:2888-900 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA editing of the GluR2 subunit at the Q/R site is responsible for making most AMPA receptors impermeable to calcium...
  62. Counts S, Che S, Ginsberg S, Mufson E. Gender differences in neurotrophin and glutamate receptor expression in cholinergic nucleus basalis neurons during the progression of Alzheimer's disease. J Chem Neuroanat. 2011;42:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we found a female-selective reduction in GluR2 AMPA glutamate receptor subunit expression in NB neurons in AD...
  63. Ma Y, Sun X, Li J, Jia R, Yuan F, Wei D, et al. Melatonin Alleviates the Epilepsy-Associated Impairments in Hippocampal LTP and Spatial Learning Through Rescue of Surface GluR2 Expression at Hippocampal CA1 Synapses. Neurochem Res. 2017;42:1438-1448 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that melatonin rescued the decreased surface levels of GluR2 in the CA1 region observed in epilepsy, which might be the underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective and synapse-..
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    We previously reported that co-expression of the Gi-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu2R) and the Gq-coupled serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor (2AR) in Xenopus oocytes (Fribourg et al...
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    ..those not recovering (P < 0.005). Phrenic motoneuron AMPA glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit mRNA expression decreased after SH, and, albeit increased in animals displaying recovery vs...
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    ..Multiple novel loci merit further examination for association with lithium response in bipolar disorder patients, including one region that spans the GRIA2 gene, for which expression has been shown to be regulated by lithium treatment. ..
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    ..Mice exposed to SDS for 4 consecutive days had markedly decreased membrane-bound GluR1 and GluR2 in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and membrane-bound GluR1 in the ventral midbrain (VM) along with lower sucrose ..
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    ..of a previously unrecognized molecular pathway involving a direct protein-protein interaction that underlies GluR2-containing AMPAR-mediated excitotoxicity...
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    ..In the rodent hippocampus, gluR1 and gluR2 isoforms are differentially expressed. We have studied their distribution in human hippocampus...
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    ..Our results serve to emphasize the central role of neuronal Na+ loading in AMPA-GluR-mediated excitotoxicity in human neurons. ..
  74. Van Damme P, van den Bosch L, Van Houtte E, Callewaert G, Robberecht W. GluR2-dependent properties of AMPA receptors determine the selective vulnerability of motor neurons to excitotoxicity. J Neurophysiol. 2002;88:1279-87 pubmed
    ..Because the absence of GluR2 in AMPA receptors renders them highly permeable to Ca(2+) ions, it has been hypothesized that the selective ..
  75. Kohda K, Kamiya Y, Matsuda S, Kato K, Umemori H, Yuzaki M. Heteromer formation of delta2 glutamate receptors with AMPA or kainate receptors. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;110:27-37 pubmed
    ..receptors were partially co-immunoprecipitated from cerebellar synaptosomal fractions by antibodies against GluR2 or KA2...
  76. Laverghetta A, Toledo C, Veenman C, Yamamoto K, Wang H, Reiner A. Cellular localization of AMPA type glutamate receptor subunits in the basal ganglia of pigeons (Columba livia). Brain Behav Evol. 2006;67:10-38 pubmed
    ..Single-label studies showed that the striatal neuropil is rich in GluR1, GluR2, and GluR2/3 immunolabeling, suggesting the localization of GluR1, GluR2 and/or GluR3 to the dendrites and spines ..
  77. Fukata Y, Adesnik H, Iwanaga T, Bredt D, Nicoll R, Fukata M. Epilepsy-related ligand/receptor complex LGI1 and ADAM22 regulate synaptic transmission. Science. 2006;313:1792-5 pubmed
    ..The mutated form of LGI1 fails to bind to ADAM22. ADAM22 is anchored to the postsynaptic density by cytoskeletal scaffolds containing stargazin. These studies in rat brain indicate possible avenues for understanding human epilepsy. ..
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    ..These findings support a model where p62 interaction and aPKC phosphorylation act together to mediate AMPA receptor trafficking and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. ..
  79. Bogaert E, Goris A, Van Damme P, Geelen V, Lemmens R, van Es M, et al. Polymorphisms in the GluR2 gene are not associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:418-20 pubmed publisher
    ..propionic acid (AMPA)-type of glutamate receptors and Ca(2+) permeability is determined by the GluR2 subunit. We investigated whether polymorphisms or mutations in the GluR2 gene (GRIA2) predispose patients to ALS...
  80. Ripley B, Otto S, Tiglio K, Williams M, Ghosh A. Regulation of synaptic stability by AMPA receptor reverse signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:367-72 pubmed publisher
    ..current and instead relies on structural interactions mediated by the N-terminal domain of the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit...
  81. Gasparini C, Sutherland H, Haupt L, Griffiths L. Genetic analysis of GRIA2 and GRIA4 genes in migraine. Headache. 2014;54:303-12 pubmed publisher
  82. Khariv V, Ni L, Ratnayake A, Sampath S, Lutz B, Tao X, et al. Impaired sensitivity to pain stimuli in plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 (PMCA2) heterozygous mice: a possible modality- and sex-specific role for PMCA2 in nociception. FASEB J. 2017;31:224-237 pubmed publisher
    ..GABABR1, and GABABR2 levels, whereas metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, NMDA receptor 2B, GluR2, and GABAARα2 levels were not altered...
  83. Wang Y, Tian K, He C, Ma X, Zhang F, Wang H, et al. Genistein inhibits hypoxia, ischemic-induced death, and apoptosis in PC12 cells. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;50:227-233 pubmed publisher
    ..OGD-induced neuronal death, apoptosis, glutamate receptor subunit GluR2 expression, and potassium channel currents were evaluated in the present study to determine the effects of ..
  84. Mellis I, Gupte R, Raj A, Rouhanifard S. Visualizing adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in single mammalian cells. Nat Methods. 2017;14:801-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, NUP43 exhibits constant editing levels between single cells, while GRIA2 editing levels vary...
  85. Nakaya N, Sultana A, Tomarev S. Impaired AMPA receptor trafficking by a double knockout of zebrafish olfactomedin1a/b. J Neurochem. 2017;143:635-644 pubmed publisher
    ..Olfm1 co-immunoprecipitated with GluR2 and soluble NSF attachment protein receptor complexes indicating participation of Olfm1 in both pre- and post-..
  86. Higuchi M, Single F, Kohler M, Sommer B, Sprengel R, Seeburg P. RNA editing of AMPA receptor subunit GluR-B: a base-paired intron-exon structure determines position and efficiency. Cell. 1993;75:1361-70 pubmed
    ..Base conversion in the channel-coding region of GluR-B directed by base paired sequences may be executed by a ubiquitous nuclear adenosine deaminase specific for double-stranded RNA. ..
  87. Aruscavage P, Bass B. A phylogenetic analysis reveals an unusual sequence conservation within introns involved in RNA editing. RNA. 2000;6:257-69 pubmed
    ..The approximately 600-nt intron 13 of gluR-C was particularly remarkable, showing >94% nucleotide identity between human and chicken, organisms estimated to have diverged 310 million years ago. ..
  88. Lei S, MacDonald J. Gadolinium reduces AMPA receptor desensitization and deactivation in hippocampal neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2001;86:173-82 pubmed
    ..The Gd(3+)-induced reduction in desensitization did not require the presence of the GluR2 subunit as this effect was seen in hippocampal neurons from GluR2 null-mutant mice...
  89. Kott S, Werner M, Körber C, Hollmann M. Electrophysiological properties of AMPA receptors are differentially modulated depending on the associated member of the TARP family. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3780-9 pubmed
    ..b>GluR2 is further modified at the so-called Q/R site by posttranscriptional RNA editing...
  90. Marek G, Behl B, Bespalov A, Gross G, Lee Y, Schoemaker H. Glutamatergic (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) hypofrontality in schizophrenia: too little juice or a miswired brain?. Mol Pharmacol. 2010;77:317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The hope is that by modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission, the dysfunctional circuitry of the schizophrenic brain (both local circuits and long-loop pathways) will be improved. ..
  91. Ward S, Harries M, Aldegheri L, Andreotti D, Ballantine S, Bax B, et al. Discovery of N-[(2S)-5-(6-fluoro-3-pyridinyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl]-2-propanesulfonamide, a novel clinical AMPA receptor positive modulator. J Med Chem. 2010;53:5801-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These discoveries led to 17i, a potent, efficacious CNS penetrant molecule with an excellent pharmacokinetic profile across preclinical species, which is well tolerated and is also orally bioavailable in humans. ..
  92. Choi C, Choi J, Park Y, Lee Y, Song S, Sung C, et al. Identification of differentially expressed genes according to chemosensitivity in advanced ovarian serous adenocarcinomas: expression of GRIA2 predicts better survival. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:91-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrated that the expression of GRIA2 among the differentially expressed genes provides better prognosis of patients with advanced serous papillary ovarian adenocarcinoma. ..