glucocorticoid receptor

Summary

Gene Symbol: glucocorticoid receptor
Description: nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1
Alias: GCCR, GCR, GCRST, GRL, glucocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid nuclear receptor variant 1, nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor)
Species: human
Products:     glucocorticoid receptor

Top Publications

  1. Trementino L, Appolloni G, Concettoni C, Cardinaletti M, Boscaro M, Arnaldi G. Association of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism A3669G with decreased risk of developing diabetes in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012;166:35-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) polymorphisms alter glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity and have been associated with altered metabolic profiles...
  2. Otte C, Wüst S, Zhao S, Pawlikowska L, Kwok P, Whooley M. Glucocorticoid receptor gene and depression in patients with coronary heart disease: the Heart and Soul Study-2009 Curt Richter Award Winner. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34:1574-81 pubmed publisher
    Alterations of glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity have been associated with depression. Thus, variation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene that determines glucocorticoid sensitivity may influence risk for depression...
  3. Blackford J, Guo C, Zhu R, Dougherty E, Chow C, Simons S. Identification of location and kinetically defined mechanism of cofactors and reporter genes in the cascade of steroid-regulated transactivation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40982-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These questions are addressed for several factors (e.g. glucocorticoid receptor (GR), reporter, TIF2, NCoR, NELF-A, sSMRT, and STAMP) using our recently developed competition assay...
  4. Moreira R, Gomes L, Mendonca B, Bachega T. Impact of glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms on the metabolic profile of adult patients with the classical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44893 pubmed publisher
    ..In the general population, glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) polymorphisms are associated with an adverse metabolic profile...
  5. Melcescu E, Griswold M, Xiang L, Belk S, Montgomery D, Bray M, et al. Prevalence and cardiometabolic associations of the glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms N363S and BclI in obese and non-obese black and white Mississippians. Hormones (Athens). 2012;11:166-77 pubmed
    Polymorphisms (SNP) in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene can alter sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Previous studies of the N363S and BclI SNP in the GR gene have shown a metabolic syndrome phenotype in mostly non-African populations...
  6. Casey L, Wen X, de Noronha C. The functions of the HIV1 protein Vpr and its action through the DCAF1.DDB1.Cullin4 ubiquitin ligase. Cytokine. 2010;51:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss the multiple functions that have been linked to Vpr expression and summarize the current knowledge on the role of the ubiquitin ligase complex in carrying out a subset of these activities. ..
  7. McGowan P, Sasaki A, D Alessio A, Dymov S, Labonte B, Szyf M, et al. Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:342-8 pubmed publisher
    ..influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in the rat through epigenetic programming of glucocorticoid receptor expression. In humans, childhood abuse alters HPA stress responses and increases the risk of suicide...
  8. Szappanos A, Patocs A, Toke J, Boyle B, Sereg M, Majnik J, et al. BclI polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene is associated with decreased bone mineral density in patients with endogenous hypercortisolism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009;71:636-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the impact of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene polymorphisms, including the BclI, N363S, ER22/23EK and A3669G variants on bone turnover and/or ..
  9. Ronacher K, Hadley K, Avenant C, Stubsrud E, Simons S, Louw A, et al. Ligand-selective transactivation and transrepression via the glucocorticoid receptor: role of cofactor interaction. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;299:219-31 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms that determine ligand-selective transcriptional responses by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) are not fully understood...

More Information

Publications65

  1. Chung C, Shimmin L, Natarajan S, Hanis C, Boerwinkle E, Hixson J. Glucocorticoid receptor gene variant in the 3' untranslated region is associated with multiple measures of blood pressure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:268-76 pubmed publisher
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a key hormone in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis that regulates many pathways including blood pressure homeostasis...
  2. Sinclair D, Fullerton J, Webster M, Shannon Weickert C. Glucocorticoid receptor 1B and 1C mRNA transcript alterations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and their possible regulation by GR gene variants. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31720 pubmed publisher
    ..Altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA and protein expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in psychiatric illness ..
  3. Valkenburg O, Uitterlinden A, Themmen A, de Jong F, Hofman A, Fauser B, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor may affect the phenotype of women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:2902-11 pubmed publisher
    ..dehydogenase (H6PD)] and in genes for signal transduction proteins [estrogen receptor (ESR1 and ESR2) and glucocorticoid receptor (GCR)]. Genotype-frequencies were similar in PCOS cases and population-based controls...
  4. Panek M, Pietras T, Kuprys Lipinska I, Górski P, Kuna P, Szemraj J. [The analysis of the factors influencing the development of glucocorticoid resistance in the etiopathogenesis of severe bronchial asthma]. Postepy Biochem. 2010;56:373-82 pubmed
    ..factors determining the progress of the glucocorticoid resistance in the severe bronchial asthma with special acknowledgement of the influence of polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor gene h-GCR/NR3C1 to formation GCS resistance.
  5. Hanna C, Bretherick K, Liu C, Stephenson M, Robinson W. Genetic variation within the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis in women with recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2664-71 pubmed publisher
    ..03), and allele distributions at an SNP (rs41423247) in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (P = 0.04) and an STR polymorphism in the estrogen receptor ? gene (P = 0...
  6. Labonte B, Yerko V, Gross J, Mechawar N, Meaney M, Szyf M, et al. Differential glucocorticoid receptor exon 1(B), 1(C), and 1(H) expression and methylation in suicide completers with a history of childhood abuse. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;72:41-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation regulates HPA activity, and human GR expression (hGR) is reduced in the hippocampus of ..
  7. van West D, Del Favero J, Deboutte D, Van Broeckhoven C, Claes S. Associations between common arginine vasopressin 1b receptor and glucocorticoid receptor gene variants and HPA axis responses to psychosocial stress in a child psychiatric population. Psychiatry Res. 2010;179:64-8 pubmed publisher
    ..present exploratory investigation, 106 prepubertal children were studied to estimate the impact of four glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) polymorphisms (NR3C1-1 [rs10482605], ER22/23EK [rs6190], N363S [rs6195], N766N [rs6196]) and ..
  8. Sinclair D, Tsai S, Woon H, Weickert C. Abnormal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and protein isoform expression in the prefrontal cortex in psychiatric illness. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011;36:2698-709 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and protein expression of multiple GR? isoforms, in the ..
  9. Charmandari E. Primary generalized glucocorticoid resistance and hypersensitivity. Horm Res Paediatr. 2011;76:145-55 pubmed publisher
    The human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular, ligand-dependent transcription factor, which mediates the action of glucocorticoids and influences physiological functions essential for life...
  10. Garza A, Khan S, Kumar R. Site-specific phosphorylation induces functionally active conformation in the intrinsically disordered N-terminal activation function (AF1) domain of the glucocorticoid receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:220-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that AF1, an ID activation domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), adopts a functionally folded conformation due to its site-specific phosphorylation by p38 mitogen-..
  11. Nicolaides N, Roberts M, Kino T, Braatvedt G, Hurt D, Katsantoni E, et al. A novel point mutation of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene causes primary generalized glucocorticoid resistance through impaired interaction with the LXXLL motif of the p160 coactivators: dissociation of the transactivating and transreppressive. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:E902-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular basis of the condition has been ascribed to inactivating mutations in the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) gene...
  12. Ramamoorthy S, Cidlowski J. Ligand-induced repression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene is mediated by an NCoR1 repression complex formed by long-range chromatin interactions with intragenic glucocorticoid response elements. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1711-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the cellular level of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a critical determinant of glucocorticoid sensitivity and resistance, we investigated the ..
  13. Roberts M, Kino T, Nicolaides N, Hurt D, Katsantoni E, Sertedaki A, et al. A novel point mutation in the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of the human glucocorticoid receptor causes primary generalized glucocorticoid resistance by disrupting the hydrophobic structure of its DBD. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:E790-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The condition has been associated with inactivating mutations in the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) gene, which impair the molecular mechanisms of hGR? action, thereby reducing tissue sensitivity to ..
  14. Gerzenstein S, Pletcher M, Cervino A, Tsinoremas N, Young B, Puliafito C, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms and intraocular pressure response to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide. Ophthalmic Genet. 2008;29:166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a pharmacogenomic association study with glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms...
  15. Meijsing S, Pufall M, So A, Bates D, Chen L, Yamamoto K. DNA binding site sequence directs glucocorticoid receptor structure and activity. Science. 2009;324:407-10 pubmed publisher
    ..How genes are modulated so precisely is not well understood. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates target genes by associating with specific DNA binding sites, the sequences of which differ ..
  16. Duan Z, Gu W, Du D, Hu P, Jiang D, Zhu P, et al. Distributions of glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms in a Chinese Han population and associations with outcome after major trauma. Injury. 2009;40:479-83 pubmed publisher
    To investigate in a Chinese population the occurrence of polymorphisms Bcl I, N363S and ER22/23EK in the glucocorticoid receptor and their association with outcome of trauma...
  17. Ramamoorthy S, Cidlowski J. Exploring the molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor action from sensitivity to resistance. Endocr Dev. 2013;24:41-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucocorticoid action is predominantly mediated through the classic glucocorticoid receptor (GR), but sensitivity to glucocorticoids varies among individuals, and even within different tissues from ..
  18. Niu N, Manickam V, Kalari K, Moon I, Pelleymounter L, Eckloff B, et al. Human glucocorticoid receptor alpha gene (NR3C1) pharmacogenomics: gene resequencing and functional genomics. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:3072-84 pubmed publisher
    The human glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRalpha) is a nuclear hormone receptor that regulates multiple physiological and pathophysiological processes...
  19. Vilasco M, Communal L, Hugon Rodin J, Penault Llorca F, Mourra N, Wu Z, et al. Loss of glucocorticoid receptor activation is a hallmark of BRCA1-mutated breast tissue. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;142:283-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between BRCA1 and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling pathway was studied in normal breast tissues and triple-negative breast cancers from BRCA1 ..
  20. Bender I, Cao Y, Lu N. Determinants of the heightened activity of glucocorticoid receptor translational isoforms. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:1577-87 pubmed publisher
    Translational isoforms of the glucocorticoid receptor ? (GR-A, -B, -C1, -C2, -C3, -D1, -D2, and -D3) have distinct tissue distribution patterns and unique gene targets...
  21. Robblee J, Miura M, Bain D. Glucocorticoid receptor-promoter interactions: energetic dissection suggests a framework for the specificity of steroid receptor-mediated gene regulation. Biochemistry. 2012;51:4463-72 pubmed
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a member of the steroid receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors...
  22. Kogan M, Rappaport J. HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr: relevance in the pathogenesis of HIV and potential for therapeutic intervention. Retrovirology. 2011;8:25 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the pivotal functions of Vpr in virus infection, replication, and persistence of infection, this protein represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  23. Cao Lei L, Leija S, Kumsta R, Wüst S, Meyer J, Turner J, et al. Transcriptional control of the human glucocorticoid receptor: identification and analysis of alternative promoter regions. Hum Genet. 2011;129:533-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Glucocorticoid receptor levels are thought to be controlled by multiple alternative first exons. Seven of these exons are located in an upstream CpG island...
  24. Ross I, Levitt N, van der Merwe L, Schatz D, Johannsson G, Dandara C, et al. Investigation of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms in relation to metabolic parameters in Addison's disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2013;168:403-12 pubmed publisher
    Uncertainty exists whether glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) polymorphisms play a role in steroid-related side effects in Addison's disease (AD) patients on hydrocortisone...
  25. Morelli V, Donadio F, Eller Vainicher C, Cirello V, Olgiati L, Savoca C, et al. Role of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism in adrenal incidentalomas. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010;40:803-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The N363S and BclI polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) have been associated with an increased sensitivity to glucocorticoid (GC)...
  26. Hapgood J, Tomasicchio M. Modulation of HIV-1 virulence via the host glucocorticoid receptor: towards further understanding the molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 pathogenesis. Arch Virol. 2010;155:1009-19 pubmed publisher
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a steroid receptor that regulates diverse functions, which include the immune response. In humans, the GR acts via binding to cortisol, resulting in the transcriptional modulation of key host genes...
  27. Anacker C, Zunszain P, Carvalho L, Pariante C. The glucocorticoid receptor: pivot of depression and of antidepressant treatment?. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011;36:415-25 pubmed publisher
    ..of the HPA axis, possibly caused by altered function of the receptor for glucocorticoid hormones, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
  28. Van Den Akker E, Koper J, Joosten K, de Jong F, Hazelzet J, Lamberts S, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels are selectively decreased in neutrophils of children with sepsis. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:1247-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Inter-individual variations in cortisol sensitivity, mediated through the glucocorticoid receptor, might play a role in the observed differences...
  29. Sinclair D, Webster M, Wong J, Weickert C. Dynamic molecular and anatomical changes in the glucocorticoid receptor in human cortical development. Mol Psychiatry. 2011;16:504-15 pubmed publisher
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has a critical role in determining the brain's capacity to respond to stress, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric illness...
  30. Perroud N, Paoloni Giacobino A, Prada P, Olie E, Salzmann A, Nicastro R, et al. Increased methylation of glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment: a link with the severity and type of trauma. Transl Psychiatry. 2011;1:e59 pubmed publisher
    Childhood maltreatment, through epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis)...
  31. Maltese P, Canestrari E, Palma L, Ruzzo A, Corini F, Menotta M, et al. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the detection of ER22/23EK, BclI, and N363S polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;113:269-74 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene have been associated with altered sensitivity to glucocorticoids...
  32. Alt S, Turner J, Klok M, Meijer O, Lakke E, DeRijk R, et al. Differential expression of glucocorticoid receptor transcripts in major depressive disorder is not epigenetically programmed. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2010;35:544-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired HPA feedback may be due to the lower glucocorticoid receptor (GR) or mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) levels in the forebrain...
  33. Velders F, Dieleman G, Cents R, Bakermans Kranenburg M, Jaddoe V, Hofman A, et al. Variation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene at rs41423247 moderates the effect of prenatal maternal psychological symptoms on child cortisol reactivity and behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012;37:2541-9 pubmed publisher
    ..European descent and their mothers participated in this study and were genotyped for variants in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene (rs6189/rs6190, rs10052957, rs41423247, rs6195, and rs6198) and the FK506-binding protein 5 (..
  34. Tyrka A, Price L, Marsit C, Walters O, Carpenter L. Childhood adversity and epigenetic modulation of the leukocyte glucocorticoid receptor: preliminary findings in healthy adults. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30148 pubmed publisher
    ..in rodents has linked low levels of maternal care to increased methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, as well as to exaggerated hormonal and behavioral responses to stress...
  35. Lamia K, Papp S, Yu R, Barish G, Uhlenhaut N, Jonker J, et al. Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature. 2011;480:552-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that two circadian co-regulators, cryptochromes 1 and 2, interact with the glucocorticoid receptor in a ligand-dependent fashion and globally alter the transcriptional response to glucocorticoids in mouse ..
  36. Hauer D, Weis F, Papassotiropoulos A, Schmoeckel M, Beiras Fernandez A, Lieke J, et al. Relationship of a common polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene to traumatic memories and posttraumatic stress disorder in patients after intensive care therapy. Crit Care Med. 2011;39:643-50 pubmed publisher
    ..They act through the glucocorticoid receptor, for which, in humans, several polymorphisms have been described...
  37. Szczepankiewicz A, Leszczynska Rodziewicz A, Pawlak J, Rajewska Rager A, Dmitrzak Weglarz M, Wilkosc M, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism is associated with major depression and predominance of depression in the course of bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2011;134:138-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glucocorticoid receptor is one of the involved receptors and its gene has been recognized as a candidate gene for major ..
  38. Spijker A, van Rossum E, Hoencamp E, DeRijk R, Haffmans J, Blom M, et al. Functional polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene associates with mania and hypomania in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Subtle changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) functioning caused by polymorphisms of the GR gene (NR3C1) may be at the base of the altered ..
  39. Nader N, Chrousos G, Kino T. Circadian rhythm transcription factor CLOCK regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor by acetylating its hinge region lysine cluster: potential physiological implications. FASEB J. 2009;23:1572-83 pubmed publisher
    ..hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, influence functions of virtually all organs and tissues through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
  40. Nicolaides N, Galata Z, Kino T, Chrousos G, Charmandari E. The human glucocorticoid receptor: molecular basis of biologic function. Steroids. 2010;75:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the first member of this subfamily, is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein, which ..
  41. Sommer P, Cowen R, Berry A, Cookson A, Telfer B, Williams K, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor over-expression promotes human small cell lung cancer apoptosis in vivo and thereby slows tumor growth. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010;17:203-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that SCLC cells are glucocorticoid receptor (GR) deficient, and that restoration of GR expression confers glucocorticoid sensitivity and induces ..
  42. Krupoves A, Mack D, Deslandres C, Seidman E, Amre D. Variation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) may be associated with corticosteroid dependency and resistance in children with Crohn's disease. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:454-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the known effects of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) gene in corticosteroid metabolism, we investigated whether variation in the gene was ..
  43. Engel K, Yamamoto K. The glucocorticoid receptor and the coregulator Brm selectively modulate each other's occupancy and activity in a gene-specific manner. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate combinatorial control, we examined a set of glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-regulated genes bearing nearby regulatory complexes that include both GR and the coregulator Brm, an ..
  44. Khan S, Ling J, Kumar R. TBP binding-induced folding of the glucocorticoid receptor AF1 domain facilitates its interaction with steroid receptor coactivator-1. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21939 pubmed publisher
    The precise mechanism by which glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates the transcription of its target genes is largely unknown...
  45. Charmandari E, Chrousos G, Lambrou G, Pavlaki A, Koide H, Ng S, et al. Peripheral CLOCK regulates target-tissue glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in a circadian fashion in man. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25612 pubmed publisher
    ..the peripheral "slave" counterpart of the latter regulates the transcriptional activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) at local glucocorticoid target tissues through acetylation...
  46. Giordano R, Marzotti S, Berardelli R, Karamouzis I, Brozzetti A, D Angelo V, et al. BClI polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene is associated with increased obesity, impaired glucose metabolism and dyslipidaemia in patients with Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;77:863-70 pubmed publisher
    ..As the effects of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor, encoded by NR3C1 gene, different polymorphisms in the NR3C1 gene have been linked to altered ..
  47. Nader N, Bachrach B, Hurt D, Gajula S, Pittman A, Lescher R, et al. A novel point mutation in helix 10 of the human glucocorticoid receptor causes generalized glucocorticoid resistance by disrupting the structure of the ligand-binding domain. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:2281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..sporadic condition characterized by partial insensitivity to glucocorticoids, caused by mutations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene...
  48. Hadley K, Louw A, Hapgood J. Differential nuclear localisation and promoter occupancy play a role in glucocorticoid receptor ligand-specific transcriptional responses. Steroids. 2011;76:1176-84 pubmed publisher
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor for which a number of endogenous and synthetic ligands exist...
  49. Reddy T, Pauli F, Sprouse R, Neff N, Newberry K, Garabedian M, et al. Genomic determination of the glucocorticoid response reveals unexpected mechanisms of gene regulation. Genome Res. 2009;19:2163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcriptional responses to this hormonal signal are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
  50. Luo M, Lu X, Zhu R, Zhang Z, Chow C, Li R, et al. A conserved protein motif is required for full modulatory activity of negative elongation factor subunits NELF-A and NELF-B in modifying glucocorticoid receptor-regulated gene induction properties. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:34055-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We now report new activities of NELF-B and other NELF complex subunits, which are to attenuate glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated gene induction, reduce the partial agonist activity of an antagonist, and increase the EC50 ..
  51. Kullmann M, Schneikert J, Moll J, Heck S, Zeiner M, Gehring U, et al. RAP46 is a negative regulator of glucocorticoid receptor action and hormone-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:14620-5 pubmed
    RAP46 was first identified by its ability to bind the glucocorticoid receptor. It has since been reported to bind several cellular proteins, including the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, but the biological significance of these ..
  52. Kumsta R, Entringer S, Koper J, van Rossum E, Hellhammer D, Wüst S. Sex specific associations between common glucocorticoid receptor gene variants and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to psychosocial stress. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:863-9 pubmed
    ..Genetic variation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) might be one of the factors underlying susceptibility to stress related disease...
  53. Van Den Akker E, Russcher H, van Rossum E, Brinkmann A, de Jong F, Hokken A, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphism affects transrepression but not transactivation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:2800-3 pubmed
    ..Persons carrying the GR-9beta haplotype seem to have a decreased GC transrepression with normal transactivation. ..
  54. Kumsta R, Entringer S, Koper J, van Rossum E, Hellhammer D, Wust S. Glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms and glucocorticoid sensitivity of subdermal blood vessels and leukocytes. Biol Psychol. 2008;79:179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene polymorphisms might account in part for variability in GC responsiveness...
  55. Wang Z, Chen W, Kono E, Dang T, Garabedian M. Modulation of glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation and transcriptional activity by a C-terminal-associated protein phosphatase. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:625-34 pubmed
    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is phosphorylated at three major sites on its N terminus (S203, S211, and S226), and phosphorylation modulates GR-regulatory functions in vivo...
  56. Rajeevan M, Smith A, Dimulescu I, Unger E, Vernon S, Heim C, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms and haplotypes associated with chronic fatigue syndrome. Genes Brain Behav. 2007;6:167-76 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the association of sequence variations in the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) with CFS because NR3C1 is a major effector of the HPA axis...